A vector space $E$, generally over the field $\mathbb R$ or $\mathbb C$ with a map $\lVert \cdot\rVert\colon E\to \mathbb R_+$ satisfying some conditions.

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18 views

Generalizing norms: leaving out absolute homogeneity

Given a function $\rho:X\to\mathbb{R}$ on a vector space $X$ which satisfies the following properties: $\rho(x)=0$ if and only if $x=0$ $\rho(x+y)\leq\rho(x)+\rho(y)$ $\rho(-x)=\rho(x)$ for any $...
3
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0answers
37 views

Vectors arbitrarily close to subspaces

Let $X$ be a normed space and let $V$ be a nonzero subspace of $X$ which is not dense in $X$. I want to prove that for every $\epsilon>0$ there exists a unit vector $x\in X$ such that $0<d=\inf_{...
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0answers
19 views

The norm of a simple linear functional

Suppose $X$ is a normed space, $x_0\in X$ and $M$ is a subspace of $X$. Suppose that $d=\inf_{m\in M} \|x_0-m\|>0$ and let $W=\text{Span } M\cup\{x_0\}$. Show that the linear functional $f\colon W\...
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2answers
29 views

$X$ be real i.p.s. dim.>1 , if two closed balls,none of which is a subset of the other,intersect then do the boundaries of the balls intersect too?

Let $X$ be a real inner product space of dimension more than $1$ , let $B[x;r] , B[y;s]$ be two closed balls having non-empty intersection where none of the balls is a subset of the other , then is ...
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35 views

When can I say that $\overline{A} \subset B$ if I know that $A \subset B$?

my question is as stated in the title: When can I say that $\overline{A} \subset B$ if $A \subset B$? Here $A,B$ are normed spaces and the closure of A is taken with respect to the norm of B. Can I ...
2
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1answer
48 views

$A \subseteq \mathbb R^n $ s.t. for every continuous function $f : A \to \mathbb R$ , $f(A)$ is closed in $\mathbb R$ , is $A$ closed $\mathbb R^n$?

Let $A \subseteq \mathbb R^n $ such that for every continuous function $f : A \to \mathbb R$ , $f(A)$ is closed in $\mathbb R$ ; then I know that $A$ is bounded ; my question is , is $A$ closed in $\...
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2answers
70 views

Why does one necessarily need the triangle inequality

I'm studying basic topological, metric and normed spaces and I am curious why one of the axioms of both a metric and a norm is the triangle inequality. It makes some sense to me having the triangle ...
2
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1answer
69 views

Determining whether equality $ \|T v\| = \|T\| \cdot \|v\|$ is possible

As an exercise, I'm supposed to determine whether for the operators $A_\lambda:g(t)\mapsto \sqrt\lambda g(\lambda t)$ on $C[0,1],\lambda\in (0,1)$ and $T_f:g\mapsto g(t)f(t)$ on $L^2$ it is possible ...
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0answers
16 views

Fibers of unbounded linear functional are dense

I'm supposed to prove that if $f$ is a discontinuous linear functional $H\rightarrow \mathbb C$, each of its fibers $f^{-1} \left\{ \alpha \right\} $ is dense. I already know the kernel, i.e $f^{-1} \...
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1answer
38 views

Projections satisfying $\| Px-Qx \| <\|x \|$ for nonzero $x$?

Let $V$ be a f.d inner product space with subspace $M,N$ and corresponding orthogonal projections $Q,P$. I need to prove that if $\| Px-Qx \| <\|x \|$ for all nonzero $x$, then $\dim M=\dim N$. As ...
3
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1answer
41 views

Is $AC[a,b]$ closed in $(BV[a,b],TV)$?

Consider $BV[a,b]$ the space of all bounded variation functions on a real interval $[a,b]$, endowed with the total variation norm $TV$. $AC[a,b]$, the space of absolutely continuous functions, is a ...
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0answers
47 views

Total variation on BV functions: “Banach seminorm”?

Suppose I consider the space $BV[a,b]$ of all bounded variation functions on $[a,b]$ a real interval. I endow it with $\|f\|=TV(f)$ the total variation norm. Do I get a Banach space? How can I prove ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Can $f(x,z) = x^Tx + \sum\limits_{i = 1}^n \dfrac{x_ix_i}{z_i}$ be written with multiple inner products at the same time?

I am running into a very interesting phenomenon that I do not quite understand (Illustration of an example of so called subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$) For example, suppose we have a subset of $X \...
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1answer
23 views

Inner product induced norm vs $l_2$ norm

Some related problems: Relationship between inner product and norm What norm Induced inner product? My problem comes from one step of a certain proof: $\|Av\|^2=(Av)^T(Av)=v^TA^TAv=v^TIv =...
2
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2answers
28 views

About a partial converse to the Banach-Steinhaus Theorem

I've been reading the GTM text Topics in Banach Space Theory by Albaic and Kalton. In the appendix, it states the following partial converse to the Banach-Steinhaus theorem: Let $\{S_n\}$ be a ...
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1answer
20 views

element-wise order implies norm order?

Let $v_1, v_2 \in \mathbb R^n$. If $0\le v_1 \le v_2$ element-wise, is it true that $\|v_1\| \le \|v_2\|$ for any norm $\|\cdot \|$?
3
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1answer
249 views

Linear transformation $T$ such that for every extension $\overline{T}$, $\|\overline{T}\|>\|T\|$.

Let $E$ and $F$ be normed spaces such that $\dim F < \infty$, $G$ a subspace of $E$ and $T:G\rightarrow F$ a continuous linear map. I know that there exists a continuous linear extension $\overline{...
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1answer
34 views

distance between two eigen vectors corresponding to two different matrices in a normed space

Let $A$ and $B$ are two $n\times n$ matrices. Let 1) $Ax = \lambda x$ and 2) $By=\mu y$ for $x,y$ in a normed space. $\lambda, \mu$ are scalar. Also, for $x,y$ are unique eigen vectors (upto a ...
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1answer
36 views

Variant of Holder's inequality: $\|x\|_p \le n^{\frac1p- \frac1r} \|x\|_r$

So far I believed that only the reverse Holder inequality holds for $0<p<r<1,$ but then a student pointed out to me that $$\|x\|_p \le n^{\frac{1}{p}- \frac{1}{r}} \|x\|_r.$$ A few numerical ...
3
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1answer
78 views

Tricky norm-inequality $\|x\|_p \le n^{\frac{1}{p}- \frac{1}{r}} \|x\|_r.$ for $p \in (0,1)$

For $r>p \ge 1$ one can show that in $\mathbb{C}^n$ we have $$\|x\|_p \le n^{\frac{1}{p}- \frac{1}{r}} \|x\|_r.$$ My question is now: Does this also hold for $1 \ge r>p>0$? Obviously we ...
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1answer
44 views

Prob. 2, Sec. 2.8 in Kreyszig's functional analysis text: What is the norm of these bounded linear functionals on $C[a,b]$?

Let $C[a,b]$ denote the normed space of all the continuous (real or complex-valued) functions defined (and continuous!) on the closed interval $[a,b]$ on the real line, where $a, b \in \mathbb{R}$ and ...
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4answers
80 views

prove triangular inequality for $ d(x,y)= \frac{||x-y||}{1+||x-y||}$ [duplicate]

prove triangular inequality for $$ d(x,y)= \frac{||x-y||}{1+||x-y||}$$ that is $d(x,y) \leq d(x,z)+d(z,y)$ ofcourse ||.|| is a norm and has properties of norms this usually works $$ \begin{...
2
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1answer
43 views

Norm of convolution

Let $f,g: \mathbb{R}^n \to R$. Let $|| \cdot ||_T$ be a translation invariant norm on functions on $\mathbb{R}^n$. How can I prove that $||f*g||_T \leq ||f||_1 ||g||_T$ (where $f*g$ means convolution ...
2
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1answer
42 views

A linear map $S:Y^*\to X^*$ is weak$^*$ continuous if and only if $S=T^*$ for som $T\in B(X,Y)$

As the title says, the question is how to prove $S:Y^*\to X^*$ is weak$^*$ continuous if and only if $S=T^*$ for som $T\in B(X,Y)$
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0answers
36 views

Continuous function with support continuously embedded [duplicate]

Can someone give me a solution for this? We define $$C^1_c(\mathbb R_+) := \{f \in C^1(\mathbb R_+): \overline{\{x \in (\mathbb R_+) : f(x) \neq 0\}} \text{ compact in } (\mathbb R_+,|\cdot|)\}$$ ...
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1answer
57 views

Show that function $\mathcal F$ is norm preserving

Fix $N \in \Bbb N$. The function $\mathcal F:(\Bbb C ^N , || \cdot || _2 )\to(\Bbb C ^N , || \cdot || _2 )$ is defined as follows: $$ (\mathcal F (x))_k := \frac 1 {\sqrt N} \sum^N_{j=1} x_j \mathrm {...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

Show map is norm-preserving and determine Eigenvalues [duplicate]

Can someone of you give me a solution for this? Let $N\in \mathbb N$. a) We define the map $\mathfrak F:(\mathbb C^N, ||\cdot||_2)\to(\mathbb C^N, ||\cdot||_2)$ by $$(\mathfrak F(x))_k := \frac{...
2
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1answer
244 views

Show norm preserving property and determine Eigenvalues

Can someone of you give me a solution for this? Let $N\in \mathbb N$. a) We define the map $\mathfrak F:(\mathbb C^N, ||\cdot||_2)\to(\mathbb C^N, ||\cdot||_2)$ by $$(\mathfrak F(x))_k := \frac{...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Is $\mu A+\lambda B$ closed? [duplicate]

Let $E$ be a real normed space, $\mu>0, \lambda >0$ and $A,B \subset E$ closed and convex sets such that $0 \in A$ and $0\in B$. Is $\mu A+\lambda B$ closed? This is what I did so far: ...
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1answer
66 views

$T:\mathbb R^n \to \mathbb R^n $ be an isometry , is $T$ surjective?

Let $T:\mathbb R^n \to \mathbb R^n $ be an isometry and $T(0)=0$ , then $T$ is linear and $T(B[0,1])\subseteq B[0,1]$ so $T:B[0,1]\to B[0,1]$ is an isometry and since $B[0,1]$ is compact so $T|_{B[0,...
1
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1answer
43 views

$B$ be an uncountable dimensional real Banach space and $T:B \to B$ be a surjective isometry such that $T(0)=0$ , then is $T$ linear?

Let $B$ be a real Banach space and $T:B \to B$ be a surjective isometry such that $T(0)=0$ , then is $T$ linear ? I know that it is true if $B$ is a Hilbert space ( we only need an inner product ...
0
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1answer
36 views

In $(C[0,1],||.||_{\infty})$ , is the set $\{p(x)\in C[0,1]$, $p(x)$ is a polynomial $:\int_0^1 p(x)dx=1\}$ totally bounded?

Consider the metric space $(C[0,1],||.||_{\infty})$ , in this space , is the set $\{p(x)\in C[0,1]$, $p(x)$ is a polynomial $:\int_0^1 p(x)dx=1\}$ totally bounded ? Please help , Thanks in advance
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1answer
34 views

Let $\lVert\cdot\rVert_1,\lVert\cdot\rVert_2$ be norms on vector space $X$. Prove that they generate the same topology iff they are equivalent. [duplicate]

Note that by "generate the same topology" we mean that any set that is open with respect to $\lVert\cdot\rVert_1$ is also open with respect to $\lVert\cdot\rVert_2$ and vice versa. By "equivalent" we ...
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0answers
92 views

Continuous embeddings

Given the following exercise: We define $$C^1_c(\mathbb R_+) := \{f \in C^1(\mathbb R_+): \overline{\{x \in (\mathbb R_+) : f(x) \neq 0\}} \text{ compact in } (\mathbb R_+,|\cdot|)\}$$ (the ...
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1answer
26 views

Prove or disprove: $\lVert T\rVert=\sup_{\lVert x\rVert=1}|\langle Tx,x\rangle|$, where $H$ is a Hilbert space and $T$ is bdd linear operator.

Edit: To clarify, note that $T:H\to H$. This is a problem on an old preliminary exam in Analysis that I'm working through to prep for my own prelim. My initial thought was to disprove it, but I can'...
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1answer
22 views

Bounded linear extension of an operator whose co-domain is incomplete.

Let $X$ be a normed space and $Y$ be a Banach space. The bounded linear extension theorem states that a bounded linear operator $T : M \to Y$, where $M \subseteq X$ is dense, can be extended to a ...
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2answers
36 views

Is $f_n=x^n$ weakly convergent in $(\mathscr C[0,1],\lVert\cdot\rVert_\infty)$?

This is part of an old preliminary exam in Analysis I am working through. For earlier parts of the problem I have already shown that $f_n$ does not converge in $(\mathscr C[0,1],\lVert\cdot\rVert_\...
2
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0answers
36 views

Completeness of 'Hardy Space' $H^2(D)$

Define Hardy Space $H^2(D)$ as a space of holomorphic functions $f$ on unit open disc $D=\{z\in\mathbb{C}:|z|<1\}$ endowed with the norm $$ ||f||^2=\sup_{0<r<1} \int_0^{2\pi} |f(re^{i\...
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0answers
26 views

Prob. 4, Sec. 4.3 in Kreyszig's functional fnalysis text: Application of the Hahn Banach Theorem

Let $X$ be a real or complex vector space, and let $p \colon X \to \mathbb{R}$ be a real-valued function satisfying $$p(x+y) \leq p(x) + p(y) \ \mbox{ for all } \ x, y \in X$$ and $$p(\alpha x) = \...
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1answer
64 views

Trouble finding a function satisfying an integral equation

I'm stuck at the last step of this exercise: b) Use the Banach fixed point theorem to show that there is a unique function $f \in C[0,1]$ for which the equation $$f(t) + \int_0^1e^{\tau+t-3}f(\tau)...
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3answers
92 views

Isometric isomorphism between $R^2$ and $R$

Can someone help me solving the following problems? $(\mathbb R^2,d_2)$ and $(\mathbb R, d_1)$, $d_2, d_1$ being the respective euclidean norms, are not isometric isomorphic, i.e. there is no ...
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1answer
22 views

If $\| \varphi\| = 1$, then $\varphi (B_E) = (-1,1).$

Let $E$ be a real normed space and $\varphi \in E'$, $\|\varphi\| = 1$. Is it true that $\varphi (B_E) = (-1,1)$ ? Clearly, if $x\in B_E$, we have $\varphi(x) \in (-1,1)$ since $|\varphi(x)| \leq \...
-1
votes
1answer
29 views

Which of following inequality holds?

$f(x,y) = _{\theta,\phi}^{{sup}}$ $ ||e^{i\theta}x - e^{i\phi}y||_{2}^2$ ,where $x,y \in \mathbb{C^2}$ and $\theta,\phi \in \mathbb{R}$ $f(x,y) \leq ||x||^2 + ||y||^2 - 2Re (\langle x,y \rangle )$ ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Suppose $f_n\to f$ in $L^1([0,1],\lambda)$. Prove or disprove: $\exists \{f_{n_j}\}$ such that $f_{n_j}(x)\to f(x)$ for almost every $x\in[0,1]$. [duplicate]

This is part of an old preliminary exam in Analysis I am reviewing to prepare for my own prelim. $\lambda$ is the Lebesgue measure. $f_n\to f$ with respect to the $L^1-$norm. I know that there exists ...
1
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0answers
21 views

Which of the inequality holds?

$f(x,y) = _{\theta,\phi}^{{sup}}$ $ ||e^{i\theta}x - e^{i\phi} y||_{2}$ ,where $x,y \in \mathbb{C^2}$ and $\theta,\phi \in \mathbb{R}$ Which of the following holds ? $f(x,y) \leq ||x||^2 + ||y||^2 ...
1
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1answer
19 views

Every Cauchy sequence in $\{f\in (C([0,1]),\|\cdot\|_1)\,|\,\exists a,b\in\mathbb R:f(x)=ax+b\}$ converges

I have trouble proving that, using the norm $\|f\|=\int_0^1|f(x)|\mathrm dx$, for a Cauchy sequence of functions $f_n(x)=a_nx+b_n$, the sequences $(a_n)_n$ and $(b_n)_n$ also have to be Cauchy ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Problem regarding isometric isomorphisms [duplicate]

I need help regarding the following two exercises: a) Show that $(\mathbb R^2, d_2)$ and $(\mathbb R,d_1)$ $d_2,d_1$ being the respective euclidean metrics, are not isometric isomorphic, i.e. ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Non-convergent Cauchy sequence in $\ell^1$ with respect to the $\ell^2$ norm

Let $X = \ell^1$, the set of absolutely convergent real valued sequences and let $d_2(\mathbf{x},\mathbf{y}) = \left(\sum_{k=1}^\infty |x_k - y_k|^2\right)^{1/2}.$ This is the $2$-norm on the $1$ ...
0
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1answer
32 views

Why do we study specifically 'normed' vector spaces?

When we study vector spaces, it is useful to define a norm on it for countless reasons. I was thinking about this recently and realised Don't all vector spaces have norms on them? If they all ...
0
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1answer
25 views

Let $X$ be a finite dimensional normed space. Does the algebraic dual space $X^*$ and the dual space $X'$ coincide?

I am currently studying for my Functional Analysis test and then started thinking about the following and figured it is true (if it is not true, please do tell me - I am just thinking about this to ...