Norm is a function on a vector space $X$ which generalizes notion of length of vector in general vector spaces.

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$x \in \mathbb R^d$, $B$(closed)$ \subseteq \mathbb R^d$. Where $\mathbb R^d$ is an inner product space. Proof help [duplicate]

$x \in \mathbb R^d$, $B$(closed)$ \subseteq \mathbb R^d$. Where $\mathbb R^d$ is an inner product space. Show that there exists a point $b_0 \in B$ such that $d(x,B) = \|x - b_0\|$ My attempt: ...
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64 views

Relation between Frobenius norm and eigenvalues

I'm considering a stochastic multivariate process, the stability of which implies that all eigenvalues $\lambda_i$, $i = \overline{1,n}$ of a certain square real-valued matrix $A$ lie within the ...
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37 views

involution on $\mathbb F_p((t))$

Recently I learned here interesting facts about $\mathbb F_p((t))$, the field of the formal Laurent series with coefficients in $\mathbb F_p$. I looked up quite a few papers on local fields but I ...
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Is it true that $\|\text{diag($\pi$)} P\|_2 \leq 1$ for $P$ stochastic and $\pi P = \pi$.

$\| \cdot \|_2 $ is the matrix norm induced by $L_2$. $P$ is any given real square $n \times n$ non-negative matrix with rows summing to one, i.e. $P1 = 1$, where $1$ is the vector of ones. There is ...
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53 views

Operator norm and Hilbert Schmidt norm

I'm looking for a proof of \begin{equation} ||T||\leq ||T||_{HS}, \end{equation} for which it is sufficient to show \begin{equation} ||Tx|| \leq ||x|| \cdot ||T||_{HS} \forall x\in H, x\not=0 ...
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42 views

Is the norm of the average $\le$ the norm of the max?

Given $\pmb X \in \mathcal{R}^p$, denote the elements of $\pmb X$ as $\pmb x_i$ for $i= 1, \dots, n$. Denote the $t(\pmb X)$ as the average of $\pmb X$ \begin{equation} \pmb t(\pmb X) = \frac 1 n ...
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58 views

Is taking the Euclidean norm of multiple Euclidean norms equivalent to taking the Frobenius norm?

I'm just a programmer venturing into the world of norms (is that even a thing?) here, and am wondering if two formulas are equivalent. Please forgive my ignorance! Suppose we have a $10\times3$ ...
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Asymptotics of Gelfand's formula

In the following paper, it is stated that for for any matrix norm, $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $A \in \mathbb{C}^{d \times d}$, the following holds: $\rho(A) \ge \gamma^{(1+\ln n)/n}\|A^{n}\|^{1/n}$ for ...
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258 views

continuity of norms with respect to $p$

Let $f\in L^{\infty}(\Omega,\Sigma,\mu)\cap L^{1}(\Omega,\Sigma,\mu)$. Then $w(p)=||f||_p$ is continuous function of $p$ for any $p\in [1,\infty)$. How to prove this? I have obtained the proof that ...
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What norm makes $C^\infty[a,b]$ a complete space?

I have been searching for some common norms used on vector spaces of functions but I am not having any luck finding what the most common norm is to use on $C^\infty[a,b]$ More specifically I would ...
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Geometric Mean limit of $\ell_p$ norm of sums

My analysis professor introduced the $\ell_p$ norm to our class as: \begin{align} \| x \|_p = \left(\frac{1}{n}\sum_{j=1}^{n} |x_j|^p\right)^{1/p}. \end{align} We are asked to prove the following: ...
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105 views

Show if $\|\cdot\|$ is a norm then $\|f(\cdot)\|$ is a norm where $f$ is linear and invertible

I want to show that if $\|\cdot\|$ is a norm then $\|f(\cdot)\|$ is a norm where $f$ is a linear and invertible function. First I need to show if $x\neq0$ then $\|f(x)\|>0$. Since $f$ is ...
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59 views

Need help to simplify an equation

I am computing an error estimate where at the end I got the following term $\|X_{k} - G\|\leq (q^{2^{k+2}} + q^{2^{k+3}}+ q^{2^{k+4}}....)q^{-3}\|Y_{0}\| + q^{2^{k+1}}.q^{-2}\|X_0\|$ , where $X_k$ ...
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92 views

About the convexity of Ky Fan's norm

As we know, the Ky Fan norm is convex, and so is the Ky Fan k-norm. My question is, does this imply that the difference between them is a non-convex function, since it results from "difference between ...
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501 views

How to show the unit ball of the dual norm is also polytope?

Assuming the norm's unit ball is a convex polytope. How can one show that the unit ball of the dual's norm is convex polytope and/or polytope ?
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Matrix proof using norms

I have a linear algebra question I need help with. Let $A$ be an $m\times m$ matrix with $\|A\|_2 < 1$ where $\|A\|_2$ is the $2$-norm of $A$. Show that $I - A$ is invertible where $I$ is the ...
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Proof of a norm

Prove that: $ \|\cdot\|_1:\mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R};\vec{x} \mapsto \sum_{j=1}^n |x_j| $ is a norm defined on the vector space $\mathbb{R}^n$. 1) Zero vector: $\sum_{j=1}^n |x_j| = |x|_1 ...
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475 views

Minimize distance between 2 functions

Just so you know, this is a homework question, and I basically need help with the steps to solve this problem. I understand what it's asking; however, my attempts haven't worked out, and I'm probably ...
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How can I prove that $f$ is inner product function

We know the polarization identity in inner product space : $$\langle x,y\rangle= \frac{1}{4} (\|x+y\|^2-\|x-y\|^2) + \frac{i}{4} (\|x+iy\|^2-\|x-iy\|^2) $$ But the question is if we have ...
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Prove that the norm in an inner product space is $ \ge 0$

Macdonald Linear and Geometric Algebra defines an Inner Product Space in the following way (pg 57): "An inner product space is a vector space with a product called an inner product. The inner product ...
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Norm of a functional given by difference of values

How to calculate the norm of such functional? $$\phi : \mathcal{C} ([0,1]) \ni f \rightarrow 3 f (\frac{1}{2}) - 5 f (\frac{2}{3}) \in \mathbb{K} (= \mathbb{R}, \mathbb{C})$$ If we equip ...
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Norm of an operator and eigenvalues

I have $K\colon L^2(0,T) \to L^2(0,T)$ a Hilbert-Schmidt integral operator (and so $K$ is linear, bounded, compact and self-adjoint) and I have obtained its eigenvalues and eigenvectors. From them, I ...
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102 views

$L^1$ norm of convolution

Let $f_{\lambda} = \frac{\lambda}{2}e^{-\lambda |x|}$. Prove that $||f_{\lambda} \ast g - g || \to 0$, when $\lambda \to \infty$, where $g \in L^1$
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Derivative of a matrix: Outer product chain rule

I ran into a seemingly simple matrix calculus question that I can't seem to find the solution to. Suppose I have the following matrices: $X_{(t \times n)}, V_{(n \times m)}$, and $\Phi_{(t\times m)} ...
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Inequality of Frobenius norm for skew matrices

Let $A$ be a complex skew-symmetric $n \times n$ matrix, that is, $A^T = -A$. Denote by $\|\cdot\|_F$ the Frobenius norm, that is, $\|B\|_F^2 = \text{trace}(B^*B)$. I would like to prove that $$ ...
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78 views

Hilbert-Schmidt norm/smooth manifolds

Given two riemannian manifolds $M$ and $N$ and a smooth map $f$ : $M$ $\rightarrow$ $N$, we define the energy density of $f$ as the smooth function $e(f)$ : $M$ $\rightarrow$ $\mathbb{R}$ given by ...
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240 views

Norm- Orthogonal Projection $A^{t}A=I_{n}$

Let $A_{m\times n}$ be a matrix such that $m\geq n$ and $A^{t}A=I_{n}$. It is given that the columns of $A$ are orthonormal. I need to show that the 2-norm of each row of $A$ is $\leq 1$. I have no ...
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evaluating norm of sum of roots of unity

let $l_1,...,l_n$ be roots of unity. I want to prove that the norm(the product of all conjugates)of $a=l_1+...+l_n$ is not greater than $n$, not smaller than $-n$. how can I do to prove this?
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Finding matrix norm equivalence constants

I've been given the following: "Find the best positive constants $\alpha$ and $\beta$ such that $\alpha\left\|A\right\|_2\leq\left\|A\right\|_1\leq\beta\left\|A\right\|_2$ for all ...
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201 views

Closed-form expressions for dual norms of real normed vector spaces

Say that $V$ is a finite-dimensional real normed vector space, where for some $v \in V$ the norm is notated by $\|v\|$. Then say that $V^*$ is the dual space of linear functionals on $V$. The "dual ...
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Prove an inequality.

Prove that $$\displaystyle{(|x_1+y_1|^p + |x_2+y_2|^p +\dots +|x_n+y_n|^p)^{\frac{1}{p}}\leq (|x_1|^p + |x_2|^p +\dots +|x_n|^p)^{\frac{1}{p}}+(|y_1|^p + |y_2|^p +\dots +|y_n|^p)^{\frac{1}{p}}}$$ for ...
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396 views

Finding operator norm

I have to solve the following problem: Find a norm of operator $$A:L^2[-\pi,\pi]\rightarrow L^2[-\pi,\pi]$$ given with $$Af(x)=\int_{-\pi}^{\pi} \cos^2{\left(\frac{x-t}{2}\right)}f(t) \,dt.$$ I ...
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bound on $l_2$ error in approximating a vector with its $t$-sparse representation

How do I prove that for any vector $y\in \mathbb{R}^n$, and any positive integer $t$, \begin{equation} ||y-y_t||_2\:\leq\: \frac{1}{2\sqrt{t}}||y||_1 \end{equation} where $y_t\in\mathbb{R}^n$ is the ...
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How to show that $\left \| AB \right \|_F \leq \min (\left \| A \right \|_F \left \| B \right \|_2 , \left \| A \right \|_2 \left \| B \right \|_F)$?

For any matrices $A \in \mathbb{C}^{m \times k}$ and $B \in \mathbb{C}^{k \times n}$, show that $\left \| AB \right \|_F \leq \min (\left \| A \right \|_F \left \| B \right \|_2 , \left \| A \right ...
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179 views

Norm of operator $g\mapsto \int fg$

Let $T_f:(C([a,b],\mathbb C), \lVert \cdot \rVert_1) \to \mathbb C$ with $g\mapsto \int_a^b f(x)g(x) dx$ for any given $f\in C([a,b],\mathbb C)$. I have to find the norm of $T_f$. I started with: ...
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279 views

Norm with special conditions

Let $N$ be a norm on $\mathbb R^2$, such that $N ( \mathbb Z^2) \subset \mathbb N $, where $\mathbb Z^2 =\{ (a,b)\mid a\mbox{ and }b \mbox{ are integers}\}$. Help me to prove that for $u$, $v$ fixed ...
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Find all $ p \ge 1 $ for which the Hölder norm $\|\cdot\|_p $ is generated by a scalar product.

Find all $ p \ge 1 $for which the Hölder norm $$ \|x\|_p := \left(\sum^{n}_{i=1} |x_i|^p\right)^{\frac{1}{p}} $$ is generated by a scalar product. We know that norm is generated by a scalar product ...
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Inequivalent norms (given by different inner products) on infinite dimensional Hilbert space.

I have this question in reviewing for my exam. Let $H$ be an infinite dimensional Hilbert space. Write down an inner product on $H$ that gives a norm inequivalent with the original norm. Is $H$ ...
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Do these limits commute?

Given a sequence of functions $f_{n,m}:\mathbb{R}^{n} \to \mathbb{R}$, suppose that $$\displaystyle lim_{m} f_{n,m}(x)$$ exists almost everywhere (for any fixed n) and also suppose that ...
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Are isometries always linear?

Let $E$ be a finite dimensional vector space (over a field of characteristic zero) and $f : E \rightarrow E$ be an isometry fixing 0. Must $f$ be linear in this case ? Note : I am NOT assuming that ...
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Norms on $\mathbb{Q}$

So with respect to the metric $d(x,y)=|x-y|$ induced by the standard absolute value, the real numbers can be constructed as a completion of $\mathbb{Q}$. With respect to the metric $d_p(x,y)=|x-y|_p$ ...
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Two norms $\|\cdot\|_a$ and $\|\cdot\|_b$ on $X$, and a function $f:X\to Y$ Fréchet differentiable with one of the norms but not with the other one?

There is a theorem that if $f : (X,\|\cdot\|_{X1}) \to (Y,\|\cdot\|_{Y1}) $ is Fréchet differentiable, then replacing the norms with some equivalent norms $\|\cdot\|_{X2}$ and $\|\cdot\|_{Y2}$ ...
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Proving norm equivalence in $W^{1-1/p,p}(\Omega)$

Define for $p\in [1,\infty)$ and $\Omega=(0,1)^N\subset\mathbb{R}^N$ $$W^{1-1/p,p}(\Omega)=\left\{u\in L^p(\Omega): \ \int_\Omega\int_\Omega\frac{|u(x)-u(y)|^p}{|x-y|^{N-1+p}}dxdy<\infty\right\}$$ ...
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Prove this equality in a Hilbert Space $H$ with Riesz's Representation Theorem.

For $x \in H$, prove that $\sup_{\|z\| = 1} \langle x , z \rangle= \| x \|$ Here is a quick one. If someone could improve this it would be great Proof By Cauchy Schwarz, $\langle x,z \rangle ...
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The norm of an operator

Let $\rho(x)$ be a weight function in a unit sphere, such that \begin{equation} \begin{array}{l} \displaystyle 1. \rho(x)\ge 0,\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}\rho(x)=1\\ \displaystyle 2. \rho(x)\in ...
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Exercise from textbook about norm

The below diagram included a relevant page and the question 4 of the exercise which i am not sure how to do. Any hint or solution are welcome Attempts: a) I have done it b) i have tried to show ...
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Is $\rho(f) := \mu(|f| \geq \epsilon), \epsilon >0$ some kind of generalized norm?

Let $\rho(f) := \mu(|f| \geq \epsilon)$ where $\epsilon >0$ is a constant and $\mu$ is a measure and $f$ is a measurable function. Then $f\equiv 0 \rightarrow \rho(f) = 0$ when $|a| \neq 0$, ...
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116 views

Confusion about matrix norms

Reading the wiki article I get confused about matrix norms. My question, is it true that $$\lVert Mx \rVert \leq C(\sup_{ij}{M_{ij}}) \lVert x \rVert$$ where $M$ is a matrix and $x$ is a vector and ...
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270 views

Minimizing maximum absolute column sum norm of the residual between a matrix and its $k$-rank approximation

Let $X \in \mathbb{R}^{m\times n}$ be a matrix with rank $r$. How can we find the optimal $\tilde{X} \in \mathbb{R}^{m\times n}$ whose rank is $k$ where $k\leq r$ and the reconstruction error in ...
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495 views

How to prove $\lvert \lVert x \rVert - \lVert y \rVert \rvert \overset{\heartsuit}{\leq} \lVert x-y \rVert$?

I'm trying to show that $\lvert \lVert x \rVert - \lVert y \rVert \rvert \overset{\heartsuit}{\leq} \lVert x-y \rVert$. A hint would be nice.