Questions on more advanced topics of number theory, such as quadratic residues, primitive roots, prime numbers, non-linear Diophantine equations, etc.. Consider first if (elementary-number-theory) might be a more appropriate tag before adding this tag.

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Is the discriminant of a polynomial surjective onto $\mathbb Z$?

Consider polynomials of degree two over $\mathbb Z$: $f = ax^2+bx+c$ The discriminant is $D = b^2-4ac$ And we can show that $D=2$ is not a possible value for $D$. I wonder if the value $D=2$ ...
2
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4answers
53 views

If $a,b$ are positive rational numbers and $\sqrt a+\sqrt b$ were rational, then both of $\sqrt a,\sqrt b$ are rational numbers

I'm trying to show that If $a,b$ are positive rational numbers and $\sqrt a+\sqrt b$ were rational, then both of $\sqrt a,\sqrt b$ are rational numbers. I squared the number $\sqrt a+\sqrt b$ ...
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2answers
27 views

Standard result for $\log(x)$

$$\sum_{1\leq m\leq x/d}\frac{1}{m}=\log(\frac{x}{d})+O(1)$$ I read this result in lecture papers I was going through and can't find anything about its origin. Is there a standard summation result ...
2
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0answers
4 views

Town Network - Show there is a Tetrahedron of the Same Transport

Question: There are 18 towns such that between each pair of towns there is either a train or bus service (not both). Prove that there are 4 towns such that all 6 of their pairwise connections use the ...
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3answers
25 views

Divisibility of integers by integers

We are given a number $$K(n) = (n+3) (n^2 + 6n + 8)$$ defined for integers n. The options suggest that the number K(n) should either always be divisible by 4, 5 or 6. Factorizing the second bracket ...
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1answer
19 views

Arithmetic functions proof

Theorem: Let $f$ be an arithmetic function such that $f(1)=1$. Then there exists a unique arithmetic function $g$ such that $f\ast g =\epsilon$. The arithmetic function $g$ is called the Dirichlet ...
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2answers
19 views

Mistake in proof of sum of divisors function $\sigma(n)$

The proof derives the correct result, but I cannot see how the first equality is correct. To begin we use the formula $\sigma(n)=\sum_{d\mid n}d$ This is the first step in the proof: $$\sum_{1\leq ...
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0answers
5 views

Is every Pisot-like integer the product of a Pisot integer and a root of unity?

For lack of better terminology, let's call an algebraic number $\beta$ Pisot-like if $|\beta| > 1$ and all its conjugates lie inside the complex unit circle (here $|\cdot|$ is the usual absolute ...
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0answers
14 views

Prove that the “additive” operation of the module($\mathbb{Z}_{p}^{*},\mathbb{Z}_{p-1},\cdot$) is continuous.

Consider the following module $\mathcal{M}=$($\mathbb{Z}_{p}^{*},\mathbb{Z}_{p-1},\cdot$) in which the "additive" operation is defined by normal multiplication in $\mathbb{Z}_{p}^{*}$ and scalar ...
2
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1answer
19 views

How does $ \text{Gal}(K / k) $ act on ideles?

Let $K/k$ be cyclic of degree $N$, Galois group $G$. I want to define some action of $G$ on the group of ideles $J_K$ which commutes with multiplication. A natural way to do this is to take each ...
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26 views

Finding the modulo of 801 [on hold]

If $d_{k}(m)$ is the number of divisor of m that are congruent to $k$ modulo $4$. How can I find $d_{1}(801)$ and $d_{3}(801)$ .
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1answer
18 views

Sum-of-divisors determinant

Let $\sigma_k(n)=\sum_{d|n}d^k$ be the generalized sum-of-divisors function. Let $S_n$ be the matrix defined by $[S_n]_{ij}=\sigma_i(j)$. I read a comment somewhere that $$\det(S_n)=1!\cdot 2!\cdots ...
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3answers
35 views

Divergence of sum reciprocal of primes using Bertrand's Postulate

I have been trying to prove that the series of reciprocal of primes diverges by only using Bertrand's Postulate. Does anybody know if this is possible? Or is it the case that this postulate is not ...
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2answers
19 views

base b expansion of real numbers

This is a problem in Zygmund's analysis book. It is intuitively very straightforward. However, I could not give a rigorous proof. I hope someone can show me how to prove this rigorously. Problem: ...
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1answer
34 views

The genus of a certain kind of cubic

I have a cubic curve that looks like $$ a_0 x^3 + a_1 x^2 y + a_2 xy^2 + a_3 y^3 = b $$ with $a_0, a_1, a_2, a_3$, and $b$ all integers, and $a_0$ and $b$ nonzero. I'm not sure but I think in my ...
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0answers
33 views

Compute the values of two infinite products whose factors are the same

I have the following question: How to prove that $(1-\frac{1}{2})\cdot (1+\frac{1}{3})\cdot (1-\frac{1}{4})\cdot (1+\frac{1}{5})\cdot (1-\frac{1}{6})\cdot (1+\frac{1}{7})\cdot ...
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1answer
21 views

Solving an equation with complex numbers

I want to use complex numbers to solve the following problem: $x^2 = 95 - 168i$. I am sure there are a few ways of doing this but the way I want to do it is to let $x = a + bi$ and then solve for $a$ ...
3
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1answer
29 views

Is there any solution to this quadratic Diophantine 3 variables equation?

Is it possible to find all positive integer triplets $(x,y,z)$ satisfying the parametric equation : $$x^2 + 2ax + y^2 + 2by = z^2 + 2cz$$ Here $a, b, c$ are fixed positive integers.
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0answers
15 views

Decryption of RSA

I am given the following information about an RSA-encryption: $e=31671865305320609$ (public key) and $n=10e+3$. Then I am given the ciphertext $c$ which I omit here due to his length. The task is to ...
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1answer
62 views

If all the numbers $(1^\alpha,\,2^\alpha,\,3^\alpha,\,\dotsc)$ are integer, then $\alpha$ is an integer.

A theorem of Siegel asserts that If $\beta>0$ and $2^\beta,\,3^\beta,\,5^\beta$ are integers, then $\beta$ is an integer. The following result is a beautiful consequence of this theorem ...
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2answers
25 views

Show $\sum_{1\leq n\leq x}\sum_{d\mid n}f(d)=\sum_{1\leq d\leq x}\sum_{1\leq m\leq x/d}f(d)$

I have been trying to get my head around this step in a proof, but havn't been able to, Question: Show $$\sum_{1\leq n\leq x}\sum_{d\mid n}f(d)=\sum_{1\leq d\leq x}\sum_{1\leq m\leq x/d}f(d)$$ ...
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2answers
270 views

Fermat’s Little Theorem

I am struggling to spot how $\left(g^a\right)^\frac{p-1}{2}\equiv g^\frac{p-1}{2} (\mod{p})$ when $p$ is prime greater than $3$, $a$ is odd and $g$ is a primitive root modulo $p$. How does Fermat’s ...
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0answers
40 views

Class number of $\mathbb Q(\sqrt{10}) $

I am interested in knowing how to compute the class number of $\mathbb Q(\sqrt{10}) $. I am confused with these class number computations.
3
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2answers
42 views

If $m, n$ be positive integers, prove that $\phi(mn)=\phi((m,n))\phi([m,n])$, where $(m,n)=$ gcd of $m, n$ and $[m, n]=$ lcm of $m, n$.

If $m, n$ be positive integers, prove that $\phi(mn)=\phi((m,n))\phi([m,n])$, where $(m,n)=$ gcd of $m, n$ and $[m, n]=$ lcm of $m, n$. I have no idea to solve this question. Please help me to ...
0
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1answer
53 views

How to prove a cube minus a cube is never a cube (in whole numbers) [duplicate]

How to prove $x^3-y^3\neq z^3$ where $x$, $y$, and $z$ are whole numbers (integers greater than zero)?
3
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1answer
24 views

An identity for $J_n(x)$

It was much easier and faster to upload the image of my proof. I got it down to where the question marks are. But I can not seem to figure out how to get the anti-derivative to evaluate the integral. ...
4
votes
1answer
35 views

is there a negative integer which is a quadratic residue mod every prime $p\equiv 7\mod 8$

Is there a negative integer $n < 0$ such that the congruence $x^2 = n\mod p$ is solvable for every prime $p\equiv 7\mod 8$? If we remove the negativity condition it's well known that $n = 2$ ...
2
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1answer
27 views

Lagrange Multipliers for farthest distance

I am trying to find the farthest point from the origin to a point on the circle $$(x-2)^2+y^2=1$$ I am not great with the formatting on here but this is what I have so far... $$f(x,y)=x^2+y^2 $$ ...
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0answers
69 views

Proving that the number of integer solutions of $x^2-Ny^2=1$ is infinite

I am trying to prove that the number of integer solutions of $x^2-Ny^2=1$ is infinite whenever N is a squarefree integer. For this I define norm of $a+b\sqrt N=a^2-Nb^2$. Now I prove that $a+b \sqrt ...
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2answers
48 views

Proving that a summation is multiplicative

I have been give a project for number theory: For $m>0$ , let $f(m) = \sum_{r=1}^m \frac{m}{\gcd(m,r)}$ . Evaluate $f(m)$ in terms of the prime factorization of $m$. So far, I have found a formula ...
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0answers
18 views

explicitly splitting the hamilton quaternions over local fields

For simplicity, lets first consider the hamilton quaternions $$ H = \left(\frac{-1,-1}{\mathbb{Q}}\right)$$ This is the central division algebra over $\mathbb{Q}$ with $\mathbb{Q}$-basis given by ...
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0answers
13 views

$x\in\mathcal{O}_K$ can be written as product of irreducible elements

Lemma: Every element $x\neq 0$ of $\mathcal{O}_K$ with ($K$ an arbitrary number field) can be written as a product of irreducible elements. Proof: We prove this lemma by complete induction on ...
3
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1answer
36 views

Power to which 7 is raised to produce a number starting with 2015…

Q. Is there a power of 7 such that the number produced starts with 2015? I am completely stumped and any hints towards the solution would be great, bear in mind this is a question posed to a student ...
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2answers
19 views

Can some of the case of this congruence be solvable? And what is the general way to solve this if it is solvable?

$a^m$ congruence to 1 (mod n) where a and n is not a coprime and m is an integer. How do you prove it if it is not solvable?
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0answers
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How does class field theory help us deduce the splitting of nonprincipal prime ideals?

I had a general question about the significance of global class field theory. One of the goals, as I understand, is to answer the following question: Given $L/K$ abelian, $g$ a divisor of $[L : ...
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2answers
33 views

If every prime that divides $n$ also divides $m$, show that $\phi(mn)=n\phi(m)$ and $\phi(mn)=m\phi(n)$

If every prime that divides $n$ also divides $m$, show that $\phi(mn)=n\phi(m)$ and $\phi(mn)=m\phi(n)$. My attempt. As every prime that divides $n$ also divides $m$, this implies that $(m,n)=d$ ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Largest possible subset primes

Let $q$ be a Sophie Germain prime number, i.e. $2q+1=p$ is prime. Consider the set $\{1,2,3,\ldots,p-1\}$. Then what is the maximum size of a subset of this set, such that the subset contains no two ...
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0answers
37 views

Integers points of an elliptic curve

I am concerned by the number N of integer points in some class of elliptic curves. It is known to be finite for each elliptic curve C the corresponding bound being a function $N_C$ which gives a huge ...
2
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1answer
15 views

number of weak compositions modulo prime $p$

For $n\in \mathbb{N}$ and some prime $p$, consider $(\mathbb{F}_p)^n$. Is it known how many weak compositions $$x_1+x_2+\ldots +x_n\equiv 0 \pmod p$$ in $\mathbb{F}_p$ there are, where $(x_1, \ldots, ...
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0answers
35 views

Quadratic Field of $Q[√−1]$… [on hold]

Can someone show me a complex plane around the origin, with the points on the part of the complex plane which are quadratic integers in $Q[√−1]$. Another graph for $Q[√−3]$. And another for $Q[√−5]$. ...
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1answer
52 views

Is there a fast divisibility check for a fixed divisor?

Is there a fast algorithm to check if $d \mid n$ is true for varying $n$, if divisor $d$ is fixed? Variable $n$ is a $w$-bit binary integer, $d$ is an integer constant.
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3answers
48 views

Prove that $\phi(n)=\frac{n}{2}$ iff $n=2^k$ for some integer $k\geq 1$

Prove that $\phi(n)=\frac{n}{2}$ iff $n=2^k$ for some integer $k\geq 1$ Attempt: Let $n=p_1^{\alpha_1}p_2^{\alpha_2}\dots p_k^{\alpha_k}$. Then $\phi(n)=\frac{n}{2} \implies ...
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1answer
10 views

What other types of distributivity are there?

When I say ‘Distributivity,’ I mean the way a number $x$ can be ‘Put in to’ some other function or the like. For example, to distribute $x$ into $\text{id}_y$, you simply have ...
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2answers
47 views

A bizarre property [duplicate]

Studing some fact about p-adic numbers I read a bizarre property. A metric space S is called ultrametric when $d(x, y) \le\max\{d(x, z), d(z, y)\} \forall(x,y,z) \in S^3$. Prove that all ball of S ...
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1answer
22 views

Primes in Quadratic Fields with Norm less than 6

What are the primes in $\mathbb Q[\sqrt{−1}]$ which have norm less than $6$? Also what primes in $\mathbb Q[\sqrt{−3}]$ have norm less than $6$, and the primes in $\mathbb Q[\sqrt{−5}]$? Which of them ...
2
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0answers
66 views

Class Group of $\mathbb Q(\sqrt{-15})$

Class Group of $\mathbb Q(\sqrt{-15})$ I used this paper for my attempt. First the discriminant of $\mathbb Q(\sqrt{-15})$ is the discriminant of the monic minimal polynomial of ...
0
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2answers
40 views

What do you call the subset of all the Gaussian integers having the smallest magnitude given an argument?

How is called the subset of Gaussian integers such that from all Gaussian integers having the same argument only one with the smallest absolute value is included? Is there a special name for them? ...
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1answer
22 views

Show that $ζ$ is a Quadratic Integer in $Q[\sqrt{−3}]$

So in the complex plane, there are three cube roots of one. Suppose we let $ζ$ be the cube root of one which has positive imaginary part. How can we show that $ζ$ is a quadratic integer in ...
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1answer
53 views

How Deficient a Number is? (Finding numbers having a certain deficiency)

This question was edited, in particular equations were corrected: A number N is said to be deficient by an integer $d$ if: $\sigma(N)=2N-d$ Note that powers of 2 are deficient by 1. While a prime ...
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2answers
31 views

Purely number theory problems

Suppose the numbers $1,2,3,\dots,1986$ in any order are concatenated then prove that the number is not a perfect cube. This problem gives me a feeling that here cubic residues can only help no other ...