# Tagged Questions

Norm is a function on a vector space $X$ which generalizes notion of length of vector in general vector spaces.

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### Positivity of a function in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$

We place ourself in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$. We consider a given increasing function g : \begin{aligned} &\mathbb{R}^{+} \to \mathbb{R} \\ &x \;\;\,\mapsto g(x) \end{aligned} Finally, we ...
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### Computing an induced matrix norm

Assume I have a $n \times n$ matrix and a norm defined as $\|A\| = \max \limits_{x \not = 0}\frac{\|Ax\|}{\|x\|}$, where $\|x\| = \sqrt{\sum x_i^2}$. How can I compute this norm?
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### Vector norms on $\Bbb R^n$

Let $u=(u_1,u_2,\ldots,u_n)$ and $v=(v_1,v_2,\ldots,v_n)$ be two vectors in $\Bbb R^n$. Suppose $\left|v_i\right|>|u_i|$ for all $i$. Let $\| \cdot\|$ be any vector norm on $\Bbb R^n$. Is it true ...
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### 2-norm vs operator norm

I have read that we define the "2-norm" of a matrix as $$\max_i \,{|\sigma_i|},$$ which I have also heard called the "operator norm" (here $\sigma_i$ are the singular values). Also we have the ...
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### Zero “norm” properties

I have seen the claim that the l0-norm ($\|X\|_0$ = support(X)) is a pseudo-norm because it does not satisfy all properties of a norm. I thought it to be triangle inequality, but am not able to show ...
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### Are the norms $\|\cdot\|_1$ and $\|\cdot\|$ equivalent?

Let $\|x\|_1=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}|x_n|$ is a norm for $\ell^1$, suppose $x=\{x_n\}\in\ell^1$ and $\|x\|=\sup|\sum_{k=1}^{n}x_k|$. Are the norms $\|\cdot\|_1$ and $\|\cdot\|$ equivalent?
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### How to show that $\|T\|^2=\|T^*T\|$ for a bounded linear operator $T$?

I need to show that for a bounded linear operator, $T$, on a Hilbert space: \begin{align*} \|T\|^2=\|T^*T\| \end{align*} All I have so far: \begin{align*} \|T^*T\|&=\sup\{|\langle T^*Tf,g \rangle ...
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### Does $\|z\|=(\sqrt{|x|}+\sqrt{|y|})^{\frac{1}{2}}$ define a norm on $\mathbb R^2$

Does $\| z\|=(\sqrt{|x|}+\sqrt{|y|})^{\frac{1}{2}}$, with $z=(x,y)\in\mathbb R^2$, define a norm on $\mathbb R^2$?
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### Prove $\| \cdot \|_{\infty}$ is well-defined on $\ell ^1$

$1 \leq p < q \leq \infty$ $p=1$ and $q= \infty$ Let $(a_k)_{k \geq 1} \in \ell^1$, then $$\sum_{k \geq 1}|a_k|^1< \infty$$ (*) which means $\sup_{k \geq 1 } |a_k|^1 < \infty$. Hence it is ...
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### Sequence of partial sums converge

Let $(X,\|.\|)$ be a Banach space and a sequence $(x_n) \subseteq X$ be such that the series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \|x_n\|$ converges in $\mathbb R$. Prove that the sequence $S_n=x_1+...+x_n$ converges ...
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### Proving these norms are not equivalent

$X$ is the vector space containting all polynomials with real coefficients. For every $P \in X$, define $N_1(P)= \sup _ {t \in [0,1]} |P(t)|$ and $N(P)=N_1(P)+|P'(1)|$. Prove that $N$ is not ...
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### Are some of the axioms of a norm of a vector space unnecessary?

I have a homework problem where my task is to find out if some of the axioms of a norm of a vector space are unnecessary, meaning they can be derived from other axioms (I presume from the problem ...
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### Two (equivalent ?) norms on Hilbert space

Let $H$ be a vector space equipped with two inner products $\langle \cdot,\cdot\rangle_1, \ \langle \cdot,\cdot\rangle_2$, s.th. $(H,\langle \cdot,\cdot\rangle_j)$ is a Hilbert space for $j=1,2$. ...
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### Prove that $\| A \| = \lvert y \rvert$

For all $A \in L(\Bbb R^n, \Bbb R)$ there is a unique $y \in \Bbb R^n$ such that $A\textbf{x} = \textbf{x} \cdot \textbf{y}$. Prove that $\| A \| = \lvert \textbf{y} \rvert$. Hint: Cauchy-Schwarz ...
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### $A$ is normal, and $B$ is Hermitian, why does $\left\| \rm{AB} \right\|{\rm{ = }}\left\| \rm{BA} \right\|$?

Let $\left\| . \right\|$ be a unitarily invariant norm on $M_n$. If $A, B ∈ M_n$, $A$ is normal, and $B$ is Hermitian, why does $\left\| \rm{AB} \right\|{\rm{ = }}\left\| \rm{BA} \right\|$?
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### $|x+y|=|y+x|$ in a normed group

A normed group $(X,+,|\cdot|)$ is a set $X$ equipped with a group operation $+$ and a function $|\cdot|:X\to\Bbb R$ called a norm such that $|x|=0\iff x=0$ $|x-y|\le|x|+|y|$. From these ...
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### Vector norm inequality [duplicate]

Is it true that for vectors $x$ and $y$ in $\mathbb R^n$ $|\Vert x\Vert -\Vert y\Vert| \ge \Vert x-y\Vert$? Can I simply use the triangle inequality $\Vert x\Vert +\Vert y\Vert \ge \Vert x+y\Vert$ ...
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### If $||A^N|| < 1$ then is ||A||<1?

following a previous question in functional analysis I asked Let $X$ be a banach space and $A$ is a bounded linear operator on $X$, and there exists some natural $N$ for which $||A^N|| < 1$. ...
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### Can someone explain why $\| \cdot \|_p, p = \frac{1}{2}$ isn't a norm?

$\| \cdot \|_p, p = \frac{1}{2}$ or "half norm" is not a norm What is a quick way to verify that it is indeed not a norm?
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### Proving $\lVert x \rVert_3$ is smaller than euclidean norm

Is there a simple way to show that $\lVert x \rVert_3\leqslant \lVert x \rVert_2$ for vectors in $\mathbb{R}^2$? I've used the result in another problem but can't figure out where to get it from.
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### Proving an induced operator norm equality:

The induced matrix norm is defined by $$||A|| = \sup_{x \ne 0} \frac {||Ax||}{||x||}$$ Show that $$||A|| = \sup_{||x||=1} ||Ax||$$ A is only assumed to be square -- not anything more, e.g., not ...
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### Why is the Euclidian norm used to measure complex numbers?

Why is the Euclidian norm used to measure complex numbers? The complex numbers are numbers (or more precisely, pairs of numbers), and I can't see why are they essentially connected to the Euclidian ...
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### Show that the dual norm of spectral norm is Nuclear norm.

Could someone help to understand that the dual norm of spectral norm is Nuclear Norm ? We can focus on the real field. Given a matrix $X \in \mathbb{R}^{mn},$ then the spectral norm is defined by: ...
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### How do I find the norm of a matrix?

I have the following matrix below and I would like to find the norm of the matrix. I learned that the norm of a matrix is the square root of the maximum eigenvalue multiplied by the transpose of the ...
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### A condition equivalent to orthogonality

Prove that in any inner product space: $x$ and $y$ are orthogonal if and only if $||x+\alpha y||\ge ||x||$ for every scalar $\alpha$.
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### Verifying that the Sobolev space is a Banach Space

In PDE Evans 2nd edition (pages 262-263), I am trying to understand a proof of a theorem, which states: THEOREM 2 (Sobolev spaces as function spaces). For each $k=1,\ldots$ and $1\le p\le\infty$, ...
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