Questions on the Gaussian, or normal probability distribution, which may include multi-dimensional normal distribution.

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38
votes
8answers
3k views

What do $\pi$ and $e$ stand for in the normal distribution formula?

I'm a very beginner in mathematics and there is one thing I've been wondering recently. The formula for the normal distribution is: ...
29
votes
2answers
3k views

Why is the error function defined as it is?

$\newcommand{\erf}{\operatorname{erf}}$ This may be a very naïve question, but here goes. The error function $\erf$ is defined by $$\erf(x) = \frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}} \int_0^x e^{-t^2}dt.$$ Of ...
19
votes
2answers
6k views

Expectation of the maximum of gaussian random variables

Is there an exact or good approximate expression for the expectation, variance or other moments of the maximum of $n$ independent, identically distributed gaussian random variables where $n$ is large? ...
11
votes
3answers
15k views

Is the product of two Gaussian random variables also a Gaussian?

Say I have $X \sim \mathcal N(a, b)$ and $Y\sim \mathcal N(c, d)$. Is $XY$ also normally distributed? Is the answer any different if we know that $X$ and $Y$ are independent?
10
votes
1answer
653 views

Cool examples of the Central Limit Theorem in action

Sir Francis Galton has described the Central Limit Theorem as follows. I know of scarcely anything so apt to impress the imagination as the wonderful form of cosmic order expressed by the "Law of ...
8
votes
2answers
659 views

Why don't we allow the canonical Gaussian distribution in infinite dimensional Hilbert space?

I'm looking at Gaussian distributions in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, and the sources I've seen so far say that the covariance matrix has to be of trace class (i.e. the trace must be finite). ...
8
votes
3answers
390 views

Is the mean of the truncated normal distribution monotone in $\mu$?

I am wondering whether the mean of the truncated normal distribution is always increasing in $\mu$. The untruncated distribution of $x$ is $\mathcal{N}(\mu,\sigma^2)$. The mean of the truncated ...
8
votes
2answers
201 views

Computing the Gaussian integral with step functions

Say, we are interested in deriving $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}e^{-x^2}=\sqrt{\pi}\tag{1}$$ There are many well known ways to do it, for example: by polar coordinates via the gamma function, etc. ...
8
votes
2answers
280 views

Why should Gaussian noise have fractal dimension of 1.5?

In a paper I'm trying to understand, the following time series is generated as "simulated data": $$Y(i)=\sum_{j=1}^{1000+i}Z(j) \:\:\: ; \:\:\: (i=1,2,...,N)$$ where $Z(j)$ is a Gaussian noise with ...
8
votes
1answer
219 views

Volume of the intersection of ellipsoids

How do I compute the volume of the intersection of two n-dimensional ellipsoids? Given an $n$-vector $c$ and a symmetric positive-definite $n\times n$ matrix $A$, define the ellipsoid ...
6
votes
3answers
217 views

How do I evaluate $\int \limits_{-\infty}^{a} e^{−t^2}dt$?

I know that $$I \equiv \int \limits_{-\infty}^\infty e^{−t^2} \, dt=\sqrt{\pi},\text{ and }\int \limits_{-\infty}^0 e^{−t^2} \, dt=\frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{2}.$$ However, I don't understand if (or how) I ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Derivation of the density function of student t-distribution from this big integral.

My lecturer posed a question where we derive the density function of the student t-distribution from the Chi-square and Standard normal distribution. I worked on this question for days, and I am ...
6
votes
1answer
297 views

How was the normal distribution derived?

Abraham de Moivre, when he came up with this formula, had to assure that the points of inflection were exactly one standard deviation away from the center, and so that it was bell-shaped, as well as ...
6
votes
1answer
673 views

Can the product of two non-independent Gaussians be Gaussian?

We recently discussed this: Is the product of two Gaussian random variables also a Gaussian? What was established was that in nontrivial cases (i.e., ruling out zero-variance Gaussians, which are ...
6
votes
0answers
200 views

What is the distribution of $\sqrt{X^2+Y^2}$ when $X$ and $Y$ are Gaussian but correlated?

If $Z = \sqrt{X^2+Y^2}$, and $X$ and $Y$ are zero-mean i.i.d. normally-distributed random variables, then $Z$ is Rayleigh distributed. What is the distribution of $Z$ if $X$ and $Y$ are correlated ...
5
votes
4answers
301 views

Sampling from a $2$d normal with a given covariance matrix

How would one sample from the $2$-dimensional normal distribution with mean $0$ and covariance matrix $$\begin{bmatrix} a & b\\b & c \end{bmatrix}$$ given the ability to sample from the ...
5
votes
4answers
3k views

Asymmetric Normal Probability Distribution

I'm looking for a continuous probability distribution a little bit like the normal distribution but asymmetric. In my opinion this distribution applies to phenomenons related to response time in ...
5
votes
1answer
6k views

Calculation of the n-th central moment of the normal distribution $\mathcal{N}(\mu,\sigma^2)$

Since integration is not my strong suit I need some feedback on this, please: Let $Y$ be $\mathcal{N}(\mu,\sigma^2)$, the normal distrubution with parameters $\mu$ and $\sigma^2$. I know $\mu$ is the ...
5
votes
3answers
149 views

How to Make a PDF 'Look' Uniform?

Let $X$ be a normally-distributed random variable with mean zero and variance $\sigma^2$: $X \sim N(0,\sigma^2)$. Let $Y$ be a mapping from $X$ onto the interval $(0,1)$ using the sigmoid function: ...
5
votes
1answer
207 views

$\int_0^tB_s^2\ dB_s$ - Gaussian Process and independent increments?

For $(B_t)_{t\ge0}$ a standard Brownian motion (Wiener process) define the stochastic process $X_t:=\int_0^tB_s^2\ dB_s$. I am currently trying to assess if $(X_t)_{t\ge0}$ is a Gaussian process and ...
5
votes
2answers
205 views

Convergence of a sequence involving the maximum of i.i.d. Gaussian random variables

It's well known that, for a sequence of $n$ i.i.d. standard Gaussian random variables $X_1,\ldots,X_n$, where $X_\max=\max(X_1,\ldots,X_n)$, the following convergence result holds: ...
5
votes
1answer
3k views

X,Y are independent standard normal distributed then what is the distribution of $\frac{X}{X+Y}$

X, Y are independent standard normal random variables, what is the distribution of $$ \frac{X}{X+Y} $$ Could anyone help me with this? Thanks. I have worked the problem by multivariable ...
5
votes
3answers
227 views

Central Limit Theorem Definition

My friend and I have a bet going about the definition of the Central Limit Theorem. If we define an example as a number drawn at random from some probability density function where the function has a ...
5
votes
1answer
163 views

Expectations containing normal CDF

Suppose that $X\sim\mathcal{N}\left(0,1\right)$ (i.e., $X$ is a standard normal random variable) and $a,b,$ and $c$ are some real constant. Does any of the following expectations have a closed-form? ...
5
votes
1answer
121 views

how to evaluate a definite integral (looks almost like nonintegral moments of a Gaussian)

I'd like to show the following equality (at least Mathematica claims it is an equality): \begin{multline*} \int_0^\infty x^p \exp(-(ax - b)^2)\, dx = \frac{1}{2} e^{-b^2} a^{-p-1} \left(\Gamma ...
5
votes
1answer
199 views

A case of the central limit theorem

I want to show that $$\frac{\sum_{k=1}^N X_k}{\sqrt{\sum_{k=1}^N X_k^2}} \overset{N\to\infty}{\to} \mathcal{N}(0,1)\text{ in distribution,}$$ where $X_1,X_2,\ldots$ is a sequence of iid random ...
5
votes
1answer
52 views

Why does adding 3 random decimals in the range [-1,1] give a normal dist with std. dev 1?

I've used Math.random()*2-1+Math.random()*2-1+Math.random()*2-1 many times in the past to get normally-distributed random numbers with a standard deviation of 1. ...
5
votes
3answers
461 views

Compute probability of a particular ordering of normal random variables

There are $m$ normally distributed, independent random variables $N_1, \ldots, N_m$ with distinct means $\mu_1, \ldots \mu_m$ and standard deviations $\sigma_1, \ldots, \sigma_m$. Then, we get a ...
5
votes
0answers
70 views

Is there a way to exploit the fact that the covariance matrix has a blocked structure to more easily compute the multivariate normal density?

I'm trying to minimize the (negative) multivariate normal log likelihood (dropping constants): $$ \log |\boldsymbol\Sigma|\,+(\mathbf{x}-\boldsymbol\mu)^{\rm ...
5
votes
1answer
268 views

Does this table fit the normal distribution?

The Pascal triangle can be described by the recurrence: $P(n,1)=1, k>1: P(n,k) = P(n-i,k-1) + P(n-i,k)$ This well known triangle has the basic properties that the ratios of consecutive ...
4
votes
2answers
211 views

A simpler solution of the integral $\int_{x_1+\ldots+x_n \geq a} \exp\left[ -\pi \left(x_1^2+\ldots+x_n^2 \right)\right] dx_1\cdots dx_n $

I want to calculate the following integral $$\int_{x_1+\ldots+x_n \geq a} \exp\left[ -\pi \left(x_1^2+\ldots+x_n^2 \right)\right] dx_1\cdots dx_n, $$ as a function of $a$, in possibly the shortest ...
4
votes
3answers
11k views

How to calculate the integral in normal distribution?

The factory is making products with this normal distribution: $\mathcal{N}(0, 25)$. What should be the maximum error accepted with the probability of 0.90? [Result is 8.225 millimetre] How will I ...
4
votes
2answers
602 views

Connection to Normal distribution

I've been working on finding the probability for the event, that the sum of $n$ independent random variables are less than $s$, when they are evenly distributed on $[0,1)$. I've used the law of total ...
4
votes
2answers
233 views

Let $X,Y\sim \mathcal{N}(0,1)$. Let $Z=\max(X,Y)$. Find $EZ$.

Let $X,Y$ independent random variables with $X,Y\sim \mathcal{N}(0,1)$. Let $Z=\max(X,Y)$. I already showed that $F_Z$ of $Z$ suffices $F_Z(z)=F(z)^2$. Now I need to find $EZ$. Should I start like ...
4
votes
2answers
172 views

expectation equations

I am just trying to understand the following three equations. $\phi(x)$ denotes the standard Gaussian cumulative distribution function and $X$~$N(\mu,\sigma^2)$ (1) $\mathbb{E}[e^{tX}f(X)]=e^{\mu ...
4
votes
1answer
4k views

Probability of a point taken from a certain normal distribution will be greater than a point taken from another?

Let's say I have one point that will be taken randomly from a normal distribution with mean $\mu_1$ and standard deviation $\sigma_1$. Let's say I have another point that is taken much in the same ...
4
votes
1answer
174 views

Expectation value of $1/x$

Given a random variable $x$ which is assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution $x \sim N( \mu, \sigma^2 )$ and $x$ is further known to be positive, I am interested in the following expectation value: ...
4
votes
1answer
347 views

Generate a set of random numbers with a normal distribution

I am trying to generate a set of N random numbers where the set has a normal distribution. I'm currently using a brute force approach: Randomly select N numbers from a normal distribution. Check ...
4
votes
2answers
92 views

Fraction Problem. 3rd grader question got parents thinking

So our nine year old son comes home from 3rd grade and tells us an amazing thing happened in school today. He was playing a math game with his friend and they got the same score two times in a row! ...
4
votes
2answers
245 views

Distribution of $Y = \sin X$ when $X$ is normal?

Assume $X$ is Normally distributed : $X\sim N(\mu,\sigma)$ What is the distribution of $Y = \sin X$ ? I think we should start with $F_Y(y)=P(\sin X < y)$. But how to continue?
4
votes
2answers
92 views

Central Limit Theorem. How to apply to the task.

The research showed that the probabilities of 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 cars broken on one day are 0.3, 0.4, 0.2, 0.08, 0.02 respectively. If 221 car broke in 50 days, does it show that more cars break than ...
4
votes
1answer
4k views

How to check if my dataset is normally distributed?

I have data sets (measurements) and I need to know if values are normally distributed. I would like to get this information programmatically in my application and not via plotting and checking it ...
4
votes
2answers
321 views

Property of gaussian integrals

Apologies if this has been asked before... I came across the following relation: if $$P(x_2, t_2 \mid x_1, t_1) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi\sigma^2(t_2-t_1)}}e^{-\frac{(x_2-x_1)^2}{2\sigma^2(t_2-t_1)}}$$ ...
4
votes
1answer
255 views

Does the integral of PDF of multi-normal distribution over quarter planes have a closed form?

I am interested in finding a closed form solution (wich I suspect does not exist) to the following integral $$\displaystyle \int _a^{\infty }\int _b^{\infty } \frac{\exp \left(-\frac{x^2+y^2-2 c x ...
4
votes
3answers
253 views

Probability distribution function

I am trying to develop a function that will allow me to input a random number between 0 and 1 and receive a value. The idea is that the function has a range (for example, 0-100) with a median value of ...
4
votes
1answer
120 views

Convolute exponential with a gaussian

I have data measuring an exponential decay that is convoluted by a gaussian response function. I have the measured shape of the gaussian, and want an analytical expression for the exponential ...
4
votes
2answers
176 views

Minimizing the expectation over a set, wrt to the Gaussian measure

I have recently read a proof [1] where, at the last step, the authors use an inequality which basically amounts to a lower bound on $\int_\mathbb{R} \mathbf{1}_A(x)|x| \phi(x)dx$, where $\phi$ is the ...
4
votes
1answer
37 views

What is the PDF of the Square Length of a Normally-Generated Vector?

Consider a vector $\mathbf{x}\in\mathbb{R}^n$, where each element in $\mathbf{x}$ is sampled independently from a normal distribution $\mathcal{N}(0,\sigma^2)$. What is the probability density ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Distribution of the maximum of a multivariate normal random variable

Suppose there is a vector of jointly normally distributed random variables $X \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu_X, \Sigma_X)$. What is the distribution of the maximum among them? In other words, I am interested in ...
4
votes
1answer
236 views

Expected values for normal distribution

So I have a practice question on an example exam, and I am a bit stumped by it: Suppose that $X \sim N(1,2)$. Find: $$ E((X−1)^4) $$ and $$ E(X^4) $$ I am a bit confused as to how to proceed. Now, ...