A vector space $E$, generally over the field $\mathbb R$ or $\mathbb C$ with a map $\lVert \cdot\rVert\colon E\to \mathbb R_+$ satisfying some conditions.

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50
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Explicit norm on $\mathcal{C}^0(\mathbb{R},\mathbb{R})$

Do you know an explicit norm on $\mathcal{C}^0(\mathbb{R},\mathbb{R})$? Using the axiom of choice, every vector space admits a norm but have you an explicit formula on ...
38
votes
1answer
987 views

Banach Spaces - How can $B,B',B'', B''', B'''',B''''',\ldots$ behave?

(ZFC) Let $ \big\langle B,+,\cdot, \:\: \|\cdot\| \:\: \big\rangle $ be a Banach space. Define $ \mathbf{B} \; = \;\big\langle B,+,\cdot, \:\: \|\cdot\| \:\: \big\rangle $. Define $\: \mathbf{B}_0 ...
19
votes
2answers
5k views

Difference between metric and norm made concrete: The case of Euclid

This is a follow-up question on this one. The answers to my questions made things a lot clearer to me (Thank you for that!), yet there is some point that still bothers me. This time I am making ...
17
votes
4answers
477 views

For which $L^p$ is $\pi=3.2$?

This is a silly question that came to mind after watching numberphile video on How Pi was nearly changed to 3.2. For which $p\in(1,+\infty)$ is the ratio of the perimeter of the $L^p$ disc in $\Bbb ...
14
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4answers
430 views

If two norms are equivalent on a dense subspace of a normed space, are they equivalent?

Given a vector space $V$ equipped with two norms $|\cdot|$ and $||\cdot||$ which are equivalent on a subspace $W$ which is $||\cdot||$-dense in $V$, are the two norms necessarily equivalent? The ...
14
votes
3answers
820 views

Intersection between orthogonal complement of a subspace and a set

Consider the normed vector space $E=\mathbb{R}^n$. Define $ P=\{x \in \mathbb{R}^n: x_i \geq 0, \forall i \}$. Let $M$ be a subspace such that $M \cap P = \{0\}$. I want to see that $M^\perp \cap ...
14
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1answer
534 views

Multiplicative norm on $\mathbb{R}[X]$.

How to prove that : there is no function $N\colon \mathbb{R}[X] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, such that : $N$ is a norm of $\mathbb{R}$-vector space and $N(PQ)=N(P)N(Q)$ for all $P,Q \in \mathbb{R}[X]$. ...
14
votes
1answer
795 views

Open Mapping Theorem: counterexample

The Open Mapping Theorem says that a linear continuous surjection between Banach spaces is an open mapping. I am writing some lecture notes on the Open Mapping Theorem. I guess it would be nice to ...
13
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5answers
1k views

Why is one proof for Cauchy-Schwarz inequality easy, but directly it is hard?

Let's say you are in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and you define the norm as $||x||=\sqrt{x_1^2+x_2^2...+x_n^2}$. This we recognize as the usual norm from the inner product: $||x|| = \sqrt{\langle x, x \rangle}$, ...
12
votes
5answers
291 views

Passing from induction to $\infty$

Somehow, the operation of passing to the limit after I have shown that something is true by induction for each natural number $n$ troubles me each time. I know there are instances where one cannot ...
11
votes
2answers
1k views

Does every $\mathbb{R},\mathbb{C}$ vector space have a norm?

Is there a canonical way to define on any vector space over $\mathbb{K}=\mathbb{R},\mathbb{C}$ a norm ? (Or, if there isn't, can someone give me an example of a vector space over $\mathbb{K}$ that is ...
11
votes
2answers
587 views

How to show that $\mathbb R^n$ with the $1$-norm is not isometric to $\mathbb R^n$ with the infinity norm for $n>2$?

Could you please give me a hint to prove that $\mathbb{R}^n$ with the 1-norm $\lvert x\rvert_1=\lvert x_1\rvert+\cdots+\lvert x_n\rvert$ is not isometric to $\mathbb{R}^n$ with the infinity-norm ...
11
votes
2answers
3k views

Why are $l^{\infty}$ and $L^{\infty}$ non separable spaces?

$l^p (1≤p<{\infty})$ and $L^p (1≤p<∞)$ are separable spaces. What on earth has changed when the value of p turns from a finite number to ${\infty}$? Our teacher gave us some hints that there ...
10
votes
1answer
3k views

Let $X$ be an infinite dimensional Banach space. Prove that every basis of X is uncountable.

Let $X$ be an infinite dimensional Banach space. Prove that every basis of $X$ is uncountable. Can anyone help how can I solve the above problem?
10
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1answer
1k views

Semi-Norms and the Definition of the Weak Topology

When I was searching for the definition of the weak topology, I found two different definitions. One defines the weak topology in terms of a family of semi-norms, while the other defines it in terms ...
10
votes
1answer
220 views

Proof that multiplying by the scalar 1 does not change the vector in a normed vector space.

I'm beginning a self-study of functional analysis, and I seem to have come to a halt trying to solve the first problem in the first problem set, and was wondering if someone could give me a pointer. ...
9
votes
2answers
4k views

Is a norm a continuous function?

Is a norm on a set a continuous function with respect to the topology induced by the norm? Is a topology on the set that can make the norm continuous (i.e. the topology that is compatible with the ...
9
votes
2answers
213 views

If $V \times W$ with the product norm is complete, must $V$ and $W$ be complete?

Let $V,W$ be two normed vector spaces (over a field $K$). Then their product $V \times W$ with the norm $\|(x,y)\| = \|x\|_V + \|y\|_W$ is a normed space. Using this norm it's easy to show that if ...
9
votes
3answers
479 views

Is there an easy example of a vector space which can not be endowed with the structure of a Banach space

Let $V$ be a real vector space. Is there always a norm on $V$ such that $V$ is complete with respect to this norm? If not, is there an easy counterexample?
9
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2answers
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“Every linear mapping on a finite dimensional space is continuous”

From Wiki Every linear function on a finite-dimensional space is continuous. I was wondering what the domain and codomain of such linear function are? Are they any two topological vector ...
9
votes
2answers
308 views

Non-Banach, completely metrizable normed vector space

Does there exist a normed vector space $(X,\|\cdot\|)$ over $\mathbb R$ or $\mathbb C$ such that the metric induced by the norm $(x,y)\mapsto\|x-y\|$ is not complete; but there exists some other ...
9
votes
2answers
830 views

$C[0,1]$ is complete w.r.t. which norm(s)

$C[0,1]$ is complete w.r.t. which norm(s) $\displaystyle\|f\|_\infty=\sup_{t\in[0,1]}|f(t)|$ $\displaystyle\|f\|_1=\int_0^1|f(t)| \, dt$ $\displaystyle\|f\|_\infty^{0,1}=\|f\|_\infty+|f(0)|+|f(1)|$ ...
9
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1answer
95 views

Inner product space, points cannot be placed inside a ball of a given radius

I've found a very nice problem and I don't know how to go about solving it. Let $(E, || \cdot ||)$ be an inner product space, $x_1, ..., x_n \in E$. Prove that if for $i \neq j$ we have ...
8
votes
2answers
161 views

Two terms that I want to understand: weakest topology and jointly continuous (in the following context).

I was reading an article online, please help me to understand the following lines (in bold letters). - Topological structure: If (V, ‖·‖) is a normed vector space, the norm ‖·‖ induces a metric and ...
8
votes
3answers
209 views

Does $\|\cdot\|_2:C_\mathbb R([0,1],\mathbb C)\to\mathbb R:f\mapsto\sqrt{\int_0^1|f(t)|^2dt}$ come from any inner product?

I'm trying to show $\|\cdot\|_2$ is a norm on the $\mathbb C$-vector space $C([0,1],\mathbb C)$ where $$\|\cdot\|_2:C([0,1],\mathbb C)\to\mathbb R:f\mapsto\sqrt{\int_0^1|f(t)|^2dt}$$ I've stuck in ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

$T$ is continuous if and only if $\ker T$ is closed

Let $X,Y$ be normed linear spaces. Let $T: X\to Y$ be linear. If $X$ is finite dimensional, show that $T$ is continuous. If $Y$ is finite dimensional, show that $T$ is continuous if and only if $\ker ...
8
votes
1answer
234 views

A commutator identity for bounded linear maps and the identity operator of a non-zero normed space is never a commutator

Let $ \mathcal{X} $ be a normed linear space and $ S,T: \mathcal{X} \to \mathcal{X} $ be linear operators such that $ S \circ T- T \circ S=1 $. Show that $ S \circ T^{n+1}- T^{n+1} \circ S=(n+1)T^n ...
8
votes
1answer
111 views

Inner product space over $\mathbb{R}$

Definition of the problem I have to prove the following statement: Let $\left(E,\left\langle \cdot,\cdot\right\rangle \right)$ be an inner product space over $\mathbb{R}$. prove that for all $x,y\in ...
7
votes
2answers
642 views

Domain of an operator in functional analysis

I used to think that if we say $f$ is a function from a set $X$ to $Y$ then this implied that $f$ was defined on all of $X$. Because the definition of function is that it's a set $\{(x,y) \mid \text{ ...
7
votes
3answers
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Operator norm on product space

I have a bilinear operator $B\colon X \times Y\to Z$ with $X,Y,Z$ normed spaces, and define a norm on $X \times Y$ by $\lVert(x,y)\rVert = \lVert x\rVert_X + \lVert y\rVert_Y$ (using the respective ...
7
votes
1answer
77 views

How does $\lim A_n$ being not invertible imply $\sup_n\|A_n^{-1}\|=\infty$?

Consider a sequence of operators $\{A_n\}_{n=1}^{\infty}\subset B(X,Y)$, where $X,Y$ are normed vector spaces and $B(X,Y)$ denotes the space of bounded linear operators from $X$ to $Y$. Assume that ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Inequalities in $l_p$ norm

I'm having difficulty with the following problem. Any help would be appreciated. Problem: Consider the sequence spaces $l_p$ with the usual norm. If $1\le p\le q\le \infty$, I want to show the ...
7
votes
2answers
160 views

On $L^p$ and $\ell^p$

If a continuous and infinitely differentiable function $f(x): \mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{C}$ is in $L^p$, is it also true that $f(n),\ n\in \mathbb{Z}$ is in $\ell^p$?
6
votes
1answer
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An example of a norm which can't be generated by an inner product

I realize that every inner product defined on a vector space can give rise to a norm on that space. The converse, apparently is not true. I'd like an example of a norm which no inner product can ...
6
votes
3answers
404 views

The role of dual space of a normed space in functional analysis

We have known that dual space of a normed space is very important in functional analysis. I would like to ask two questions related dual space of a normed space: What is the motivation of ...
6
votes
3answers
61 views

Counterexamples for Hölder's inequality when $p$ and $q$ are not conjugate.

Hölder's inequality shows that, when $$ \frac{1}{p} + \frac{1}{q} = 1,$$ and $f\in L^p$ and $g\in L^q$, then $$\Vert f\,g\Vert_1 \le \Vert f \Vert_p \Vert g \Vert_q.$$ Is there an example of this ...
6
votes
1answer
4k views

Relations between p norms

The p-norm is given by $||x||_{p} = (\sum_{n=1}^{\infty }|x_{n}|^{p})^{1/p}$. For $0 < p < q$, it can be shown that $||x||_{p} \geq ||x||_{q}$ (1, 2). It sppears that in $R^{n}$ a number of ...
6
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2answers
157 views

Question about Normed vector space.

Here is the definition of a normed vector space my book uses: And here is a remark I do not understand: I do not understand that a sequence can converge to a vector in one norm, and not the ...
6
votes
2answers
442 views

equivalence of norms

I would like a little help here: I have two defined norms over $C^{1}([0,1])$ : $\| A(f)\|=|f(0)|+\max_{x\in[0,1]}{|f'(x)|}$ $\| B(f)\|=\int_0^1|f(x)|dx+\max_{x\in[0,1]}{|f'(x)|}$ I already ...
6
votes
1answer
204 views

Isomorphisms between Normed Spaces

Between two normed (linear) spaces there are several notions of isomorphisms: Linear isomorphisms: linear bijective maps Topological isomorphisms: linear homeomorphisms (due to the linearity these ...
6
votes
1answer
217 views

If the unit sphere of a normed space is homogeneous is the space an inner product space?

Consider a normed vector space $V$. Suppose that for every pair of unit vectors $v,w$ there exists a linear isometry which sends $v$ to $w$ (and leaves the subspace spanned by $v$ and $w$ invariant). ...
6
votes
1answer
175 views

why must a normed space homeomorphic to a complete metric space be complete?

Why must a normed space X homeomorphic to a complete metric space Y be complete? I've solved this in the case where Y is a normed space (considering open balls gives Lipschitz equivalence), but am ...
6
votes
1answer
784 views

Does the p-norm converge to the max-norm in some norm

Does the $p$-norm on $\mathbf{R}^n$ converge to the max-norm on $\mathbf{R}^n$ as elements in the space of real valued continuous functions on $\mathbf{R}^n$ endowed with some norm? More precisely, ...
6
votes
1answer
175 views

Radon-Riesz & Kadec-Klee

Let us say that a normed vector space has the a) RR (Radon-Riesz) property if for any sequence, norm convergence is equivalent to weak convergence + convergence of norms. b) KK (Kadec-Klee) property ...
5
votes
5answers
567 views

Fixed point Exercise on a compact set

Let $K$ a compact normed space and $f:K\rightarrow K$ so that $$\|f(x)-f(y)\|<\|x-y\|\quad\quad\forall\,\, x, y\in K, x\neq y.$$ Prove that $f$ have a fixed point.
5
votes
3answers
297 views

If $\{x_n\}$ is a Cauchy sequence in a normed vector space, is $\frac{x_n}{\|x_n\|}$ Cauchy?

Let $\{x_n\}$ a Cauchy sequence in a normed vector space $X$. Is $$y_n = \frac{x_n}{\|x_n\|}$$ another Cauchy sequence in $D = \{x\in X : \|x\| = 1\}$? Remark: The idea is prove that if $D$ is ...
5
votes
3answers
224 views

function from non separable normed space $X$ onto separable normed space $Y$.

Can you please give me a simple example of linear continuous mapping from non separable normed space $X$ onto separable normed space $Y$. Thanks a lot.
5
votes
1answer
73 views

Prove, that f is a linear map.

$U,V$ - Euclidean spaces $f:U \rightarrow V$ $f(0)=0$ $ \forall _{u,v \in U}:d(f(u),f(v))=d(u,v)$ Prove that $f$ is a linear map. I'm thinking about something like this: $||f(u+v)|| =d(f(u+v),0) = ...
5
votes
4answers
316 views

Can a norm take infinite value? For example, $\|\cdot \|_1$?

A definition for norm from Wikipedia says Given a vector space $V$ over a subfield $F$ of the complex numbers, a norm on $V$ is a function $p: V → \mathbb{R}$ with the following properties: ...
5
votes
2answers
366 views

What is the reason norm properties are defined the way they are?

Suppose we have a complex vector space $V$. A norm is a function $f : V \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ which satisfies (i) $f(x) \ge 0$ for all $x \in V$ (Positivity - Non-Negativity) (ii) $f(x + y) \le ...