A vector space $E$, generally over the field $\mathbb R$ or $\mathbb C$ with a map $\lVert \cdot\rVert\colon E\to \mathbb R_+$ satisfying some conditions.

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45 views

Prob. 6, Sec. 2.10 in Erwin Kreyszig's functional analysis.

Definition (Dual space $X'$). Let $X$ be a normed space. Then the set of all bounded linear functionals on $X$ constitutes a normed space with norm defined by $$ \left \| f \right \|= ...
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1answer
24 views

Prob. 10, Sec. 4.2 in Kreyszig's functional analysis book: There is a linear functional for every sublinear functional …

If $p$ is a sublinear functional on a real vector space $X$, then there exists a linear functional $\tilde{f}$ on $X$ such that $-p(-x) \leq \tilde{f}(x) \leq p(x)$ for all $x \in X$. How to prove ...
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1answer
25 views

Prob. 8, Sec. 4.2 in Kreyszig's functional analysis book: Nonnegativity of a subadditive functional outside a sphere implies nonnegativity

If a subadditive functional $p$ defined on a normed space $X$ is non-negative outside a sphere $\{ \ x \in X \ \colon \ \Vert x \Vert = r \ \}$, then how to show that $p$ is non-negative for all $x ...
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1answer
12 views

Is $\inf_{y\in Y} \|\alpha x-y\|=\inf_{y' \in Y} \|\alpha x-\alpha y'\|$

In my functional analysis homework problem I was trying to a extend a linear functional from a proper sub-space $Y$ to the whole space $X \supset Y$using the Hahn Banach theorem. In order to do that I ...
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2answers
36 views

Prob. 6, Sec. 4.2 in Kreyszig's functional analysis book: Continuity of a subadditive functional at zero implies continuity

Let $X$ be a real normed space, and let $p \colon X \to \mathbb{R}$ be a functional such that $$ p(x+y) \leq p(x) + p(y) \ \mbox{ for all } \ x, y \in X$$ and such that $$p(\theta) = 0, \ \mbox{ ...
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1answer
14 views

Differential of a function between two normed spaces

I have a question about the differential of a function between two normed spaces. It is a simple question about the definition. In my textbook from my university, the definition is as follows: Let ...
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1answer
30 views

An equation involving inner products being independent of the inner product space

Let $(X,\langle\cdot\,,\cdot\rangle_X)$ and $(Y,\langle\cdot\,,\cdot\rangle_Y)$ be nonzero inner product spaces over $\mathbb{C}$. I wish to know if the following statement is true. ...
2
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2answers
64 views

Riesz's Lemma for finite-dimensional spaces [closed]

Someone could give me an idea of ​​what happens in Riesz's lemma if the dimension of space is finite?
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2answers
42 views

Cauchy sequence which does not converge example.

Consider the normed space $(X, \Vert \cdot\Vert) $ where $$ X=\{ (a_n)_n \quad|\quad (a_n)_n \text{ real sequence with } \lim_{n\to \infty}a_n=0 \} $$ and $$\Vert (a_n)_n\Vert:= \sum_{n\geq ...
2
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1answer
54 views

Prob. 14, Sec. 2.10 in Erwin Kreyszig's INTRODUCTORY FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS WITH APPLICATIONS: application to a system of equations?

Let $M$ be a non-empty subset of a normed space $X$, and let $M^a$ denote the subspace of the dual space $X'$ that consists of all those bounded linear functionals that vanish at each point of set ...
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2answers
66 views

Prob. 8, Sec. 2.10 in Erwine Kreyszig's INTRODUCTORY FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS WITH APPLICATIONS: The dual space of $c_0$ is $\ell^1$?

Let $c_0$ be the subspace of $\ell^\infty$ consisting of all sequences of (real or complex ) numbers converging to $0$. How to prove that the dual space of $c_0$ is (isomorphic to) $\ell^1$? My ...
2
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0answers
28 views

Connected set in normed space

I have this exercise: "let $E$ be a normed space and $X\subset E$ $$X~\text{connected}~\Longleftrightarrow \forall A\subset X,~\text{such that} A\neq\emptyset, A\neq X~\text{we have}~ Fr(A)\neq ...
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0answers
36 views

Theorem 3.6-2 in Erwine Kreyszig's “Introductory Functional Analysis with Applications:” Does the converse hold if the space is not complete? [duplicate]

First, a definition: Let $X$ be a normed space. A subset $M (\neq \emptyset) \subset X$ is said to be total in $X$ if the span of $M$ is dense in $X$. Now theorem 3.6-2 in Kreyszig states the ...
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1answer
39 views

Can't work out if this proof is sound or not. Any ideas?

Let $V$ be a normed space over some field $\mathbb K$. I proved that $$ \overline{B_r(a)} = \{v \in V \mid \|v-a\| \le r \}$$ $\subseteq $ was easy but for the $\supseteq$ direction I am really not ...
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0answers
22 views

Proof of dual norm relation: $\frac{1}{q} + \frac{1}{r} = 1$

Recall: $\|\|$ is a norm in $R^n$, and its dual norm is defined as $\|z\|^*=\text{sup}_{\|x\|\leq1}z^Tx$. If $q$-norm and $r$-norm are dual norm, then we have the following relation: ...
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0answers
17 views

Mean Value Inequalities for vector-valued functions

Let $X$ and $Y$ be Banach spaces, and let $U\subset X$ be open. If $f\colon U\to X$ is continuously differentiable and $x,v\in X$ are such that the line segment $\ell=\{x+tv\mid t\in[0,1]\}$ lies ...
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2answers
33 views

Determine interior and boundary of a set

Let $(X,||\cdot||)$ be a normed vector space, where $$X = \big\{ (a_n)_{n \geq 1} ~~|~~ (a_n)_{n \geq 1} \text{ is a bounded real sequence }\big\}$$ and $$\|(a_n)_n\| = \sup_{n \in ...
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1answer
46 views

The set of infinite sequences with finitely many nonzero values is dense.

Could I get a proof to this lemma or a reference if a proof is too time consuming?
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0answers
29 views

What is the norm for the product of normed spaces?

Suppose $(\Omega, \Sigma ,\lambda)$ is a probability space and $X_i=L^2(\Omega,\Sigma,\lambda ,[0,1])$ with norm $||.||_{L^2}$ for all $i\in I$, $I$ is finite. Is there any natural norm for the ...
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2answers
34 views

“isomorphic” normed spaces and reflexivity

Let X, Y be normed spaces and suppose that there exists an bijective isometry between them. And if X is reflexive, then it is intuitively clear that Y is reflexive also. But, when I tried to prove ...
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1answer
32 views

Unit ball separable $\Longrightarrow$ Space separable

Given a normed space $X$ and assume it is also a locally convex space in some other topology (e.g. weak or weak* if it's a dual). Assume that the unit ball $B_X$ is separable in this topology. Is it ...
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1answer
29 views

Two-dimensional subespace suplementary of another one

Let $E$ be a real normed space. All subspaces $S$ of codimension $1$ (hyperplane) in $E$ is either, closed or dense. What do say about a similar property when $S$ is of codimension $2$?
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1answer
47 views

Normed space where unit ball's weak and norm topology coincide?

Let $X$ be a normed space. Are there any infinite-dimensional examples such that the $(B_X, w\restriction_B) = (B_X, \|\cdot \|\restriction_B)$. In finite dimensions this obviously holds always true. ...
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2answers
286 views

Can the sum of two measurable functions be non-measurable if they are valued in a general normed space instead of $ \mathbb{R} $?

It's well known that the sum of measurable functions is measurable, if they are real or complex valued. However, the proofs I've seen heavily rely on the usage of the countable set of rational ...
4
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1answer
143 views

A name for the property $ \| x \star y \| = \| x \| \| y \| $.

Suppose that $ \star: V^2 \to V $ is some binary operation on a vector space $ V $. Should it hold, is there a name for the following property? $$ \forall x,y \in V: \quad \| x \star y \| = \| x \| \| ...
1
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1answer
62 views

Linear application on a normed space

How to prove that if $E$ and $F$ are tow normed spaces with $dim(F)<\infty$ and $f\in L(E,F)$ Then $$f~ \text{open} \Longleftrightarrow f ~\text{surjective}$$ If i suppose that $f$ is open, then ...
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1answer
36 views

Prove norm does not come from inner product.

I know I have to show it does not satisfy the parallelogram law but I don't know how to apply it.
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1answer
38 views

Test for normability of a metric on a Banach space

If d is a metric on a (finite dimensional) Banach Space and there exist norms $\|-\|_1$ and $\|-\|_2$ and constants $C_1,C_2 \in [1,\infty)$ satisfying: \begin{equation} C_1\|x-y\|_1 \leq d(x,y) \leq ...
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1answer
17 views

$x=argmin_{x\in A}||y-x||_2$ iff $\langle y-x,z-x\rangle \leq0$ for all $z\in A$

Consider $x\in A\subset\mathbb{R^n}$ with A closed and convex. How can you see that $$x=argmin_{x\in A}||y-x||_2$$ iff $$\langle y-x,z-x\rangle \leq0$$ for all $z\in A$. I tried using ...
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1answer
26 views

Estimation of the integral

I am trying to compute, or find a good estimate from above the following integral $$ \frac{1}{\pi}\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}|t|^{-1/p}\left|\frac{|t|^{\nu}-1}{t-1}\right|dt, $$where $0<1/p<1$ and ...
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5answers
52 views

Equivalence of norms: $\|x\|$ and $\|x\|_1=\|x\|+\lvert\,f(x)\rvert$

Let $f: X\to \mathbb{R}$ be a linear functional and $\|\cdot\|_1$ is defined as follow $\|x\|_1=\|x\|+|f(x)|$. Prove or disprove $\|\cdot\|_1$ is equivalent to $\|\cdot\|$ iff $f$ is continuous. I've ...
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1answer
49 views

Prob. 2, Sec. 3.3 in Erwin Kreyszig's “Introductory Functional Analysis With Applications”: How to minimise the norm?

Let $z$ be a given complex number. Let $M \subset \mathbb{C}^n$ be given by $$M \colon= \left\{ (\xi_1, \ldots, \xi_n ) \in \mathbb{C}^n \mid \sum_{i=1}^n \xi_i = z \right\}.$$ Then $M$ is convex ...
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1answer
33 views

Quotient space of infinite dimensional vector space

On an exam today I used that if $X=\mathcal{C}[a,b]$ and $Y=\{f\in X : f(a)=f(b)\}$, then the projection $\pi: X\rightarrow X/Y$ has the property $\ker(\pi)=Y$. This led me to the following: Suppose ...
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1answer
27 views

Subset of the sequence space that's closed and bounded but not compact

Consider the sequences space $l^1 = \{a = (a_n)_{n \in \mathbb{N}_0} \subset \mathbb{C}, \sum_{n = 0}^\infty|a_n|< \infty\}$ with the norm $||a||_1 = \sum_{n = 0}^\infty|a_n|$. I want to show that ...
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1answer
21 views

Show that a subset of $(\mathbb R^n,||.||)$ is closed

Let $C$ be a closed subspace of the normed linear space $(\mathbb R^n,\| \cdot \|)$.Let $r(>0)\in \mathbb R$ Define $D:=\{y:\exists x\in C$ such that $\|x-y\|=r\}$. Show that $D$ is closed. My ...
2
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0answers
31 views

a norm is symmetric if and only if it is unitarily invariant

how can I prove this : A norm on $\mathcal{M}_n(\mathbb{C})$ is symmetric if and only if it is unitarily invariant ? My attempt I know that a symmetric norm is a norm which verifies : $$N(ABC)\leq ...
2
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1answer
25 views

A question on Isometry between the orthogonal subspaces of Hilbert spaces

I was reviewing my class-notes on Functional analysis and the professor had mentioned that given a closed proper subspace $U$ of an hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$, $\exists $ a closed subspace ...
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2answers
39 views

What is the range of the operator $T$ I mean I want to determine $R(T)$

Given the normed space $\ell^\infty$ of all bounded sequences of (real or complex) numbers with the norm given by $$||x||:= \sup_{j\in Z^+} |\xi_j|,$$ for each $x:=(\xi_j)_{j=1}^\infty$ in ...
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2answers
38 views

Continuity of $(a_1,\ldots,a_n) \mapsto \sum_1^n a_j e_j$

Let $e_1,\ldots,e_j$ be a basis for a finite dimensional normed vector space $X$. I wish to show that the map $(a_1,\ldots,a_n) \mapsto \sum_1^n a_j e_j$ is continuous, where $(a_1,\ldots,a_n)$ has ...
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1answer
16 views

A linear map, continuous at zero, is bounded

I am studying a theorem about linear maps on normed vector spaces. The theorem states the equivalence of the following statements: $T$ is a linear map on a normed vector space $X$ that maps to a ...
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0answers
18 views

The closure of a subspace of a normed vector space is a subspace

This is a self-study problem (Folland Real Analysis exercise 5.5). If $\mathcal{X}$ is a normed vector space, the closure of any subspace of $\mathcal{X}$ is a subspace. My attempt: It is ...
2
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2answers
58 views

vector space of continuously differentiable functions is complete regarding a specific norm

Consider $C^1[a, b] = \{f: [a, b] \to \mathbb{C}\mid f\text{ continuously differentiable}\}$. Consider the following norm: $$\|f\|_{C^1} = \|f\|_\infty + \|f'\|_\infty$$ Now, it needs to be shown ...
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2answers
32 views

Proving a norm on the space of differentiable functions

I consider the space $C^1[a, b]$ of (complex) functions that are at least once differentiable on $[a, b]$. I want to show that $$||f||_{C^1} := ||f||_\infty + ||f'||_\infty$$ defines a norm on ...
3
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2answers
54 views

Example 5, Sec. 24 in Munkres' TOPOLOGY, 2nd ed: Is this map always continuous?

Let $(X, \Vert \cdot \Vert)$ be a given normed space that has elements other than the zero vector $\theta_X$. And let $T \colon X-\{\theta_X \} \to X$ be defined by $$T(x) \colon= \frac{1}{\Vert x ...
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0answers
18 views

Are two operator norms on $M_n(A)$ equivalent?

If $A$ is a Banach algebra, then $M_n(A)$ can be given the operator norm as operators on $A\oplus_p\cdots\oplus_p A$ ($1<p<\infty$) to make it a Banach algebra. If in addition $A$ is an operator ...
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2answers
62 views

Does this hold for $p=\infty $, i.e., is it true that $(l^{\infty})'= l^1? $ [closed]

Let $E=l^p$ where $1 \le p < \infty $ we know $E'=l^q$ Where $q$ is the dual exponent of $p$, i.e. $q$ is such that $\frac{1}{p}+\frac{1}{q}=1$ Does this hold for $p=\infty $, i.e., is it true ...
0
votes
3answers
41 views

Closed subset of the $\mathbb{R}^n$

I want to show that $U = \{(x, y) \in \mathbb{R}^2|xy ≤ 1\}$ is a closed subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$. Yes there are (easy) ways to do this using functions, but what's the (easiest) way to prove this ...
1
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1answer
55 views

$(B_X,w)$ metrizable implies $X^\ast$ separable

Let X be a normed space and assume that $(B_X,w)$ is metrizable, i.e. the weak topology is metrizable. Show that $X^\ast$ is separable. My attempt: Let $d$ a equivalent metric on $B_X$. For fixed ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

a question about proving a normed space is complete

Let [a,b] be an interval in R,and denote by E the Vector space of functions f:[a,b]->R such that f is of bounded variation over [a,b] and f(a)=0.Prove that by setting $||f||=Var|_{a}^{b}(f)$ for each ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Is the norm on $\ell^\infty$ induced by an inner product?

Let $\ell^\infty$ be the normed space of all bounded sequences $x \colon= (\xi_n)$ of all bounded sequences of complex numbers, with the norm defined by $$\Vert x \Vert_\infty \colon= \sup_{n \in ...