Norm is a function on a vector space $X$ which generalizes notion of length of vector in general vector spaces.

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Norms of eigenvalues bigger than 1 implies $|Ax|>x$ for all nonzero $x$?

If all the eigenvalues of $A$ (an n by n real matrix) have norms bigger than 1, is it true that $|Ax|>|x|$ for all nonzero $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$? (This is clearly true if $x$ is an eigenvector ...
3
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1answer
87 views

Showing that the zero vector has norm zero

I need to show that this is a property of a norm. I know this is supposed to be straightforward but I am somehow not seeing it. The property is $$\lVert 0\rVert = 0$$ I was trying to use the fact ...
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248 views

Two proofs concerning Hölder's inequality

I am studying functional analysis and I have come across two statements which can be proven by using Hölder's inequality, but I don't know how/why. Reminder: let $a\in l^p$ and $b\in l^q$, then: $$ ...
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346 views

An inequality involving the norms of symmetric positive definite matrices

Given A and B two real symmetric positive definite matrices is it true that, for some norm $\|.\|$, this inequality holds $$ \|AB-I\| \leq \|A^2B^2-I\| \qquad ? $$
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475 views

The openness of the set of positive definite square matrices

Let $\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be the vector space of square matrices with real entries. For each $A\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ we consider the norms given by: $$ \displaystyle\|A\|_1=\max_{1\leq j\leq ...
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96 views

Bounding the $l_1$ norm of a vector

Let $x$ be real vector with $\|x\|_1=x_1+\ldots +x_{2n}$. How to bound from above $(x_1+\ldots+x_n)(x_{n+1}+\ldots+x_{2n})$ by $l_2$ norm of the vector $x$. Of course, using $\|x\|\leq\sqrt ...
3
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1answer
177 views

Proof that $\|\cdot\|_B$ defines a norm

Can you tell me whether my (partial) proof that $\|v\|_B := \inf \{\lambda > 0 \mid \frac{1}{\lambda} v \in B \}$ where $\varnothing \neq B \subset \mathbb R^d$ is open, bounded, $B = -B$ and ...
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62 views

Find a norm so that its closed unit ball is the area between $y=x^2-1$ and $y=1-x^2$

As the title specifies, I need to find an explicit formula for a norm $|||\cdot|||$ so that: $$B_{|||\cdot|||}=\{\mathbf{x} : ||| \mathbf{x}|||\le1 \}$$ where $\mathbf{x}=(x,y)\in\mathbb R^2$, is ...
3
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1answer
74 views

Taking the limit $\lim_{p\rightarrow \infty} \left( \frac{\|f\|_\infty}{\|f\|_p}\right)^p$

Taking the limit $$\lim_{p\rightarrow \infty} \left( \frac{\|f\|_\infty}{\|f\|_p}\right)^p$$ First I think the expression after taking the limit will depend on the function $f$. In my attempt, ...
3
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1answer
39 views

Definition of the norm of a bounded linear operator.

I have a somewhat basic but confusing question regarding the definition of the norm for bounded linear operator. Suppose $f$ is a bounded linear operator, that is, there exists $M>0$ such that ...
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301 views

Proof that the Euclidean norm is indeed a norm

I apologize beforehand for this question. Its embarrassing I know. Anyway, here we go. Recall: $$ \| x \|^2_{\mathbb{R}^2} = \sum^{n}_{i = 1} x^2_{i}$$ How do we prove its a norm? Well if its a ...
3
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86 views

Inequality between operator norm and Hilbert-Schmidt norm

I have seen the following inequality here but I don't know where I can find a proof for it. Could somebody give me a hint to understand it or guide me to a reference please? $\|AB\|_{HS} \leq ...
3
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1answer
391 views

Why is semi-norm special?

One difference between semi-norm and norm is: "It is possible for $\|v\| = 0$ for nonzero v, $\|\cdot\|$ being semi-norm" I see some papers, and they use semi-norm directly. Why is semi-norm ...
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204 views

Prove $|\det A| \leq \prod_{j=1}^n ||a_j||$

Let's say A is a square n by n matrix. ||$x$||=$x^T x$ and x is a real n-column norm. How would you show this? I tried to use the QR factorization here in showing that ||$a_j$||=||$r_j$||, but ...
3
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1answer
37 views

Spectral Norm of $2\times 2$ symmetric matrix

Consider a $2\times 2$ symmetric matrix, in this case, is there some closed formula for its spectral norm ? By spectral norm I mean the induced 2-norm, there is a definition here. Thanks.
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114 views

Question about sup norm

Let $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$. Define $|x| = \max\{ |x_1|,...,|x_n|\} $. I want to show that this is a norm on $R^n$. This is my reasoning. First, notice $$ |x| = \max\{ |x_i| \} \geq |x_i| \; \forall i ...
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1answer
307 views

Prove that the given distance function is a norm

Let the vector space $X=K^3$. For $x=(\alpha_{1}, \alpha_{2}, \alpha_{3}) \in X$, we define $||x||= [(|\alpha_{1}|^2+|\alpha_{2}|^3)^\frac{3}{2} + |\alpha_{3}|^3]^\frac{1}{3}$ Proof that $||·||$ is ...
3
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1answer
159 views

Strange mistake in this proof about normed separable vector spaces.

I am supposed to prove that an infinite-dimensionale separable normed space $X$ constains a countable subset $Y$ that is linearly independent and dense. There are three hints given: First, prove ...
3
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243 views

Norm of random vector plus constant

Suppose that $w$ is a multivariate standard normal vector and $c$ a real vector of the same size. I know that for positive x $$P(||w+c||^2\geq x)\ \geq \ P(||w||^2\geq x)$$ but I cannot prove it. We ...
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1answer
55 views

what is the limit of $l_p$ at p=0?

The p-norm is defined as: $$ \ \|x\|_p=\left(|x_1|^p+|x_2|^p+\dotsb+|x_n|^p\right)^{\frac{1}{p}} $$ When $p<1$, this is no longer a "norm" because it violates the triangle inequality (- it is ...
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1answer
292 views

Norm of a linear transformation

Let $T:\mathbb R^2\to \mathbb R^2$ be given by the matrix $\begin{pmatrix}a&b\\ c& d\end{pmatrix}$. Let $u:=a^2+b^2+c^2+d^2+2(ad-bc)$ and $v:=a^2+b^2+c^2+d^2-2(ad-bc)$. I need to show that ...
3
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193 views

Can the $0$-norm represent determinism?

In Scott Aaronson's Quantum Computing since Democritus, he presents classical probability theory as based on the $1$-norm, and QM as based on the $2$-norm. Call $\{v_1,\ldots,v_N\}$ a unit vector ...
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53 views

Do the pth powers of $p$-norms define the same partial ordering on the set of all probability distributions for all $p>1$?

Consider the $p$-th power of the Schatten $p$-norm $||q||_p$ of a probability distribution $q$ , ie, the function $\sum_j q_j^p$, where $\sum_j q_j = 1$ and $q_j \geq 0$. For fixed $q$ and $p>1$ ...
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1answer
131 views

Is this a matrix norm?

In wikipedia, the operator norm of a matrix is given by (assume: real, $n$-dimensional) $$ ||A||= \max \left\{ \frac{|Ax|}{|x|}:x \in \mathbb{R}^n, x\neq 0 \right\}$$ (I'm not sure why it is not a ...
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1answer
160 views

Operator norm and spectrum

Let $L$ be a bounded linear operator on a Hilbert space. Without assuming finite dimensions, can we express the operator norm of $L$ in terms of the spectrum of the positive operator $L^{\dagger}L$? ...
3
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1answer
493 views

Upper and lower bounds of a ratio involving vector norms

I'm working on a signal processing problem and need to analyze the following expression $$ G = \frac{n}{\sum\limits_{i=1}^n |w_i|} \frac{ \sum\limits_{i=1}^n g_i w_i^2}{\sum\limits_{i=1}^n g_i |w_i|} ...
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1answer
382 views

Matrix norm inequality implying eigenvector norm inequality

For a matrix $A$ let $\|A\|$ be the norm given by $\|A\|=\sup_{v \neq 0}\frac{\|Av\|}{\|v\|}$ where $\|v\|$ is the Euclidian norm on the vector $v$. Suppose we have matrices $M$ and $S$ with leading ...
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3k views

Gradient of squared Frobenius norm

I'd like to find the gradient of $\frac{1}{2} \big \| X A^T \big \|_F^2$ with respect to $X_{ij}$. Going by the chain rule in the Matrix Cookbook (eqn 126), it's something like $\partial \, ...
3
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1answer
141 views

Bizarre formula for arc length

I'm reading a book on computer science/math and I found this formula for arc lengths that I've not been able to decipher: $$\left|\int_p^q\left\| {df(x)\over dx} \right\| dx\right|$$ where $\lVert ...
3
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1answer
496 views

Is this a norm? (triangle inequality for weighted maximum norm)

I've been trying to prove that the following is a norm, but wasn't successful. I also cannot find a counterexample. So help is greatly appreciated. Let $x \in \mathbb{R}^N, \ w_i \in \mathbb{R}_+,\ ...
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1answer
922 views

Proof that every normed vector space is a topological vector space

The topology induced by the norm of a normed vector space is such that the space is a topological vector space. Can you tell me if my proof is correct? Of course we have to show that addition and ...
3
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131 views

How to prove that a unitary matrix with other conditions is diagonal?

Let $A$ be an $n$ by $n$ complex matrix. The singular value decomposition of $A$ gives: $A=U\Sigma V^*$, where $U$ and $V$ are unitary matrices, and $\Sigma$ is a diagonal matrix that contains the ...
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277 views

What is the norm of the operator $\phi: L^3[-2,2] \to \mathbb{C}$ defined by $ \phi(f)=\int_{0}^{1}e^xf(x-1)dx$?

I'm trying to figure out the norm $\|\phi\|$ of the functional $\phi: L^3[-2,2] \to \mathbb{C}$ defined by $$ \phi(f)=\int_{0}^{1}e^xf(x-1)\mathsf dx$$ but am struggling. I can't figure out how to ...
3
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1answer
63 views

proximal operator of weighted L1 norm

I hope to solve this problem. $$\min \quad \left\| CX \right\|_{1} $$ $$ \text{s.t.}\quad AX=b, X >0 $$ where $C \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times m}$, $X \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times n}$, $A \in ...
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1answer
26 views

Which subsets of a given real linear space $V$ are open unit balls with respect to some norm on the space?

Which subsets of a given real linear space $V$ are open unit balls with respect to some norm on the space? My textbook (Metric Spaces - Michael Searcoid) gives the following hints to answer the above ...
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1answer
18 views

orthogonality-like in vector normed space

Given a normed real vector space $V$, and a vector $x\ne 0$, there exists a vector $y\ne 0$ such that $\|x+y\|=\|x-y\|$? I know that it exists if the norm is induced by a scalar product (in ...
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1answer
71 views

How can I prove that $f$ is inner product function

We know the polarization identity in inner product space : $$\langle x,y\rangle= \frac{1}{4} (\|x+y\|^2-\|x-y\|^2) + \frac{i}{4} (\|x+iy\|^2-\|x-iy\|^2) $$ But the question is if we have ...
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1answer
25 views

Proving $||x||_{\infty}$ is a norm on $\mathbb{C}^n$

I'm trying to show that given $x,y \in \mathbb{C}^n$, the following holds $$ ||x + y||_{\infty} \leq ||x||_{\infty} + ||y||_{\infty} $$ Assume $x = a + ib, y = c + id, a,b,c,d \in \mathbb{R}$. $$ ...
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1answer
40 views

$x \in \mathbb R^d$, $B$(closed)$ \subseteq \mathbb R^d$. Where $\mathbb R^d$ is an inner product space. Proof help [duplicate]

$x \in \mathbb R^d$, $B$(closed)$ \subseteq \mathbb R^d$. Where $\mathbb R^d$ is an inner product space. Show that there exists a point $b_0 \in B$ such that $d(x,B) = \|x - b_0\|$ My attempt: ...
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1answer
94 views

Relation between Frobenius norm and eigenvalues

I'm considering a stochastic multivariate process, the stability of which implies that all eigenvalues $\lambda_i$, $i = \overline{1,n}$ of a certain square real-valued matrix $A$ lie within the ...
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1answer
44 views

involution on $\mathbb F_p((t))$

Recently I learned here interesting facts about $\mathbb F_p((t))$, the field of the formal Laurent series with coefficients in $\mathbb F_p$. I looked up quite a few papers on local fields but I ...
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1answer
46 views

Is it true that $\|\text{diag($\pi$)} P\|_2 \leq 1$ for $P$ stochastic and $\pi P = \pi$.

$\| \cdot \|_2 $ is the matrix norm induced by $L_2$. $P$ is any given real square $n \times n$ non-negative matrix with rows summing to one, i.e. $P1 = 1$, where $1$ is the vector of ones. There is ...
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1answer
74 views

Operator norm and Hilbert Schmidt norm

I'm looking for a proof of \begin{equation} ||T||\leq ||T||_{HS}, \end{equation} for which it is sufficient to show \begin{equation} ||Tx|| \leq ||x|| \cdot ||T||_{HS} \forall x\in H, x\not=0 ...
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43 views

Is the norm of the average $\le$ the norm of the max?

Given $\pmb X \in \mathcal{R}^p$, denote the elements of $\pmb X$ as $\pmb x_i$ for $i= 1, \dots, n$. Denote the $t(\pmb X)$ as the average of $\pmb X$ \begin{equation} \pmb t(\pmb X) = \frac 1 n ...
3
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1answer
71 views

Is taking the Euclidean norm of multiple Euclidean norms equivalent to taking the Frobenius norm?

I'm just a programmer venturing into the world of norms (is that even a thing?) here, and am wondering if two formulas are equivalent. Please forgive my ignorance! Suppose we have a $10\times3$ ...
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73 views

Asymptotics of Gelfand's formula

In the following paper, it is stated that for for any matrix norm, $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $A \in \mathbb{C}^{d \times d}$, the following holds: $\rho(A) \ge \gamma^{(1+\ln n)/n}\|A^{n}\|^{1/n}$ for ...
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328 views

continuity of norms with respect to $p$

Let $f\in L^{\infty}(\Omega,\Sigma,\mu)\cap L^{1}(\Omega,\Sigma,\mu)$. Then $w(p)=||f||_p$ is continuous function of $p$ for any $p\in [1,\infty)$. How to prove this? I have obtained the proof that ...
3
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1answer
356 views

Finding matrix norm equivalence constants

I've been given the following: "Find the best positive constants $\alpha$ and $\beta$ such that $\alpha\left\|A\right\|_2\leq\left\|A\right\|_1\leq\beta\left\|A\right\|_2$ for all ...
3
votes
1answer
122 views

What norm makes $C^\infty[a,b]$ a complete space?

I have been searching for some common norms used on vector spaces of functions but I am not having any luck finding what the most common norm is to use on $C^\infty[a,b]$ More specifically I would ...
3
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2answers
189 views

Geometric Mean limit of $\ell_p$ norm of sums

My analysis professor introduced the $\ell_p$ norm to our class as: \begin{align} \| x \|_p = \left(\frac{1}{n}\sum_{j=1}^{n} |x_j|^p\right)^{1/p}. \end{align} We are asked to prove the following: ...