Questions on more advanced topics of number theory, such as quadratic residues, primitive roots, prime numbers, non-linear Diophantine equations, etc. Consider first if (elementary-number-theory) might be a more appropriate tag before adding this tag.

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1answer
48 views

prove that this number contains two equal digits

We delete the first digit from the number $7^{1996}$ and then we add it to the remaining number, repeat this until we get a number consisting of $10$ digits, prove that, this number contains two equal ...
0
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0answers
8 views

Definition of “Contractive Invariant Plane”

Can someone please explain the definition of a contractive invarient Plane found in: the paper It is nearly at the very beginning of the Introduction. By contractive do they mean a contractive map? ...
6
votes
1answer
31 views

Cyclotomic polynomials, properties.

Let $F$ be a field of characteristic prime to $n$, and let $F^a$ be an algebraic closure of $F$. Let $\zeta$ be a primitive $n$th root of unity in $F^a$. I know that the monic polynomial $\Phi_n(X)$ ...
0
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0answers
6 views

Comparing conway chains

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway_chained_arrow_notation for the details how conway chained arrow notation works. I want to calculate the approximate value $n$ such that $$n\rightarrow ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

To find positive integers $n$ such that $\dfrac {n(n+1)(n+2)}6$ is a perfect square

How many positive integers $n$ are there such that $\dfrac {n(n+1)(n+2)}6$ is a perfect square ? I know $n=1 , 2$ works ; are there any more ? Are there only finitely many such $n$ ?
6
votes
1answer
113 views

To solve $n(n+1)(n+2)=6m^3$ in positive integers $m,n$

How to find all positive integers $m,n$ such that $n(n+1)(n+2)=6m^3$ ? I can see that $m=n=1$ is a solution , but is it the only solution ?
2
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0answers
15 views

Show that the equation has a natural solution [duplicate]

let $n$ be a natural number and $r$ , $s$ be rational such that $n=s^2+r^2$ show that there are natural numbers a,b such that $n=a^2+b^2$
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2answers
25 views

Tabulate the probability distribution of $x$.

If a red dice and a green dice are rolled together and $X$ is the highest score minus the lowest score of the dice, what are the possible values of $X$? Tabulate the probability distribution of $x$. ...
0
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1answer
54 views

Does $\pi \left(\dfrac{x+y}{2}\right)=\pi\left(\sqrt{xy}\right)$ hold for infinitely many values of $x$ and $y$?

The problem is (assume $\pi(x)$ to be the prime-counting function), Does there exist infinitely many solutions to the equality $\pi \left(\dfrac{x+y}{2}\right)=\pi\left(\sqrt{xy}\right)$ with ...
-3
votes
2answers
59 views

Can I divide $50$ cars on$ 5$ days? any trick? [on hold]

Can I divide $50$ cars on $5$ days, on condition that the numbers should be prime numbers? is there any trick? I'm asking for $5$ prime numbers whose sum is $50$
0
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1answer
63 views

Is the Riemann zeta function $\zeta(s)$ exactly $\pi(x)$?

Let $\pi(x)$ denote the number of primes less than or equal to a certain x value. The prime number theorem says that $x/\log x$ (or more accurately $x/(\log x-1)$) has been the most popular method ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Let p be an odd prime number. Then show the following:

Let $p$ be prime, $p \geq 3$. Then show that $K_p$ is the union of $\frac{1}{2}(p-1)C_p$. I am once again at a loss for a starting point. Maybe just a small hint so I can work through this myself ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

p-th root does not become a p-th power when adjoined?

Suppose $k$ is a number field of characteristic zero, and $u$ is a unit of infinite order, which is not a $p$-th power in $k$. Show $\sqrt[p]{u}$ is not a $p$-th power in $k(\sqrt[p]{u})$. (You can ...
1
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0answers
18 views

Is there a function of, say, x and y that would take the first x factors in a factorial and return a xCy amounts of terms with y factors in each term?

What I'm basically looking for is described in the title. Here are some examples of what the function I'm looking for should do. Is there an existing function that does this? Even if not, are there ...
6
votes
1answer
78 views

Prove that $2AB$ is square [duplicate]

Let $$A= 1! \cdot 2! \cdot 3! \cdots 1002!$$ $$B= 1004!\cdot 1005! \cdots 2006!$$ Prove that $2AB$ is square. Help guys, I tried, I really did but I couldn't.
4
votes
1answer
50 views

For any $n$ positive integers ($n\geq 5$) exactly 3 or 4 of them are equal to each other modulo $2^m$ for some $m$

How can one prove that for any $n$ distinct positive integers, $n\geq 5$, there exists $m$ such that exactly 3 or 4 of them are equal to each other modulo $2^m$? I tried to prove it for small $n$. ...
5
votes
3answers
75 views

Can a square be in the form $2x + 1$, when $x$ is odd?

I was given this question, and I think I have solved it, but I'm not sure it is correct because this differs from how the answer is given. What is the most common way to solve this problem? Let's ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Factorials and trailing zeroes: more methods

I have following problem: how many trailing zeros are in 50! I know that there is a method dividing the number by next powers of 5, for example: 50/5 + 50/25 + 50/125 + ... = 10 + 2 + 0 + ... = 12. ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

$\operatorname{lcm}(2x, 3y-x, 3y+x)$

Problem Find $\textrm{lcm} (2x, 3y-x, 3y+x)$, where $y > x > 0$ and $\gcd(x,y) = 1$. Attempt I noticed after some numerical calculation that the answer seems to depend on the parity of $x$ ...
2
votes
2answers
648 views

True or false identity?

I found the logo from The Eighth Congress of Romanian Mathematicians. I think this is the von Mangoldt summatory function and with a simple computation, using this definition, I obtained $83$. Am I ...
3
votes
1answer
32 views

Split Factorial of n

How can I split integers up to n into two groups such that the difference of the product of each group is as low as possible? Is there a way to optimize the selection for each group in order to ensure ...
4
votes
0answers
45 views

A sequence avoiding 3-term power progressions

Rankin1 studied sequences of integers that avoid 3-term geometric progressions, $(a, a c, a c^2)$, e.g., $$\{1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, \ldots \} \;$$ So, $18$ is excluded ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Divisor sum function for integral values

Let $d(n)$ be the number of divisors of a positive integer $n$. From the analytic theory it is known that the sum function of $d(n)$ up to non-integral $x$ is given by ...
1
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1answer
55 views

Proof that $\sqrt{3} \notin \mathbb{Q}(\theta)$ where $\theta^4-2=0$. [on hold]

This is a problem in Robert Ash's lecture notes in Algebraic Number Theory. I have to prove that $\sqrt{3} \notin K=\mathbb{Q}(\theta)$ where $\theta^4-2=0$, using the fact that ...
-2
votes
2answers
49 views

Prove that to any three numbers positive integers [on hold]

Prove that for any three positive integers, following equality holds $$\operatorname{lcm}(ab , bc , ca ) \cdot \gcd(a , b, c )=abc$$
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Does $\zeta(s)^2 \pm \zeta(1-s)^2$ have roots at the $\rho$s?

Maybe a strange (or stupid) question, but does $$\zeta(s)^2 \pm \zeta(1-s)^2$$ also have roots equal to the non-trivial zeros ($\rho$) ? At first sight you would expect so, however when I tried to ...
3
votes
3answers
61 views

Is it necessary and sufficient that $6$ divides $n^2$ for the positive integer $n$ to be divisible by $6$? [on hold]

As the title suggests, is it a necessary and sufficient that $6$ divides $n^2$ for the positive integer $n$ to be divisible by $6$? Like, I understand the dictionary definitions of necessary and ...
2
votes
2answers
59 views

what is the definition of numbers? [duplicate]

Well the question may seem obvious but I can't really find a proper answer to this. Mathematics all seem kind of difficult to understand so please help. I believe it is a quantity. Thanks in advance.i ...
0
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0answers
41 views

Is the field of real algebraic numbers a complete field?

Let $\mathbb{R}_{alg}$ be the field of real algebraic numbers. Is there exist a metric $|\cdot|$ for which $(\mathbb{R}_{alg}, |\cdot|)$ is a complete field (i.e. any Cauchy sequence converges in ...
1
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0answers
27 views

sextic reciprocity and divisibility question

Regarding the question if $p|(2^{2(p-1)/6}+2^{(p-1)/6}+1) $ where $p$ is a prime of the form $7\mod 8 $ That is how far I got: $2^{(p-1)/6} \mod\ p\equiv x $ if the solution of $x^6\ mod\ ...
5
votes
1answer
80 views

Counting square free numbers co-prime to $m$

Counting square free numbers $\le N$ is a classical problem which can be solved using inclusion-exclusion problem or using Möbius function (http://oeis.org/A071172). I want to count square free ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Proving Bezout's Theorem

I need to prove Bezout's Theorem and the recommended method is using the induction on the number of steps before the Euclidean algorithm terminates for a given input pair.$~~~~~~$ I am having hard ...
1
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1answer
31 views

Expected value of discrete functions. [on hold]

I am doing some research in number theory(High school-so nothing advanced). During this I came across this post. I have not done much statistics. So could someone explain to me why if $\displaystyle ...
0
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0answers
14 views

Judge whether a function is $\mathcal{EF}$ or $\mathcal{PRF}$

All of the functions discussed below are total number-theoretic functions. Define two functions: $$ f:\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{N},f(n)=\lfloor n\cdot e \rfloor \\ g:\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{N},g(n)=\lfloor ...
0
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0answers
31 views

Pythagorean triangle with in-radius r: problems

If there is no odd prime divisor of $r$, prove that there is only one Pythagorean triangle with in-radius r. If $r=pq$, the product of two distinct primes, prove that there are four ...
0
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3answers
29 views

Problems on Pythagorean triangle

Show that there is one (no) Pythagorean triangle whose sides are in arithmetic (geometric) progression. The problem has two parts. There is one Pythagorean triangle whose sides are in arithmetic ...
1
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2answers
37 views

Show that $a^{16}-b^{16}$ is divisible by $133$ if $a$ and $b$ are both prime to $85$

Show that $a^{16}-b^{16}$ is divisible by $133$ if $a$ and $b$ are both prime to $85$ Since $(85, a)=1(17,5)$ and $(85, b)=(17,5)$ then $a^{16}-1\equiv (mod ~17)$, $a^{4}-1\equiv (mod~ 5)\implies ...
3
votes
2answers
40 views

Find the last two digits of $33^{100}$

Find the last two digits of $33^{100}$ By Euler's theorem, since $\gcd(33, 100)=1$, then $33^{\phi(100)}\equiv 1 \pmod{100}$. But $\phi(100)=\phi(5^2\times2^2)=40.$ So $33^{40}\equiv 1 ...
3
votes
4answers
49 views

Find remainder when $777^{777}$ is divided by $16$

Find remainder when $777^{777}$ is divided by $16$. $777=48\times 16+9$. Then $777\equiv 9 \pmod{16}$. Also by Fermat's theorem, $777^{16-1}\equiv 1 \pmod{16}$ i.e $777^{15}\equiv 1 \pmod{16}$. ...
-4
votes
1answer
15 views

simplification and number system [on hold]

The sum of all digits except the unity that can be substituted at the place of k in order to be divisible by 8 in the number 23487k2 is?
-4
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0answers
31 views

find a method for twin primes and with Golbach conjecture [on hold]

There are infinitely many twin primes. Two primes (p, q) are called twin primes if their difference is 2. Let be the number of primes p such that p<= x and p + 2 is also a prime. a sample ...
0
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1answer
34 views

Find the missing digit in the number 23104*791

Find the missing digit in the number $23104*791$ if (i) it is divisible by $11$, (ii) it is divisible by $13$, (iii) it is divisible by $63$. (i) $23104*791=231 ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Where $a, b$ coprime, does $ax + b$ generate infinitely many 2-almost primes, infinitely many 3-almost primes, etc.?

I've seen various references to Dirichlet's theorem on arithmetic progressions claiming that where $a, b$ coprime, $ax + b$ not only generates infinitely many primes, but also infinitely many ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Show that $x_1x_2\cdots x_n (mod~ m)\equiv (x_1 (mod~m)\cdot x_2 (mod~m)\cdots x_n (mod~m))(mod~ m)$

Show that $x_1x_2\cdots x_n (mod~ m)\equiv (x_1 (mod~m)\cdot x_2 (mod~m)\cdots x_n (mod~m))(mod~ m)$ I know that $a\equiv b (mod ~ m)$, $c\equiv d (mod ~m)$ implies $ac\equiv bd (mod ~m)$ but how ...
1
vote
2answers
40 views

In how many ways I can write a number $n$ as sum of $4$ numbers?

The precise problem is in how many ways I can write a number $n$ as sum of $4$ numbers say $a,b,c,d$ where $a \leq b \leq c \leq d$. I know about Jacobi's $4$ square problem which is number of ways ...
4
votes
2answers
51 views

Use Wilson theorem to show that $63! + 1 \equiv 0 \mod ~ 71$

Use Wilson theorem to show that $63! + 1 \equiv 0 \mod ~ 71$. 71 is prime then Wilson theorem says that $(71-1)!+1=0 \mod ~ 71$ i.e $70!+1\equiv 0 \mod ~ 71$ then how to proceed further?
3
votes
7answers
78 views

What is the remainder when $6\times7^{32} + 7\times9^{45}$ is divided by $4$?

What is the remainder when $6\times7^{32} + 7\times9^{45}$ is divided by $4$ ? $7 \equiv 3 \pmod 4$ $7^2 \equiv 9 \pmod 4\equiv 1 \pmod 4$ $(7^2)^{16} \equiv 1^{16} \pmod 4$ i.e $7^{32} ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Find out a process to generate pairs of distinct positive integer $m$, $n$ with $\phi(m) = \phi(n)$.

Find out a process to generate pairs of distinct positive integer $m$, $n$ with $\phi(m) = \phi(n)$. Attempt: The pairs $m=1, ~ n=2$; $m=3, ~n=4$ satisfy the problem. But I need a ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views
+50

Understanding an example of a prime-like non-finite additive basis

In this answer on MO, the user Gene S. Kopp gives an example of a relatively "big" set $A\subset \mathbb{N}$ with relatively "small" gaps that fails to be an asymptotic finite basis. I'm having a ...
6
votes
1answer
33 views

counting function of system of equations and Circle method

I came up with the follwing question while looking on Davenport's book: Analytical Methods for Diophantine equations and Inequalities. When introducing the Circle method gives an example on how to ...