Norm is a function on a vector space $X$ which generalizes notion of length of vector in general vector spaces.

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How to define and compute the norm of a vector with riemannian metric?

Let us consider for example, the riemannian metric $g=e^xdx^2+dy^2$ (it is symmetric and definite positive), with associated matrix $\begin{pmatrix} e^x & 0\\ 0 & 1 \end{pmatrix}$. Consider ...
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26 views

Proving Holder's inequality for Schatten norms

Sticking to the finite dimensional case, Holder's inequality for Schatten norms is given by $$\left\|AB\right\|_{S^1}\leq\left\|A\right\|_{S^p}\left\|B\right\|_{S^q}$$ for $A,B$ $n\times n$ ...
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24 views

Proving a norm is lipschitz

Let $M\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$. Define the function $f\colon\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}$ by $f(x)=\Vert Mx\Vert$. Show that $f$ is Lipschitz. Let $x,y\in\mathbb{R}^n$, then we want to find a ...
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28 views

Differentiability of norm

Is a norm from any normed space $\mathbb{A}$ to $\mathbb{R}$ Frechet differentiable at zero? I've tried proving by contradiction that the norm is not Frechet differentiable at zero, but didn't get ...
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24 views

If $ 0<A <B$, is it true that $||A||_p < ||B||_p$ for all $p$ positive integer?

I have got some questions regarding matrix norms and inequalities. We only consider square, nonsingular matrices in the following. If $ 0<A <B$, is it true that $||A||_p < ||B||_p$ for all ...
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37 views

Derivative of $l_1$ norm

I want to compute the following derivative with respect to $n\times1$ vector $\mathbf x$. $$g = \left\lVert \mathbf x - A \mathbf x \right\rVert_1 $$ My work: $$g = \left\lVert \mathbf x - A ...
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1answer
41 views

Not all norms are equivalent in an infinite-dimensional space

How to prove that not all norms are equivalent in an infinite-dimensional vector space? In particular, I would like to prove that for a space $X$ of continuous real-valued functions defined on ...
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33 views

Comparing matrix norm with the norm of the inverse matrix

I need help understanding and solving this problem. Prove or give a counterexample: If $A$ is a nonsingular matrix, then $\|A^{-1}\| = \|A\|^{-1}$ Is this just asking me to get the magnitude of ...
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11 views

Norm and Inner Product Inequality in Hilbert spaces

Let $H$ be a Hilbert space, and suppose that $C \subset H$ is closed, convex and nonempty. Then, for $y_{j}=P_{C}(x_{j})$, $j=1,2$ where $P_{C}$ is the metric projection onto $C$ and $x_{1},x_{2} \in ...
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18 views

Proving that a set infers a norm given certain conditions

Let $\bar{B}$ be a set in a vector space $E$. Then $\bar{B}$ is the closed unitary ball for a norm iff $\mathbb{N} . \bar{B} = E$ $\lambda x + (1-\lambda)y \in \bar{B}$ for all $x \, ,y \, \in ...
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38 views

Norm of an operator on space of real polynomials

Let $L:\mathbb{R}[X]\rightarrow\mathbb{R}[X]$ be an operator given by the following formula $L\left(\sum\limits_n a_nX^n\right)=\sum\limits_n a_{2n}X^{2n}$. We assume that on $\mathbb{R}[X]$ we have ...
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19 views

Frobenius norm and submultiplicativity

I read (page 8 here) that if $A$ and $B$ are rectangular matrices so that the product $AB$ is defined, then $$(1)\quad||AB||_F^2\leq ||A||_F^2||B||_F^2$$ Does that mean that the inequality above ...
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25 views

About the definition of $L^{\infty}$ norm

Let $\Omega$ a limited domain in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$, the space $L^{\infty}(\Omega)=\{f: \Omega\to\mathbb{R} $ measurable $; ||f||_{L^{\infty}(\Omega)}<\infty\}$. Then if a function $f \in ...
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36 views

Prove norm inequality

It is given that $$\left\lVert x-y\right\rVert =\left\lVert y-z\right\rVert = \left\lVert z-x\right\rVert \qquad (1) $$ where $x,y,z \in \Bbb R^2$ and $ \left\lVert x\right\rVert=\sqrt ...
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22 views

Inequality in Banach space [duplicate]

So I have to either prove or disprove this inequality: $$ \left\lVert x\right\rVert^2 - \left\lVert y\right\rVert^2 \le \left\lVert x-y\right\rVert \left\lVert x+y\right\rVert$$ I know this to be ...
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30 views

Constructing a specific Rank-One Matrix

Given u $\in \mathbb{R}^{n}$ and v $\in \mathbb{R}^{m}$ with unit $L^{2}$ norm, i.e. $\|u\|_{2}$ = $\|v\|_{2}$ = 1. Construct a rank-one matrix B $\in \mathbb{R}^{mxn}$ such that $Bu = v$ and ...
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38 views

Maximum column sum norm of inverse matrix, $\|A^{-1}\|_1$

$A$ is an $N \times N$ nonsingular matrix with bounded maximum row sum norm and unbounded column sum norm, that is, $\|A\|_\infty = O(1)$, and $\|A\|_1=O(N^\alpha)$, where $0<\alpha\leq1$. ...
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35 views

Euclidean norm of two random variables

I have two normally distributed random variables. $X_1$ and $X_2$ with mean $u_1,u_2$ and variance $s_1^2,s_2^2$. They are independent with each other and have interval $(-\infty,\infty)$. Is it ...
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32 views

What is the connection between $l_p$ norms and “$l_p$ metrics”?

In some textbooks metric spaces you sometimes encounter these "$l_p$ metrics", $d_1, d_2, d_\infty$ (I don't think $l_p$ metric is very standard usage) For example, $d_1(x,y) := \sum\limits_i^m ...
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24 views

Some insight about this integral limit

Given $u:\mathbb{R}^N \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is continuous and has compact support, we define the set $$K_u: = \{x\in \mathbb{R}^N : u(x) = \|u\|_\infty\}.$$ Looking at the following limit ...
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35 views

How do I prove $|\left \langle x,y \right \rangle|=\left \| x \right \|\cdot \left \| y \right \|\Leftrightarrow y=cx,c\in F$

Proving $\Leftarrow$ is easy enough, it's just a matter of plugging it right in. For $\Rightarrow$, I tried changing the right side to $\left (\left \langle x,x \right \rangle \cdot\left \langle y,y ...
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Why can we calculate the supremum of operator norm over unit circle?

I know that to check whether a linear operator is continuous or not we have to check if the operator norm is bounded. $$T: V\to W$$, $$\vert\vert \ T \vert\vert= \sup_{f \in V}\frac{\vert\vert \ Tf ...
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22 views

Why is the set of units of integer quaternions isomorphic to the quaternion group of order 8?

Let's say that I've got a ring $V$ of integer quaternions of the form $\mathbb{Z} + \mathbb{Z}i + \mathbb{Z}j + \mathbb{Z}k$. Now assume that there exists an element $a = a_1 + a_2i + a_3j + a_4k$ ...
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53 views

Why does $ab=ba=1$ imply ${a_1}^2 + {a_2}^2 + {a_3}^2 + {a_4}^2 = 1$?

Let's say that I've got a group $V$ of integer quaternions of the form $\mathbb{Z} + \mathbb{Z}i + \mathbb{Z}j + \mathbb{Z}k$. Now assume that there exists an element $a = a_1 + a_2i + a_3j + a_4k$ ...
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1answer
36 views

Is the squared euclidean norm a measure for the distance of two points?

I like to prove that a measure for the distance $d$ of two points $\vec a$ and $\vec b$ in $R^N$ is given by the squared euclidean norm $$d^2= \sum^N_j (a_j - b_j)^2 $$ So far I was able to show ...
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22 views

Supremum Infimum of Norm

Let $A\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be an invertible matrix and $\mathbf{x}\in\mathbb{R}^n$. I am trying to prove that ...
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38 views

Corresponding norm from a dual norm?

Let $(X,N_1)$ be a Banach space (separable if necessary) and let $(X^*,N_1^*)$ be its dual space. Here $N_1^*$ denotes the classical dual norm associated to $N_1$. Let $N_2^*$ be an equivalent norm ...
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Invariance of Frobenious norm under transformation.

Can we say for every invertible square matrix $\mathbf{P}$, $\Vert\mathbf{X-B}\Vert_F^2=\Vert\mathbf{P^{-1}(X-B)}\Vert_F^2$. And does this hold true for non-square matrix $\mathbf{P}$ under some ...
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Comparing Euclidean distances using a vector and its projection

Say we have $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$ and $D\in\mathbb{R}$. Define a corresponding vector $y=[y_1\cdots y_n]$ to be the projection of $x$ onto the $n$-cube of side length $2D$ centered at the origin, i.e. we ...
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32 views

$\kappa(B^{-1}A)=\kappa (AB^{-1}) = \frac{\lambda_{max}(B^{-1}A)}{\lambda_{min}(B^{-1}A)}$

Prove or disprove if $A,B$ are symmetric positive definite (s.p.d) matrices then operator 2-norm condition number $\kappa(B^{-1}A)=\kappa (AB^{-1}) = ...
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77 views

Showing that the metric $d$ is a norm

Let $X$ be a vector space, and $d:X\times X \to \mathbb{R}$ is a metric on $X$. Also suppose that $d$ is invariant under translations, i.e. $d(x,y)=d(x+z,y+z)$ for all $x,y,z \in X$. Is $d(x,y)$ for ...
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35 views

Show that $l^p \subseteq l^q$ for $1 \leq p < q < \infty$

$$l^p = \{ (a_k)_{k \geq 1} : \sum \limits_{k=1}^{\infty} |a_k|^p < \infty \}$$ Since it is said $l^p \subseteq l^q$, I would have thought we have to show $$\sum \limits_{k=1}^{\infty} |a_k|^q ...
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Compute the square norm $||\cdot||_2$ of matrix [closed]

Compute the square norm $||\cdot||_2$ of matrix : \begin{bmatrix} O & A_n^{-1} & \dots & O \\ A_n^{-1} & O & \ddots & \\ \vdots & \ddots & \ddots ...
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What is the example of $L^p$ space which is not a Hilbert Space except $p=2$.

I know that $L^p$-norm satisfy the parallelogram law for $p=2$. But when $p$ is not equal to $2$ then it does not satify the parallelogram law and $L^p$ space is not Hilbert Space. For this I need a ...
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78 views

Find $||\cdot||_2$ norm of block matrix

Compute the square norm $||\cdot||_2$ of matrix : \begin{bmatrix} O & I_n & \dots & O \\ I_n & O & \ddots & \\ \vdots & \ddots & \ddots & I_n ...
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30 views

Proving something is a norm

Let $a<b$ be real numbers and $X=C[a,b]$ be the space of continuous functions $f:[a,b] \rightarrow \mathbb R$ Prove that $||f||_1 = \sup _{t \in [a,b]} |f(t)|$ indeed defines a norm on $X$. The ...
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36 views

Operator Norm: Why is this formulation so rarely seen?

There are many equivalent definitions for the norm $||T||$ of a linear operator $T:X\to Y$. Citing the Wikipedia and some books about functional analysis, the equivalence of definitions are often ...
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Show that every norm is a $1$-lipschitz function

Let $\|\cdot\|_0$, a norm on $\mathbb{R}^n$. Show that the function $\|\cdot\|_0$ is $1$-lipschitz and hence, continuous. Meaning, I need to prove that: $$\big|\|x\|_0-\|y\|_0\big| \le \|x-y\|$$ ...
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38 views

Definition of $L^p$ norm of a vector-valued function

If $u$ is a vector the definition of the discrete norm will be $$\|u\|_{l^p}=(\sum |u_i|^p)^{1/p},$$ If $u$ is a function, $$\|u\|_{L^p}=\left(\int|u|^p\right)^{1/p}$$ But when $u$ is a vector-valued ...
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51 views

How did Von Neumann think of the formula for scalar product?

My question is on the idea behind Von Neumann's formula for the scalar product induced from a norm that satisfies the parallelogram law. $\langle x,y\rangle=\frac 14(\|x+y\|^2-\|x-y\|^2)$. Was it by ...
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50 views

How can I prove that $\int_{a}^{b} |f(x)|dx$ defines norm on $C([a,b])$?

I need to show that $$\parallel f \parallel = \int_{a}^{b} |f(x)|dx$$ is a norm on $C([a,b])$. I need to show that $\|f\|$ meets the properties of a norm: positive distance, if all elements ...
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1answer
11 views

Show that $\lVert A \rVert_T := \lVert T^{-1} A T \rVert$ is a subordinate (induced) norm

I saw the following claim in many places without proof: Given an induced norm $\lVert \cdot \rVert$, $$ \lVert A \rVert_T := \lVert T^{-1} A T \rVert $$ is also an induced norm. All of the texts I ...
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Compute the limit and show that uN converges weakly

full question I already know that the norm is 1, and that you can use the definition of weak convergence but that's where I get lost. Somebody told me I can use the Riesz representation theorem since ...
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42 views

Matrix log norm

How is it that the matrix log norm: $$\lim_{\epsilon\to 0}={||I+\epsilon A||-1\over \epsilon}$$ is equal to $$\max\left( \lambda \left({A+A^T\over 2}\right)\right)$$ (the biggest eigenvalue)
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43 views

Euclidean norm gives length even in $>3$ dimensions?

In $1,2,3$ dimensions I can simply make triangles and see that Euclidean norm gives me the distance between two points (i.e. the length of the vector from one point to the other). In higher ...
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65 views

When is the Frobenius norm equal to the spectral radius?

I know that the spectral radius is $\rho(A) = max |\lambda_l| = \S_{max}^2$ and that the Frobenius norm is $||A|| = \sqrt{tr(A^*A)} = (\sum_{k}S_k^2)^{1/2}$, which means I want to find the matrix A ...
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23 views

Why, when $m < n$, does the vector space $S$ of vectors $x ∈ \mathbb{R}^n$ such that $a_i · x = 0$ always contains a nonzero vector?

Fix vectors $a_1, . . . , a_m ∈ \mathbb{R}^n$, and let S be the set of vectors $x ∈ \mathbb{R}^n$ such that $a_i · x = 0$ for all $i$. Now I know that $S$ is a vector space. Why is it that when $m ...
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32 views

Does $x \cdot y = 0$ imply that $||x+y||_\infty = ||x||_\infty + ||y||_\infty $?

If x and y are orthogonal vectors and we define $||x||_\infty = $ max$_{j = 0 ... 1} |x_j|$, is it possible to express $||x+y||_\infty$ in terms of $||x||_\infty$ and $||y||_\infty$ ? So I get that ...
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2answers
65 views

Does $\mathbf x\cdot \mathbf y = 0$ imply that $\lVert x+y\rVert_1 = \lVert x\rVert_1 + \lVert y\rVert_1$?

If x and y are orthogonal vectors and we define $\lVert x\rVert_1 =\sum^{n}_{j=1} |x_j|$, is it possible to express $\lVert x+y\rVert_1$ in terms of $\lVert x\rVert_1$ and $\lVert y\rVert_1$ ? So I ...
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48 views

Why is $|x · y| ≤ ||x||_1||y||_∞$?

So let $||x||_∞ := $ max $_{j=1,...,n}|x_j|$ and by Cauchy-Schwarz, $|x · y| ≤ ||x||_2||y||_2$ . Why then does $|x · y| ≤ ||x||_1||y||_∞$ ? I'm not sure how to show this.