Question on the meaning, history, and usage of mathematical symbols and notation. Please remember to mention where (book, paper, webpage, etc.) you encountered any mathematical notation you are asking about.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

1
vote
4answers
91 views

Math Symbol for “Where”

Pretty much any math text I've read introduces notation through a similar format of equation-notation or notation-equation form e.g ax+b+c where a = ..., b = ..., etc. or Let a = ..., b = ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

What situations should $\oint$ be used? [on hold]

Can someone clarify when we should use the contour integration symbol?
0
votes
1answer
32 views

What does $\mu^{2}$ mean?

Formula 5 in The Riemann Hypothesis; Borwein, Choi, Rooney, Weirathmueller, page 74, $$\frac{\zeta(s)}{\zeta(2s)} = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\mu^{2}(n)}{n^{s}},$$ $\Re(s)>1,$ where $\mu$ is the ...
-1
votes
2answers
51 views

how to understand if the number is already squared or it should be squared in future? [on hold]

for example: $$ \cos^2 \theta + \sin^2 \theta = 1 $$ $$ \cos^2 \theta = 1 - \sin^2 \theta $$ $$ \cos \theta = \sqrt{1 - \ \sin^2 \theta} $$ I mean in this case how can I know if the sin is already ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

What does $\|u\|_{\mathcal{C}^2(\bar{\Omega})}$ mean?

What might $$\|u\|_{\mathcal{C}^k(\bar{\Omega})}$$ mean? $u$ is a sufficiently often differentiable function $\Omega \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ and $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ a bounded domain. It ...
6
votes
4answers
87 views

How to position negative sign of fraction

For example we have: $$ \frac{-1}{2} $$ Does this mean that only the numerator of the fraction is negative? Can we put it like this? $$ -\frac{1}{2} $$ Does this means that the whole fraction is ...
4
votes
4answers
702 views

What is the use of the double modulus signs?

So far as I can tell, the author uses $\|\cdot\|$ to mean the magnitude of a vector, but I have only seen the notation $|\cdot|$ to mean the magnitude of a vector. Is there any difference? If so, ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

What does $\{0, 1\}^*$ mean?

I am reading about Polynomial probabilistic time (PPT) and the input is taken from space $\{0, 1\}^*$ and I am not able to understand how is this working.
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Why Square Brackets for Expectation [duplicate]

I've often seen $\mathbb{E}[X]$ instead of $\mathbb{E}(X)$, but it seems variance is almost always $Var(X)$. E.g., Wikipedia for Expected Value and Variance. Is there a good mathematical reason for ...
2
votes
2answers
34 views

Proper Writing of Functions of Vectors

Let $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$ and $y \in \mathbb{R}^m$. Consider a real-valued function $f = f(x,y)$. Which of the following is the more correct writing of this map, or are they equivalent? $$ f: ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

Clarification of notation $\|fw\|$

this is the question: Show that for each linear map $f:\mathbb R^d → \mathbb R^e$ there exists $a < \infty$ so that $\|fw\|< a\|w\|$ for each $w$ in $\mathbb R^d.$ And my problem is that $f$ ...
1
vote
3answers
29 views

How to denote an average of data satisfying a given condition

I have to write an expression for the following. I have values, one fpr each of the last 5 months: ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

Is there an established notation for this “replacement” operation?

If $S$ is a set, define $$(x \to y) \cdot S := \begin{cases} (S \setminus \{x\}) \cup \{y\} & \text{ if } x \in S \text{ and } y \not \in S; \\ S & \text{ otherwise.} \end{cases}$$ In other ...
0
votes
3answers
51 views

Is there any symbol for intersects?

Given two polygons $A$ and $B$ the intersection of them is represented by the notation $A \cap B$ that returns a geometry (more precisely the set of intersecting points) resulting from the ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Convolution notations and some miscellanous convolution questions

Convolution between distributions over the real number line, as it is mentioned in the optics course in my uni and also in wolfram is defined as: $$f(t) * ...
2
votes
2answers
52 views

Why does unary minus operator sometimes take precedence over exponentiation, and sometimes it doesn't?

How should I evaluate 2*-2^3? Which one of these two is the correct one? 2*((-2)^3) 2*(-(2^3)) I was wondering what was ...
2
votes
3answers
78 views

Is there official notation to represent “perform an operation n times”?

I would like to know if you can represent the idea of say, $$n^n$$ n amount of times without defining a function. For example: $$1$$ $$2^2$$ $$3^{3^3}$$ $$4^{4^{4^4}}$$ $$5^{5^{5^{5^5}}}$$ and so ...
3
votes
1answer
69 views

What is this semi-circular symbol in the middle of a formula?

I have tried every search term I can think of but I can find no way of knowing what this symbol between the (a) and the trP means: Some context here, Point 2 in the third paragraph. Original image ...
2
votes
1answer
23 views

Expressing a differentiable map and curve in a parametrization

This is a question mainly about notation that I just cannot seem to understand. I'm reading Do Carmo's book "Riemannian Geometry" on page 7. Here is some context: (Here, $\alpha : (-\varepsilon, ...
3
votes
0answers
25 views

Interpretation of composite of random variable

Let $~f:[0,1] \to[0,\infty]$ be a measurable function bounded by $c \in \mathbb R$. Let $X_1,X_2,..,X_n \sim i.i.d ~\text{uniform}(0,1)$. How do I interpret the following statement: $$ Var(f \circ ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

What is the meaning of $:s$ after a mathematical symbol?

I started to read a book about regression analysis, and I faced this latex notation: $e_i$:s, where $e_i$ is a residual. What is the meaning of "$:s$"?
0
votes
1answer
79 views

Why does $\bigcap_{m = 1}^\infty ( \bigcup_{n = m}^\infty A_n)$ mean limsup of sequence of set?

Why does $\bigcap_{m = 1}^\infty ( \bigcup_{n = m}^\infty A_n)$ mean the limit superior of sequence of set? I'm not getting it. ${A_n}$ is a sequence of set in $S$. I do know what limsup means ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

What's the advantage of using bra-ket notation over inner-product notation?

Both notations look pretty similar, and appear similar when undergo algebraic operations. Apart from personal taste (aesthetics) concerning commas ($\langle \phantom{\cdot},\phantom{\cdot} \rangle$) ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Math, logic symbol for “instance of”

I saw a discussion of a possible symbol for "example," but I need "example/instance of." There is of course $a \in S$ which is a is a member of/in S, but is there a specific way of stating $a ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

asking about the meaning of a notation in a 1942 article

In this article http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.bams/1183505105 what is the meaning of the notation $YX\wedge$, that is what does it mean when you write the notations for two sets together side by ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

How to insert Gothic letters in Word? [closed]

I do not manage to find in any of the options provided by Word the real Gothic letters used my German mathematicians in their original works. Noe even under the two "gothic" rubrics. just some sparse ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

How to express outer sum in a matrix form?

So I have the following equation for a matrix $\mathbf{B}$ given $\mathbf{A}$: $$ b_{ij} = \sum_k \sum_l a_{ki} a_{jl} $$ The question is if there is anyway that I can write that one compactly in ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

How is the second part of a dual number called?

A complex number $a + bi$ has a real part $a$ and an imaginary part $b$. But, what about dual numbers $u + v\epsilon $? I have seen the non-real part $v$ been called the infinitesimal part. Is this a ...
-3
votes
0answers
24 views

Rewrite the following relationships using function notation. [closed]

Rewrite the following relationships using function notation. Question 1 options: a) An airplane needs to travel 400 km. Determine a function for the speed of the airplane, with respect to time. b) ...
11
votes
6answers
322 views

What is the significance of using “$a$” vs “$x$” in this text?

I'm a web development guy currently learning Calculus and am having some trouble understanding the seemingly unwritten rules of variable naming conventions in mathematics. I've read several other ...
9
votes
2answers
261 views

Does this math formula with $1/PI\begin{cases}^\infty_{-\infty}\end{cases}$ mean anything?

I happened upon an image on the Internet and I wondered whether the math on the chalkboard means anything. Using Google's image search, I found three other related images. Piecing together ...
4
votes
1answer
37 views

Notation for the set of holomorphic differential forms

I used to write $\Omega^p(M)$ for the set of $p$-forms on $M$ and $\Omega^{p,q}(M)$ for the set of $(p,q)$-forms on a complex manifold $M$. Now some authors use $\Omega^p(M)$ to denote the set ...
1
vote
2answers
33 views

Notation for a unit vector

If I have a vector $\vec{v}$, is there a standard concise notation for the unit vector in the same direction of $\vec{v}$ that is $\frac{\vec{v}}{|\vec{v}|}$?
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Is there a name or symbol for the matrix division resulting in a scalar?

I am not talking about the inverse matrix, $A^{-1}$ which gives $A\times A^{-1}=I$, but rather the operation $\frac{1}{n}tr(\space\cdot \times A^{-1})$, which gives 1 when applied to a $n\times n$ ...
0
votes
2answers
50 views

Matrix notation in handwriting

I understand that typically matrices are printed in bold to distinguish them from other mathematical entities with the same symbols. However I find it difficult to actually handwrite in bold. With ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

What does the $2$ in $\|Xw-y\|_2$ mean?

I was going through this link and I found the minimization expression. It says $\|Xw-y\|_2^2$. What is the significance of $2$ in the subscript? What does it mean? I understand that the double ...
1
vote
2answers
32 views

Game Theory: Can someone explain the notation used in the definition of “best response”

I am reading a paper which states that that the best response correspondence of a player is mapping: $B_i(s_{-i}): S_{-i} \Rightarrow S_i$ such that $B_i(s_{-i}) \in arg\ max_{s_i \in S_i} ...
2
votes
2answers
47 views

What do the symbols $\mathbb{Z}$ and $\mathbb{Z}_n$ mean on this discrete math problem? [closed]

Currently I have come across a problem set which I cannot decipher or begin to ask or search because I do not know what kind of notation or problems these are. Please circle the best description: ...
-17
votes
0answers
71 views

Please help? Because I need help? [closed]

Why does math have numbers????
3
votes
1answer
59 views

Correspondence between Ext group and extensions (from Weibel's book)

I am trying to understand the proof of Theorem 3.4.3 from Weibel's book Introduction to homological algebra. The statement is the following. Let $R$ be a ring. Given $R$-modules $A$ and $B$, an ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Can somebody explain the notation $f \in C^4$

To give some context the full question is: Suppose $f \in C^4$ in a interval containing the root $\alpha$ and that Newton’s method gives a sequence of iterates $\{x_k\}$, $k = 0, 1, 2, \dots$ which ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Set builder notation for matching element pairs

I have a set of pairs, $S = \{ \langle a,b \rangle_1, \langle a,b \rangle_2, ..., \langle a,b \rangle_n \} $ where $a$ is not unique amongst the pairs. If I want to express the extraction of all the ...
4
votes
2answers
79 views

How I can express in a pure symbolic way common reasoning? Examples inside.

I have a broad question here, I know, but I will go define it clearly through examples. I want to know how express reasoning in a pure symbolic way, with no words, this is possible? Example: I was ...
0
votes
1answer
14 views

fourier series notation question

Find the fourier series for the given function $$f(x)=-x \quad \text{for } -L\le x < L, f(x+2L)=f(x)$$ this is a question from my book, and im just wondering about one thing and that is what does ...
3
votes
2answers
46 views

What does the multiply sign mean in set

A question about set notation. What does the multiply sign here mean? $$\omega = \times_{i\in N}T_{i}$$
2
votes
2answers
57 views

What does $\mathbb{R} \setminus S$ mean?

What does $\mathbb{R}\setminus S$ mean? I am not getting it what it actually means. I have found it manywhere in real-analysis like in the definition of boundary points of a set. Can anyone tell me ...
1
vote
4answers
95 views

How to write the set of all permutations on a set $n=\{1, 2, \ldots, n\}$

Let $n ∈ N$. Let $S_n$ denote the set of permutations on $\{1, . . . , n\}$. For any $σ ∈ S_n$, define $sign(σ) := (−1)^N$ , where $σ$ can be written as the product of $N$ transpositions. Now, let ...
4
votes
2answers
420 views

What is meant by the delta equivalent sign?

What is the meaning of the delta equivalent ($\overset{\Delta}{=}$) sign? I met this in a communication theory text. It said, signaling rate: $r\overset{\Delta}{=} 1/D$ symbols/s or also called ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Meaning of complement of vertex and edge sets

I am reading about maximum bipartite matching and everywhere I look there is thing: $$ U':=U\setminus M $$ Sometimes it's written like this: $$ U':=U\setminus\cup M $$ where $U$ is a set of vertices ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Parallel operator in formula [closed]

I need to use some formulas, but i don't understand, what i am supposed to do with a parallel operator (used on electrical resistance, if it makes more sense that way). What does this expression mean? ...