Questions on more advanced topics of number theory, such as quadratic residues, primitive roots, prime numbers, non-linear Diophantine equations, etc.. Consider first if (elementary-number-theory) might be a more appropriate tag before adding this tag.

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2
votes
1answer
15 views

Bound on Lynden words made of $q$ letters

Let $N(q,n)=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{d|n}\mu(n/d)q^d$ for $q$ positive integer. Is it true that $N(q,n)<q^n/n$? This is true for $q$ prime which corresponds to the number of monic irreducible polynomials ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Solving the congruence $3x^2 + 6x + 1 \equiv 0 \pmod {19}$

I tried to solve this equation but without a success: $3x^{2}+6x+1 \equiv 0 \pmod {19}$ I concluded hat $x(x+2)\equiv 6 \pmod{19}$, the only way i think to solve this is by just trying all the ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Suppose $m \mid 2^p - 1$. Show that $m \equiv 1 \pmod {2p}$.

I would like to get help with this proof: Let $p\ge3$ be a prime number, and let $m$ be a divisor of $2^{p}-1$, Prove that $m\equiv 1\ (mod\ 2p)$. I thought about proving that $m=1\ mod\ p$, ...
-4
votes
0answers
28 views

Don't exist $P(x)\in \mathbb{Z}[x] $ so that $P(x)$ is prime for all $x\in\mathbb{Z}$. [closed]

I need show that don't exist $P(x)\in \mathbb{Z}[x] $ so that $P(x)$ is prime for all $x\in\mathbb{Z}$.
3
votes
3answers
84 views

Explicit description of $\Bbb Q_p \cap \bar{\Bbb Q}$

Note that we can embed $\Bbb Q_p$ into $\Bbb C$, as it is discussed here. But as far as I understand, this embedding sends the power series to transcendental elements, so we can't certainly embed ...
9
votes
2answers
4k views

How do I prove this sum is not an integer

Assume that $k,n\in\mathbb{Z}^+$. Prove that the sum \begin{equation*} \dfrac{1}{k+1}+\dfrac{1}{k+2}+\dfrac{1}{k+3}+\ldots +\dfrac{1}{k+n-1}+\dfrac{1}{k+n} \end{equation*} is not an integer. The ...
0
votes
2answers
19 views

What is an algorithm for describing the partition of this equivalence relation?

Let $\mathbb{R}$ be the set of real numbers,$ f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ a map, and $E$ the equivalence relation on $ ℝ $ defined by $E = \{(x,y) \in \mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R} \mid ...
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Special representation of a number

How can I check, if a number $n$ can be representated by $$pq+rs$$ where $p,q,r,s$ are pairwise different prime numbers with the same number of digits. For example, $$105153899965560312960 = ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

Why is $\sum\left(\left\lfloor\frac{x}{p}\right\rfloor+\left\lfloor\frac{x}{p^2}\right\rfloor+\dots\right)\log p=\sum\frac{x}{p}\log p+O(x)$?

Why is $\sum\limits_{\substack{p:\text{prime}\\p\le x\\}}\left(\left\lfloor\frac{x}{p}\right\rfloor+\left\lfloor\frac{x}{p^2}\right\rfloor+\dots\right)\log ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Selberg combinatorial identity

I am reading Granville's article on bounded prime gaps and in Section 4.5, he says that suppose $L(d)$ and $Y(r)$ are sequences of numbers supported only on the square-free integers. If $$Y(r) := ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Proof of No Unique Factorisation in $\mathbb Z[\sqrt{d}]$ for $d \leq-3$

How would I prove there is no unique factorisation in $\mathbb Z[\sqrt{d}]$ for $d \leq-3$, where $d$ is a square-free integer? I think it's something to do with the only invertible elements ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Find all pairs of positive integers $(x,y)$ : $x(x+1) = y(y+1)(y+2)$

Find all pairs of positive integers $(x,y)$ : $$x(x+1) = y(y+1)(y+2)$$ I was able to find only two pairs: $(2,1)$ and $(14,5)$ and looks like no more exists. How to prove it?
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Finding a rational point on $\mathscr{E} : y^2=x(x^2-25)$ to show $ \text{rank}(\mathscr{E})=1$

I'm trying to show that the rank of the following elliptic curve $$ \mathscr{E}: y^2=x(x^2-25)$$ is 1. Since it has a rational 2-torsion point at $(0,0)$, by considering the dual curve I've been ...
0
votes
1answer
10 views

Let $g$ be a primitive root modulo $p^e$ for some $p$ prime, $e\geq 1$, show that gcd$(g,p)=1$

So far I've got: Suppose gcd$(p,g)\neq 1$, so $p\mid g$ and hence $p^e\mid g^e$ so $g^e\equiv 0 $ (mod $p^e$) Also $g^{p^{e-1}(p-1)}\equiv 1$ (mod $p^e)$ because $g$ is a primitive root. Not sure ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Difference between consecutive squarefree (cubefree) numbers

The jumping champions for the greatest difference between consecutive squarefree numbers are : ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Show that $a_n=\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{3}+…+\frac{1}{n}$ would not contain a natural number for all n [duplicate]

Show that the series: $a_n=\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{3}+...+\frac{1}{n}$ would not contain natural number for all n Can I prove that using "simple tools"?
0
votes
0answers
15 views

A Greatest Common Divisor Question

What is $GCD(a_0a_1\bmod N,a_0a_2\bmod N)$ where $GCD(a_0,a_1)$, $GCD(a_0,a_2)$, $GCD(a_1,a_2)$, $GCD(a_0,a_1,a_2)$ could each be non-trivial? ($a\bmod N$ here is remainder of $a$ divided by $N$).
37
votes
9answers
1k views

Find all positive integers $n$ s.t. $3^n + 5^n$ is divisible by $n^2 - 1$

as is the question in the title, I am wishing to find all positive integers $n$ s.t. $3^n + 5^n$ is divisible by $n^2 - 1$. I have so far shown both expressions are divisible by $8$ for odd $n\geq 3$ ...
6
votes
2answers
262 views

Other ways to compute the torsion subgroup of elliptic curves

Suppose I have a family of elliptic curves $E_{n}/\mathbb{Q}$. I would like to determine the torsion subgroup of $E_{n}(\mathbb{Q})$ denoted by $E_{n}(\mathbb{Q})_{\textrm{tors}}$. Two ways to do this ...
2
votes
2answers
49 views

Prove that there are infinitely many composite numbers n so that…

Prove that there are infinitely many composite numbers $n$ so that $n$ divides $3^{n-1}-2^{n-1}$. I proved $n=p^t$, where $p$ is a prime number and $t>1$, never satesfies the condition above.
1
vote
2answers
27 views

Simple Congruence Problem

-1 is a square modulo an odd prime if and only if that prime is congruent to 1 mod 4. Why is this, I cant seem to figure it out.
5
votes
1answer
50 views

Number field attached to a finite group.

Let $G$ be a finite group. I know that the set of irreducible representations of $G$ over the complex numbers (up to isomorphism) is finite. Let us fix our attention on some irreducible ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Factorization of the sine

I am working on the Basel problem for a project for my Mathematics study. I need to proof that one could write the sine as a factorization of its linear roots. I know the proofs is in general done bye ...
2
votes
2answers
23 views

Describe all odd primes p for which 7 is a quadratic residue

I need to describe all odd primes $p$ for which $7$ is a quadratic residue. Now let $\left(\frac{a}{b}\right)$ be the Legendre Symbol. Then if $7$ is a quadratic residue $p$ we must have: ...
5
votes
2answers
67 views

Integral solutions to $56u^2 + 12 u + 1 = w^3.$

I would like to find all integer solutions to $$56u^2 + 12 u + 1 = w^3.$$ My computer thinks the only integral point is $(0,1).$ This problem arises from Integer solutions of $x^3 = 7y^3 + 6 y^2+2 ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

What are the quadratic residues of an odd prime? [duplicate]

I need to prove that -1 is a quadratic residue of an odd prime p iff p = 1 (mod 4) Any Ideas? Thanks
22
votes
6answers
5k views

Efficiently finding two squares which sum to a prime

The web is littered with any number of pages (example) giving an existence and uniqueness proof that a pair of squares can be found summing to primes congruent to 1 mod 4 (and also that there are no ...
2
votes
3answers
30 views

Simple mod 7 problem

I need to Show that $7x^3 + 2 = y^3$ has no solutions in integers x and y. The solution I am given is: Suppose there are solutions to this equation. Then mod 7 we have $2 ≡ y^3$ (mod $7$) and hence ...
-1
votes
1answer
31 views

Prove that there is an integer a such that a is a primitive root modulo p^2 and a is relatively prime to n. [Hint: Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem.] [closed]

Let $n$ be a natural number, let $p$ be a prime, and suppose $p^2 \mid n$. Prove that there is an integer $a$ such that $a$ is a primitive root modulo $p^2$ and $a$ is relatively prime to $n$. [Hint: ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Division rules for other number systems?

How could we make the same division rules for other number systems, like in our decimal system: a number is divisible with 2 if it's last digit is 0,2,4,6,8, by 3 if the sum of digits is divisible ...
2
votes
0answers
26 views

Determination of quartic Gauss sums

Typically, the Gauss sum over $\mathbb{F}_p$ of order $k$ means the quantity $$\sum_{n=0}^{p-1} e^{2\pi i n^k/p}.$$ In the book Gauss and Jacobi Sums of Berndt, Evans and Williams, a more general sum ...
5
votes
3answers
65 views

Number of solutions of $x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = 0$ over finite fields.

I want to prove that the number of elements of the set $\{(x,y,z)\in \mathbb{F}_p^3: x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = 0\}$ is $p^2$. I know that the number of elements of the set is a multiple of $p$ using the ...
5
votes
1answer
80 views

$1989|n^{n^{n^{n}}} - n^{n^{n}}$ for integer $n \ge 3$

Before anyone comments, yes this is kind of a duplicate of Prove that $1989|n^{n^{n^{n}}} - n^{n^{n}}$ . The problem that I'm having I don't see the $n=5$ as a counterexample. Also if anyone wants to ...
6
votes
1answer
722 views

Strange behavior with {xor, and, or} bit operations on integer offsets

I thought of a problem today: given a range of integers $[a, b]$, for all pairs of integers $(x, y)$ in that range, what is the number of them such that $x$ op $y \in [a, b]$, where op is one of {xor, ...
1
vote
4answers
56 views

Prove or disprove $\frac{\left(2^{p}-2\right)}{p}\ \in \Bbb N, \forall\, p,\, prime$

Apologies in advance for poor formatting, not completely accustomed to typeset. What I ask is any non-particular value p, with one condition that it is prime, for which to disprove the following ...
-1
votes
0answers
22 views

Divisibility by 9 with negative numbers [duplicate]

I know that the rule to check divisibility by 9 is to check if the sum of the digits of the number are divisible by 9. But what if the number is negative? Thanks in advance!
7
votes
2answers
160 views

Integer solutions of $x^3 = 7y^3 + 6 y^2+2 y$?

Does the equation $$x^3 = 7y^3 + 6 y^2+2 y\tag{1}$$ have any positive integer solutions? This is equivalent to a conjecture about OEIS sequence A245624. Maple tells me this is a curve of genus $1$, ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

The asymptotic upper density of $\{xy \colon 1\le x\le y\le 2x\}$

Find the asymptotic upper density of the set $\{xy\, \colon\, 1\le x\le y\le 2x\}$. In other words, let $S$ be the set of all integers which can be expressed as $xy$, for some positive integers ...
-6
votes
3answers
116 views

Is this the real reason why 1 is not prime? [duplicate]

Divisibility by 1 is misleading as it does not divide a number into smaller parts. If divisibility by 1 is disallowed, then: The Unit: A whole number that is indivisible. Prime: A whole number that ...
2
votes
1answer
15 views

Jacobi symbol problem

Let $n>3\newcommand{\jacobi}[2]{\genfrac{(}{)}{}{}{#1}{#2}}$ be an odd number. Find the value of the Jacobi symbol $\jacobi{n^3}{n-2}$. I know that $$\jacobi{n^3}{n-2}=\jacobi{n}{n-2}= ...
-3
votes
2answers
71 views

Can someone provide me a simplest way to calculate: [closed]

$42^{17} \pmod{3233}$ I know the answer is 2557 - But I need to know how to calculate this without help of a machine that generates the answer. Thank you!
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Is this reasoning correct for average prime gap?

Since \begin{align} &\operatorname{li}(n)\sim\Pi (n)\equiv\sum _{k=1}^{\lfloor \log (n)\rfloor } \frac{\pi \left(n^{1/k}\right)}{k}\\ \end{align} then the average gap for \begin{align} ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Order of element in algebraic group

Denote by $\mathbb{F}_q$ the finite field with $q$ elements, and denote by $\bar{\mathbb{F}}_q$ its algebraic closure. Let $G$ be an affine algebraic group over $\bar{\mathbb{F}}_q$, and let $F$ be a ...
1
vote
2answers
38 views

Composition of binary quadratic forms as matrix operations

It is easy to see that any binary quadratic form $a^2 + 2bxy + cy^2$ is the same as $XAX^T$ where $X = [x, y]$ and $A = \begin{bmatrix}a & b\\b & c\end{bmatrix}.$ The composition of two ...
1
vote
0answers
70 views

Solving $|x|^2=\sqrt{2}-1$ in $\mathbb{Z}[\xi_8] $

Is there a solution of the equation $|x|^2=\sqrt{2}-1$ in $\mathbb{Z}[\xi_8]$, where | | means the complex absolute value? In general, can I solve the equations of the form $|x|^2=c$ in each ring of ...
0
votes
0answers
46 views

Solve an equation of the prime counting function

The problem is, Find all the positive integral values of $x$ for which we have, $$\pi(p_n-x)=\pi(p_{n+1}-x-1)$$where $\pi(x)$ denotes the number of primes not exceeding $x$. I don't know where ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Number Theory/Quadratic Number Rings

Show that if $u,v,x,y$ are positive integers for which $u^2+2v^2=x^2+2y^2=p$ a prime number, then $u=x$ and $v=y$. I get that if we had $\alpha=u+v\sqrt{-2} \in \mathbb{Z}[\sqrt{-2}]$, then the ...
8
votes
0answers
64 views

Is there any known application for normal numbers?

Background: I am writing a master thesis on the complexity of the expansions of algebraic numbers in some complex basis $\beta$ with $|\beta| > 1$. This is a very small step towards proving the ...
0
votes
2answers
18 views

Existence of a solution to a congruence

I need to check if congruence $$x^2+8x+69\equiv 0\pmod{271},$$ has a solution. How should I approach this? Checking all $271$ possible solutions, is obviously not intended.
3
votes
1answer
68 views

Solving a Diophantine equation3

The Diophantine equation that I have to solve is: $$343x^2-27y^2=1$$ This question has already been posted by other user but it has not received an answer. I proved to solve it. This is my attempt: ...