# Tagged Questions

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### Probabilistic Graphical Model Diagram Notation, what does the box mean?

I'm just learning about probabilistic graphical models, I know the circles represent random variables, shaded being observed and unshaded being latent variables. But what does the box mean?!
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### What does the notation $\textbf{x} \langle\textbf{Y} \rangle$ mean if $\textbf{Y} \subseteq \textbf{X}$ for random variables?

I was reading daphne's Probabilistic Graphical Models book and she introduces some notation about sets of random variables that I am confused about (on page 21 section 2.1.3.2). Before I ask my ...
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### Probability notation P versus Pr

I have come across both $P(…)$ and $Pr(…)$ being used to represent probabilities. Is there any difference in the meaning of these notations, or are they just different shorthands? I seem to come by ...
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### What are the different ways of indicating that a random variable has a specific distribution?

Recently I have seen random variable distributions described in two ways: $$X \sim Nb(r,p) \\ X \stackrel{d}{=} Nb(r,p)$$ Both indicating that $X$ is a negative binomial random variable with $r$ ...
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### “unity symbol” from Feller's “An Introduction to Probability”

I am wondering if anyone knows the name or source of the symbol shown below from page 22 of the Second Edition of Feller's "An Introduction to Probability" Volume I.
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### How do you write the set where $2$ numbers are chosen

A = the event that the sum of outcomes of $2$ dice being thrown So do I say $A = \{14;41;23;32\}$ That looks like I'm saying $41$ (the number) not $4$ from one die and $1$ from the other which ...
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### subscript notation in conditional probability

$X$ and $Y$ are two discrete random variables with joint p.m.f $p_{XY}$ such that $p_{XY}(x_i,y_j) = P(X=x_i, Y=y_i)$. I came across a notation that refers to $p_{X}(x|y)$. How do I express it in the ...
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### What does $\vee$ mean in set theory?

The following proof is from Probability by Davar Khoshnevisan. There is a symbol $\vee$ in the third sentence of the proof. What does this symbol mean, please? There seems no definition about it in ...
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### What is the meaning of this notation?

I am watching this video on maximum likelyhood estimation. I'm confused by the notation when the presenter says "assume a set of distributions P-theta." (the URL links to the relevant part of the ...
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### In probability notation: what does a tilde over a letter mean?

I am reading this paper. In section 1.1 he says: What do the tildes above the letters mean? How can I translate these two sentences into ordinary English?
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### Understanding $Po(np)\{A\}$ probability notation

I am trying to read a textbook on probability and am already stuck on what must be basic notation. It says Thus, for example, if $A$ is any subset of $\mathbb{Z}^+$, it follows that for some ...
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### What does P(A U B) mean, in terms of real values?

I can't find a proper summary or reference of how to translate formulas in probability notation to arithmetic notation (i.e. when using real values). For example, if $P(A) = .7$ and $P(B)=.35$, what ...
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### Is there a symbol for “dependent”?

For random variables $A$ and $B$, $A \perp B$ is sometimes used to denote "A in independent of B". Is there a symbol that is commonly used to mean "A is not independent of B"?
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### How to describe a set of coordinates of variable length?

I need to describe a set of coordinates with up to 8 dimensions. A problem is asking me to describe an event from a experiment involving sampling. The catch is that the experiment doesn't end until a ...
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