Norm is a function on a vector space $X$ which generalizes notion of length of vector in general vector spaces.

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Norms and equivalence classes question

Let $f\in C[0,1]$. Recall two of the norms we considered in class: $$\|f\|_\infty = \sup_{t\in[0,1]}|f(t)|, \quad \|f\|_1 = \int_0^1|f(t)|\ \mathsf dt. $$ Consider the space $C^1([0,1])$ of ...
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What is the meaning of $||x||=\sqrt{\langle x,x\rangle}$

I understand that a norm assigns a length to each vector in a vector space. I have been told that $$||x||=\sqrt{\langle x,x\rangle}$$ is a norm. So does this equation find the length of vector $x$, ...
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80 views

Derive the dual function $g(\lambda, \nu)$ for the least-norm problem

I am trying to find the dual function $g(\lambda, \nu)$ to this problem $$\min\limits_{Ax = b} \|x\|$$ Step 1. Form the Lagrangian $$L(x, \lambda, \nu) = \|x\| + \nu^T(Ax-b) = \|x\| + \nu^TAx - \...
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Why is $\max_{1≤i≤m,1≤j≤n}|a_{i,j}|≤||A||_{op}$

Why is $$\max_{1≤i≤m,1≤j≤n}|a_{i,j}|≤||A||_{op}$$ where $$||A||_{op}=\sup\{||Ax||\space |\space x\in\mathbb{R^n}, ||x||=1\}\space\space\text{(operator norm)}$$ ?
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82 views

soft thresholding derivation with two terms

I am trying to minimize the following function $$argmin_x||x-y||^2_2 + ||x-z||_2^2 + \lambda || \frac{x- w}{c}||_1$$ I have been doing it for while but i am not sure how to do it. I have already been ...
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41 views

How can I show that this matrix exponential has norm strictly less than one?

Let $t,\sigma,R \in \mathbb{R^+}$. Let $$ \mathrm{A} = \left\lbrack\begin{array}{cc}0 & -\sigma\\ \sigma &-R \end{array} \right\rbrack$$ want to show that the induced $\mathcal{l}_2$ norm of ...
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42 views

uniform continuity with respect to the max norm

Let $\mathbb{R}^2$ be equipped with the norm \begin{align*} \|x\|=\max\{|x_1|,|x_2|\},\quad x=(x_1,x_2)\in\mathbb{R}^2 \end{align*} Let $A:\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}$ be given by $A(x_1,x_2)=|...
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39 views

Expressing continuity in terms of seminorms

Let $X$ and $Y$ be locally-convex topological vector spaces, with topologies given by families of seminorms $(p_i) _{i \in I}$ and $(q_j) _{j \in J}$, respectively. If $L : X \to Y$ is a continuous ...
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176 views

What is a norm topology in functional analysis?

I am currently reading up about norm topology, I have a background in functional analysis but I do not know anything about topology, aside from that topology is a collection of open sets with some ...
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Equivalence of norms problem.

How would I show that $\|\cdot\|_3$ and $\|\cdot\|_\infty$ are equivalent norms on $\mathbb R^2$? I understand that to say two norms are equivalent, then there exist two real constants, $m,M$ such ...
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31 views

Disk in $\mathbb R^2$ with uniform norm

I am having a trouble understanding a definition. The points are in $\mathbb R^2$, and the author defines $\delta(p, r)$ to be an $l_\infty$ disk of radius $r$ centred at $p$. I just learned what the ...
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67 views

In $\mathbb{R}^{n}$ the norms induced by inner products are equivalent.

I need your help to proceed in proving this theorem: Let $\;\left\|\cdot\right\|_1\;$ and $\;\left\|\cdot\right\|_2\;$ be norms on $\mathbb{R}^{n}$ induced by inner products. Then they are equivalent....
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179 views

Vector norm - Understanding it's geometric meaning in regard to the Euclidean norm

I am trying to understand the vector norm. I have a few subquestions to the primary question here, what is the vector norm? 1. Firstly, lets take the Euclidean norm. Is then $\|x\|=d(x,0)$, where ...
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135 views

Condition numbers and block matrices

Assume that $\kappa([A, B])$ is the condition number of a block matrix $[A, B]$. Given that, we also know, $$\kappa(C) < \kappa(A)$$ I am curious whether if the following assertion is true or when ...
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50 views

spectral radius

Does the spectral radius of a matrix defines a norm? I mean does it satisfy the properties of norm, ie. $$||x|| \ge 0$$ $$||x|| = 0 \implies x=0$$ $$||kx|| = |k|\;||x||$$ $$||x+y||\le ||x||+||y||$$
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122 views

Continuity of norm. Need to understand how and why

$f:X \to \mathbb R \ \ \ , \ f(x)=\| x\|.$ Prove that $f$ is continuous. I have this definition of continuity in metric spaces: Let $(X, d_x)$ and $(Y,d_y)$ be metric spaces. $$f\in C(a) \text{...
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161 views

Does spectral norm of a square matrix equal to its largest eigenvalue in absolute value?

I have one simple question. Given the spectral norm $\left \| . \right \| _2$ of a matrix $A$, which is equal to the squareroot of the largest eigenvalue of $A^{^*}A$ $$\left \| A \right \| _2=\sqrt{\...
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69 views

Spectral radius and matrix norm inequality as its consequence

I am trying to undestand a proof and there is one part that's holding me back. By assumption we have that spectral radius $\rho(A) < 1$. Hence, following inequality should hold $$\|A^k\| < C \...
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61 views

does $\|A\| > \|B\|$, $A$ and $B$ matrices, imply that $\|Ax\| >\|Bx\|$ for all $x$ in some vector space?

I'm wondering if I can prove the first inequality in a question that I am working on, does that make the second inequality automatic? Thanks,
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260 views

Does weak convergence in $W^{1,p}$ imply strong convergence in $L^q$?

Does weak convergence in $W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ imply strong convergence in $L^q(\Omega)$ when $\Omega$ is bounded? If $f_j$ converges weakly to $f$ in $W^{1,p}$, what can we say about the $L^q$ ...
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43 views

Subset of the sequence space that's closed and bounded but not compact

Consider the sequences space $l^1 = \{a = (a_n)_{n \in \mathbb{N}_0} \subset \mathbb{C}, \sum_{n = 0}^\infty|a_n|< \infty\}$ with the norm $||a||_1 = \sum_{n = 0}^\infty|a_n|$. I want to show that ...
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202 views

Continuity of metric function

Let $X$ is a vector space and $d$ is a metric function on $X$ and $\|\cdot\|$ is a norm on $X$ and $\langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle$ is an inner product function on $X$ It is to easy to prove $\|\cdot\|$ ...
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37 views

When does the $L_1$ convergence imply almost everywhere convergence?

I know that $L_1$ convergence implies existence of an almost everywhere converging subsequence. But I was wondering, can you tell me some extra conditions on functions that make $L_1$ convergence ...
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121 views

Supremum vs. Maximum in the definition of the Lp norm [duplicate]

The $L_p$ norm $||A||_p$ is defined as $$\sup_{x \neq 0} \frac{||Ax||_p}{||x||_p} = \max_{||x||_p = 1} ||Ax||_p \tag{1}$$ I'm not quite getting why the LHS uses $\sup$ but the RHS uses $\max$. I ...
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93 views

find linear functional norm

$C[-1,1] $ above $$ f(x)=\int_{-1}^{0}x(t)dt-\int_{0}^{1}x(t)dt$$ What is norm of the f linear fucntional? I tried to solve using definition of norm but I couldn't find result. Please can you give ...
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30 views

An infinite number of solutions available to the sparse representation problem

I would like to analyze the following problem (different cases leads to which solutions to the problem and such): $$||y-Dx||_2 \leq \epsilon$$ (an overcomplete dictionary matrix $D \in \mathbb{R}^{n ...
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30 views

Is it true that $|a_i| \leq |b_i|$ implies $ \|\Psi a \|_\infty \leq \|\Psi b \|_\infty$ for elementwise nonnegative $\Psi$s?

Denote by $\Psi \in \mathcal{P}$ the property that $\Psi$ has non-negative entries and independent columns. Does the following property hold for $a,b \in \mathbb{R}^n$. $(\forall i. |a_i| \leq |b_i|)...
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150 views

Does isomorphism between normed space implies equivalence of norm?

Let $E$ be a vector space, $\|\cdot\|_1,\|\cdot\|_2$ be two norms on $E$, if $T:(E,\|\cdot\|_1)\to (E,\|\cdot\|_2)$ be an isomorphism (linear bijection, $T,T^{-1}$ are bouned), then does this imply ...
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How to prove that 2-norm of matrix A is <= infinite norm of matrix A

Now a bit of a disclaimer, its been two years since I last took a math class, so I have little to no memory of how to construct or go about formulating proofs. My tutor unfortunately is very and ...
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2k views

How to prove that the infinity norm of a matrix is the max of row sum?

I know how to prove that the 1-norm of a matrix is the max of the column sum, but not sure how to prove that the inf-norm is the max of the row sum. Any suggestion? Thanks
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Showing coercivity of a function

I am well attuned to the definition for a function to be coerce, which is that $\lim_{\|x\| \to \infty}f(x) = \infty$ ie the values of $f$ go to infinity as the norm goes to infinity. So Ex.1 $f(...
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100 views

Question about a proof in Rudin's book - annihilators

I'm reading the proof of the following theorem in Rudin's "Functional Analysis": Let $M$ be a closed subspace of a Banach space $X$. The Hahn-Banach theorem extends each $m^* \in M^*$ to a ...
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value of the norm of the trace mapping

1) What is the exact value of the norm of the trace mapping ${\rm tr} \colon M_n \to \mathbb{C}$ where we equip $M_n$ with the operator norm $\|A\| = \sup\{\|Ax\| : x\in \ell^2_n \mbox{ with }\|x\|= 1\...
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54 views

Prove $\|\cdot\|_s$ is a norm, and find $m,M>0$ such that $m\|x\|_\infty\leq \|x\|_s\leq M\|x\|_\infty$

Here is my question - Let $\|\cdot\|_s:\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}^2$ be defined by: $$\|(x_1,x_2)\|_s=\left\{ \begin{array}{l l} \|(x_1,x_2)\|_2 & \quad \text{$x_1x_2\geq 0$}\\ \|(x_1,...
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$p$-norm on $\mathbb{R}^n$ question

How I can show that $$\lim_{p \to \infty} \|x\|_{p} = \max\{|x_1|, \; |x_2|, \; \cdot ,\; |x_n|\}$$ if $\mathbb{R}^n$ has the p-norm? $p > 1$ of course. Has anyone done this or know how to? I'm ...
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309 views

Norm of the Linear (Integral) Operator on $C[0,1]$

There may be some similar questions being asked but I didn't see anything that was quite what I was looking for so I'll ask the question here. Let $X = (C[0,1],||.||_{\max})$ and $T:X \to X = \int^{t}...
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29 views

Help proof regarding sequence in subset of Hilbert space

I'm to prove the following: Let $H$ be a Hilbert space, and let $M$ be a non-empty convex subset of $H$. Suppose that $(x_n)$ is a sequence in $M$ such that $ ||x_n|| \to d$, where $d= \inf \{||x||:...
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Show that $\infty$-norm and $C^1$-norm are not equivalent.

Show that $\infty$-norm and $C^1$-norm are not equivalent. For the $C^1([a,b],\mathbb{R})$ space, show that $\displaystyle ||g||_\infty=sup_{a\leq t\leq b}|g(t)|$ and $\displaystyle ||g||_{C^1}=...
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Bounding Sobolev Norms *Below*

Firstly, apologies if this is a duplicate question - I've looked, but can't find this question on SE (or elsewhere online); if it is, please let me know and I'll remove it. I am trying to bound the ...
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57 views

Matrix one-norm and infinity-norm

Help me please to find $3\times 3$ matrices $A$ and $B$ under following conditions: $\left \| A \right \|_{\infty }=4\left \| A \right \|_{1}, A \neq 0$ $\left \| B \right \|_{1}=4\left \| B \right \|...
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85 views

Show that $\limsup_{n\rightarrow\infty} \|x_n\|^{\frac{1}{n}}=1$

Let $(x_n)$ be weakly convergent, but not norm convergent, sequence from a Banach space. Show that $\limsup_{n\rightarrow\infty} \|x_n\|^{\frac{1}{n}}=1$. Any help?
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Norm of the functional $f(x)=\int_0^2 x(t).(t^2-1)dt$ in the space $X=L_1(0,2)$.

I am trying to calculate the norm of the functional $f(x)=\int_0^2 x(t).(t^2-1)dt$ in the space $X=L_1(0,2)$. What we have is: $||f(x)||\le ||x||_1.||t^2-1||_{\infty}$ by extended Hölder's inequality....
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53 views

Question on the norms

I got stuck with the following (simple) question since the result I got seems to be counterintuitive: I have a function defined in terms of its Chebyshev expansion, i.e. $\psi(x)=\sum_{i}a_{i}T_{i}(...
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126 views

Immediate consequence of the definition of Operator Norm. Explain

||Av|| $\leq$ ||A||$_{op}$||v|| for every v $\in$ V I was wondering why this is true. Wikipedia says it's an immediate consequence of the definition but I just do not follow. I am using the ...
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27 views

How to prove this inequality for operator and function

How to prove this? $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}|(Tf)_k|^2\leq ||T||^2||f||^2$ where $T$ is an operator and a function $f$. $(Tf)_k$ is the $k$-th coordinate of Tf. Should this involve Cauchy-Schwarz or the ...
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157 views

Prove triangle inequality of vector norm

I am trying to show that $||x+y||_p \leq ||x||_p + ||y||_p$ where $p$ is an integer larger than 1, but not infinity (I proved those cases already), and $||x||_p = (\sum_{i=1}^n |x_i|^p)^{\frac{1}{p}}$ ...
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569 views

What minimizes the Chebyshev Distance?

For an arbitrary number of dimensions, I know that the mean minimizes the distance using the L2 norm and that the geometric median minimizes the distance function using the L1 norm (though I have yet ...
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44 views

An equation related to covariance matrix, square root of the matrix, and Euclidean norm.

How can I prove this equation: $${ ({ x }^{ T }\Sigma x) }^{ 1/2 }={ \left\| { \Sigma }^{ 1/2 }x \right\| }_{ 2 }$$ In which $\Sigma $ is a covariance matrix. I tried some numerical examples in ...
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97 views

How to calculate the norm?

We have the vector : $$ w=(1,3,5,1,3,5,\ldots,1,3) \in \mathbb{R}^{3k-1}, $$ and we want to calculate its norm $\|w\|$. Now I would like to know how the norm $\|w\|$ can be calculated.
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110 views

An inequality on matrix norm

Does inequality $\|A\|_2\leq \| |A|_m \|_2 $ hold for all square matrices $A$ ? Where $|A|_m$ is also a square matrix, defined as $|A|_m := [|a_i,j|]$. Two examples are provided for the case that ...