Questions on the Gaussian, or normal probability distribution, which may include multi-dimensional normal distribution.

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1answer
69 views

Computing the characteristic function of a normal random vector

The characteristic function of a random vector $\boldsymbol{X}$ is $\varphi_{\boldsymbol{X}}(\boldsymbol{t}) =E[e^{i\boldsymbol{t}'\boldsymbol{X}}] $ Now suppose that $\boldsymbol{X} \in ...
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1answer
73 views

Probability density function of $X^2$ when $X$ has $N(0,1)$ distribution

I am trying to derive Chi-square distribution. The random variale is $$ U^2=\sum_{i=1}^k X_i^2 $$ where $X$ is a random variable with normal standard distribution. What is the distribution of ...
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1answer
8k views

What is the expectation of $ X^2$ where $ X$ is distributed normally?

I know that if $X$ were distributed as a standard normal, then $X^2$ would be distributed as chi-squared, and hence have expectation $1$, but I'm not sure about for a general normal. Thanks
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1answer
68 views

Why is this multivariate $3\sigma$ ellipse rotated?

While reading this answer, I clicked on the provided link to this Wikipedia page. The main article image shows the PDF of a 2D multivariate normally distributed system: In the image, the $3\sigma$ ...
6
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1answer
89 views

An interesting inequality about the cdf of the normal distribution

When approaching this other question I came out with the inequality: $$\frac{1}{4+x^2}e^{-x^2/2} \leq\Phi(x)\Phi(-x)\leq \frac{1}{4}e^{-x^2/2},\tag{1}$$ where $\Phi(x)$ is the cdf of the standard ...
4
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3answers
277 views

Probability distribution function

I am trying to develop a function that will allow me to input a random number between 0 and 1 and receive a value. The idea is that the function has a range (for example, 0-100) with a median value of ...
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2answers
99 views

Integral of exponential using error function

I'm trying to solve some integrals below $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} {x^n e^\frac{-(x - \mu)^2}{\sigma^2}}dx$$ I am interested in the solutions where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. I have learned that ...
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0answers
147 views

Simplifying covariance matrices in distributions

In the multivariate Gaussian distribution, it is required that the covariance matrix be positive semidefinite. I have read that a positive semidefinite matrix $\Sigma$ can be written as $LL^{T}$. I ...
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2answers
505 views

P.D.F. of independent/dependent Uniform R.V.'s

I am trying to solve this: Consider a stick of length 1. You break the stick in two random places, X and Y. a. Define the individual probability distribution functions of the breaking ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Closed-form term for this expression

I have a normal Distribution $X \sim N(\mu, \sigma)$. Is there an easy way to give an asymptotic estimate with small error (I would prefer with relative error $\rightarrow 0$) for $P[X \geq k]$? We ...
2
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1answer
246 views

Brownian Bridge as a Gaussian Process

Let $B=\{B_t:t\geq 0\}$ be a standard Brownian motion. Define the Brownian brige $X=\{X_t:t\geq0\}$ as $$ X_t=B_t-tB_1\quad t\in[0,1] $$ Show that $X$ is (i) Gaussian and find its (ii) mean and (iii) ...
2
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1answer
151 views

Conditional Expectations (Mainly an integral question)

Let $X_1$ and $X_2$ be two Random variables with a standard normal distribution, and the two variables are independent. Find $E[X_1|X_1>X_2]$ My answer is far. If we knew $X_2$, then the answer ...
2
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1answer
141 views

Techniques for evaluating probability integral

Consider the integral of a normal distribution: $$\int_a^b f(x)\,\mathrm d x=c $$ and a second integral for the expected value: $$ \int_a^b x\cdot f(x)\,\mathrm dx $$ Since you know the first ...
2
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3answers
2k views

$3\sigma$ rule for multivariate normal distribution

I was wondering if the $3\sigma$ rule that holds for 1D normal distribution also holds for multivariate normal distribution?
2
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1answer
368 views

Combining 1D normal distributions into a 2D distribution

First of all, apologies for my poor terminology - I have a particular problem which I understand in own terms, but I am having difficulty in applying the mathematics in the correct manner. My problem ...
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1answer
2k views

Definite integral of Normal Distribution [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How to directly compute an integral which corresponds to the normal distribution Is there any approximate solution for the following definite integral of normal ...
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4answers
6k views

Convolution of two Gaussians is a Gaussian

I know that the product of two Gaussians is a Gaussian, and I know that the convolution of two Gaussians is also a Gaussian. I guess I was just wondering if there's a proof out there to show that the ...
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2answers
173 views

Proof of the affine property of normal distribution for a landscape matrix

The widely used/mentioned/assumed affine property of multivariate normal distributions says that: Given a random vector $x \in R^N$ with a multivariate normal distribution -- $x \sim N_x(\mu_x, ...
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1answer
36 views

Probability , Geometric and Gaussian

So,I'm good at the questions which require the understanding of basic formulaes , but this one my prof said needs me to think (for the first one)'geometrically'=Stumped. Please Help! The second is an ...
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0answers
185 views

Almost sure convergence of maximum in a sequence of Gaussian random variables

Let $X_1, X_2,\ldots,X_n$ be an i.i.d. sequence of standard Gaussian variables and $M_n=\max(X_1, X_2,\ldots,X_n)$. I am trying to understand the mechanics of the proof of almost sure convergence ...
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1answer
97 views

Does $0$ correlation imply independence for marginally normal distributions?

Assume $X \sim \mathcal N(\mu_1, \sigma_1^2)$ and $Y \sim \mathcal N(\mu_2, \sigma_2^2)$. If $\rho_{X,Y} = 0$ then $X \bot Y$. Can someone give a hint why this is true ?
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1answer
1k views

Linear transformation applied to a multivariate Gaussian random variable - what is the mean vector and covariance matrix of the new variable?

Given a random vector $\mathbf x \sim N(\mathbf{\bar x}, \mathbf{C_x})$ with normal distribution. $\mathbf{\bar x}$ is the mean value vector and $\mathbf{C_x}$ is the covariance matrix of ...
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2answers
550 views

The correlation between two normal distribution

Let $X$ have the $N(0,1)$ distribution and let $a>0$, show that the random variable $Y$ given by $$Y=\begin{cases} X & \text{if }|X|<a\\[5pt] -X &\text{if }|X|\geq a\; \end{cases}$$ has ...
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1answer
133 views

Scaling of a multivariate normal

We know that if a variable $X$ is iid from a $N(\mu,\sigma^2)$, the distribution of $X+b$ is $N(\mu+b,\sigma^2)$ If we scale the $X$ by a scaling factor $k$, the new distribution will be ...
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2answers
71 views

Statistical Problem (part 2)

Following my question I found another problem. Having the same data from the other question: There are 2 melon stores. The melon weights follow a normal distribution. Store A -> μ = ...
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2answers
349 views

Definite integral of cdf of the form $\Phi(\alpha+\sqrt{d^2-\frac{x^2}{2\sigma^2}})$

Any solution for the following definite integaral? Here $\Phi(x)$ represents the cumulative distributive function of standard normal distribution ...
1
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1answer
209 views

Multivariate Normal Distribution

Is is true to say that k-dimensional Normal distribution is equivalent to the multiplication of k 1-dimensional Normal distributions if variance is equal in all dimensions?
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1answer
24 views

convergence to standard brownian motion

Could you help me with the following: I have that $$T(x):=\frac{X(nx)-E[X(nx)]}{\sqrt{n}} \xrightarrow{d} N(0, \frac{x^k}{k})$$ for each fixed $x>0$, where we also have that $\frac{X(nx)}{t}$ is ...
0
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1answer
87 views

how to generate Normally distributed random number?

I am looking for a function that can generate Normally distributed random numbers. I came to know about bux-muller transform but I didn't understood it completely what it is doing. Thus it would be ...
0
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1answer
65 views

What is the effect of the variance on a sequence of cumulative product?

We randomly draw numbers from a normal distribution with mean equals $mu$ and variance equals $var$. We draw the values: $x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4, ...$ Then, we construct a sequence made of the ...
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1answer
437 views

Normal approximation to the log-normal distribution

Intuitively, it seems that a lognormal distribution with a tiny $\sigma/\mu$ ratio might look quite a bit like a normal distribution. Can this be formalized in any way (e.g., by stating upper bounds ...
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1answer
354 views

Conditional expectation on components of gaussian vector

I think I got the definition of the conditional expectation now, but I'm still having some problems with actual calculations... Let $(X,Y,Z)$ be a real gaussian vector. X and Y centered and ...
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2answers
114 views

Normal distribution probability problem.

There are lots of salmon in a pond and their length (in centimeters) obeys normal distribution $N(70, 5.4^2)$. You and your friend go fishing and decide to continue fishing until both of you catch at ...
0
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1answer
186 views

Ratio of dependent chi squared random variables

Suppose that $X=v'A_1v$ and $Y=v'A_2v$, where $A_i$ are symmetric matrices and $v$ a multivariate normal vector with covariance $V$, are chi squared distributed each with its own degrees of freedom. ...
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0answers
67 views

iterative transform of standard normal random variable

Given a discrete series of random variable $n(i)$ that each element follows the standard normal distribution $N(0,1)$, another series is defined iteratively as: $$u(i+1)=au(i)+bn(i)$$ where ...
0
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1answer
121 views

how to do this integral: $ \int_{0}^{\infty} \int_{0}^{\infty} x y \phi(x, y) dx dy$

how to do this integral: $$ \int_{0}^{\infty} \int_{0}^{\infty} x y \phi(x, y) dx dy$$ where $ \phi(x,y)$ is a general pdf of bivariate normal distribution, that is: $$\phi(x,y) = ...
0
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1answer
153 views

special matrix in terms of its covariance matrix

How can we find a matrix $S\in \mathcal{M}_{n,n}$ and $Z\in \mathcal{M}_{n,m}$ whose $n$ entries of the $i^{th}$ column $Z_i$ are correlated $Z_i \sim \mathcal{N}(0,S)$ where $S \in \mathcal{M}_{n,n}$ ...
0
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1answer
96 views

What is the distribution of an unconditioned random variable knowing the conditional distribution?

I have two random variables $X$ and $Y$. I know that $Y$ can be approximated by a $N(\mu_1,\sigma_1^2)$ distribution (in particular $Y$ is not negative) and I also know that $X|Y \sim N(a+bY,c+dY)$ ...
0
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1answer
266 views

How to count $n$th percentile from normally distributed random variable?

I have normally distributed random variable $X\sim \mathcal N(100,225)$. How to count $n$th percentile? In my case I need lower quartile - $x(0.25)$.
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1answer
201 views

Calculating P(A>B), where A and B are normal distribution

In the problem we have that A ~ N(7, 11/60) and B ~ N(7.3, 7/20) and the question is what is the probability that A gives a higher value that B. Since the textbook we have for the course doesn't ...
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2answers
115 views

Normal distribution, statistical problem

Before proceeding to the question, bear in english is not my native language and therefore technical terms may be wrong. So, I'm trying to solve the old exam question, and I have different results ...
0
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1answer
1k views

How to apply Central Limit Theorem to Uniform Distribution to generate Normal Distrubution?

Suppose I have a simple uniform continuous "unit" distribution X: $$\begin{align*} \forall y \in \mathbb{R} \implies \\ y < 0 : & P(X < y) = 0 \\ y \in [0,1] : & P(X < y) = y \\ ...
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2answers
93 views

Integral of an integral with variable limits

I'd like to prove the following but not sure where to start: ...