Non-standard fields are fields which have infinitesimals, that is, positive numbers which are smaller than any positive *real* number. Non-standard analysis is analysis done over such fields (e.g. hyperreal fields).

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What is the topology of the hyperreal line?

Denote by $\Bbb R$ the real line and by $\Bbb R^*$ the hyperreal line. For any real numbers $x < y < z$ and infinitesimal $\epsilon$ the following holds: \begin{equation} \forall a,b,c \in \Bbb ...
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explain why ${\left(\frac{{1}}{{2}}\right)}^{\infty}=0$

Mathematica shows ${\left(\frac{{1}}{{2}}\right)}^{\infty}=0$, anyone can explain why ? I know we can get $\lim\limits_{{{x}\to\infty}}{\left(\frac{{1}}{{2}}\right)}^{{x}}={0}$ by taking limit , ...
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How is an infinitesimal $dx$ different from $\Delta x\,$? [duplicate]

When I learned calc, I was always taught $$\frac{df}{dx}= f'(x) = \lim_{h\rightarrow 0} \frac{f(x+h)-f(x)}{(x+h)-x}$$ But I have heard $dx$ is called an infinitesimal and I don't know what this ...
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Inferring Probabilities from relative frequencies

I have an question concerning the converse strong law of large numbers By the Converse Strong Law of large numbers, i mean the general principle (2) which is the converse of the standard strong law ...
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43 views

Decoding the sign expansion of surreal numbers

One way to represent surreal numbers is the sign expansion. Now Wikipedia describes how to compare them, how to convert them to the standard representation of left/right sets, how to negate them, and ...
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Can I embed $\mathbb R^{\mathbb N}$ with a partial order into $^\ast\mathbb{R}$ with the linear order?

Define a relation $\prec$ on $\mathbb R^{\mathbb N}$ as, For all $f, g \in \mathbb R^{\mathbb N} $, $f \prec g$, if for all $n \in \mathbb N$, $f(n) \leq g(n)$, and there exists a $m \in \mathbb ...
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Limit points in nonstandard analysis [solved]

Let $A\subseteq\mathbb{R}$, $p\in\mathbb{R}$. I proved that the following are equivalent: $\exists\left(x_{n}\right)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}\subseteq A\cap\left\{ p\right\} ^{c}$ such that ...
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existence of unlimited hypernaturals

How can we prove that the extension *$\mathbb{N}$ of $\mathbb{N}$ contains unlimited elements? I have read a proof that shows that the only limited elements of *$\mathbb{N}$ are the standard ...
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Has anybody ever considered “full derivative”?

When differentiating we usually take a limit and drop the infinitesimal terms. But what if not to drop anything? First, we extend the real numbers with an infinitesimal element $\varepsilon$ which ...
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62 views

Construction of homomorphism between $^\ast\mathbb{R}$ and $^*\mathbb{Q\cap L}$

Denote by $\mathbb{I}$ the ring of infinitesimals and by $\mathbb{L}$ the ring of finite hyper-reals. Prove that $$\mathbb{R}\cong{^\ast\mathbb{Q\cap L/^\ast Q\cap I}}.$$ I thought using the ...
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non-commutative infinitesimal extension of $\mathbb R$

Background: The transfer principle in nonstandard analysis implies that any nonstandard model of the reals is a commutative (for additively and multiplicatively). It is also well-known that the set ...
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Why hyperreal numbers are built so complicatedly?

I have seen approaches at building hyperreal systems by using complicated notions like ultrafilters and the like. Why not just postulate the existence of infinitesimal element $\varepsilon$ and ...
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51 views

Nonstandard analysis: transfering a simple sentence

If $A$ is an infinite subset of $\mathbb{N}$, show that *$A$ contains aritrarily large unlimited elements. From "Non-standard Analysis for the Working Mathematician," p. 22 : "there is a Skolem ...
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63 views

What are the advantages/disadvantages of non-standard analysis?

I'm not interested in an in-depth answer. Here are some specific questions for which I couldn't find an answer: With non-standard analysis, can we solve problems that can't be solved using standard ...
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57 views

Size of a geometric point

It is well known that the geometric points do not have any length, area, volume, or any other dimensional attribute, also geometric object (for example "line") is made up of a infinite number of ...
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38 views

hyperreals standard part inconsistency

$\def\st{\operatorname{st}}$ I'm studying non-standard calc from Keisler's book. Taking "standard part" rule doesn't make sense... its not commutative. e.g. $a$ is finite non infinitesimal $b,c$ ...
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When “magnifying infinitesimals” why dont they have curvature ? (non standard) Infinitesimal calculus

Im reading https://www.math.wisc.edu/~keisler/calc.html. If you open up the chapter $2$ pdf... The $2$ diagrams (1st on page $14$ of the pdf (not the text book), 2nd on page $15$) have me confused. ...
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How to compute $(\int f(x) \, dx)^p$ with fractional number $p$?

It is well-known that one can say $(\int f(x) \, dx)^p = \int \prod_{i=1}^p f(x_i) \, dx_i$ if $p$ isa natural number. But what is if $p$ is a fractional ore even a real number? Is it possible to set ...
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42 views

Clifford algebra over non-Archimedean field

Usually the Clifford algebra is defined over the Reals $\mathbb{R}$ or the Complex $\mathbb{C}$ numbers. Can the definition be extended over non-Archimedean fields, such as the hyperreal numbers ...
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Numerical system that includes the limit targets such as $0^+$, $0^-$, $1^+$ etc

I wonder what is the name of a mathematical system extending the real numbers that includes signed zero along with unsigned zero as well as other "limit targets", such as $1^+=1+0^+$, $5^-$ etc, so ...
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Fourier transform and non-standard calculus

The Fourier transform is not as easily formalizable as the Fourier series. For example, one needs to introduce tempered distributions to define the Dirac delta-function. Also, it is impossible to view ...
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Could “$\infty$” be understood by taking the reciprocals of the Hyperreal numbers?

When learning mathematics we are told that infinity is undefined. (*) Recently I read about the infinitesimal version of Calculus and how we can in fact treat $dy/dx$ as a fraction under this ...
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51 views

Is the empty set internal?

Is the empty set internal or not? And is there a proof (either way), or is it just a convention? If it's just a convention, why was that particular convention chosen?
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Are the Hyperreals complete?

Since $^*\mathbb{R}$ does not form a metric space then it can not satisfy the Cauchy conditions for completeness. However, my intuition is telling me that it would satisfy conditions of completeness ...
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How much choice is needed for the transfer principle?

To construct the hyperreals via ultrapower the Boolean prime ideal theorem apparently suffices. However, to prove the transfer principle for the extension $\mathbb{R}\subset{}^\ast\mathbb{R}$ ...
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Why those division by zero are formalized?

Easy example first: $f(x) = nx$ $f'(x) = (f(x+0)-f(x))/0 = (nx+0n-nx)/0 = (0n)/0 = n$ Hard one: $f(x) = a^x$ $f'(x) = (f(x+0)-f(x))/0 = (a^{x+0}-a^x)/0 = (a^x(a^0-1))/0 = (a^x(e^{\ln(a^0)}-1))/0 ...
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1/∞ is 0 or infinitesimal?

Since ∞>0 , so 1/∞>0, thus I think 1/∞ should be infinitesimal, but the calculus book says $\displaystyle \lim_{x \to \infty} \frac{1}{x}= 0$ So is 1/∞ 0 or infinitesimal ? P.S.I mean 1/∞ and ...
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75 views

Derivatives of $\sin x$ and $\exp x$ using differentials / dual numbers

I want to introduce a concept of a differential $dx$ to my students and derive all the basic derivatives using it. Now, I define the differential to satisfy $dx \neq 0$, but $(dx)^2 = 0$. Therefore, ...
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156 views

Topologies induced by non-standard metric

Let $R$ be a set of points and $\mathbb{D}$ be a totally ordered field. Further consider a function $\rho:R\times R \rightarrow \mathbb{D}$. $\langle R,\mathbb D,\rho\rangle$ is a metric space if ...
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Dirac Delta definition in non-standard analysis?

What is the definition of Dirac Delta in non-standard analysis? I would define it either as a standard distribution with $\sigma=\epsilon$ or maximum equal to $\omega$. Which is the correct answer?
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What are hyperreal numbers?

Well excuse me if I make some english mistakes :) So I descovered hyperreal numbers two mouth ago and I read a lot of articles about them but I don't understand which they are... Because of one ...
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Prove, by nonstandard reasoning, that the limit superior of a sequence is a cluster point.

I'm working through Goldblatt's Lectures on the Hyperreals, and I've found myself quite stuck on this exercise: Prove, by nonstandard reasoning, that both the limit superior and the limit inferior ...
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34 views

Compute joint density function of exponential fuction

Consider a set of continuous random variablces $Y_1 ... Y_n$, i.i.d, exponentially distributed . with rate parameter $\lambda$. I showed first that for one single variablce (ie the first) its ...
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62 views

Hyperreal probability density?

I'm fairly new to the subject of hyperreal numbers and I'm wondering if there exists an infinitesimal number $a$ such that (in some reasonable sense) $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty a=1$$ ? In other words: Is ...
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Computing the standard part of $(3-\sqrt{c+2})/(c-7)$ where the standard part of $c$ is $7$

I'm working through Keisler's calculus book based on infinitesimals. The following problem has me a little bit stumped. Compute the standard part of: $$\frac{3-\sqrt{c+2}}{c-7}$$ Given that $c\ne7$ ...
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Nonstandard complex numbers and categoricity

Let ${}^*\mathbb{C}$ be a nonstandard complex number field (given, for instance, as a countable ultrapower.) By the transfer principle ${}^*\mathbb{C}$ is algebraically closed of characteristic zero, ...
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Which non-standard analysis framework to study?

Just recently I became slightly interested in non-standard analysis. After a preliminary check at the subject there seem to be at least two relatively common ways of establishing the framework: ...
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Internal Set Theory: $n$ is standard $\implies\;n+1$ is standard

I'm reading a bit about Nelson's version of nonstandard analysis and in the notes it is said that [$n$ is standard]$\implies$[$n+1$ is standard]. Right after that it is mentioned that an inductive ...
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233 views

The nature of infinities

I have been thinking about the nature of infinity lately. I have no experience with higher mathematics or theorems regarding infinity, so please forgive me if my ideas on this topic are extremely ...
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59 views

Is there an algebraic-geometric solution to the problem of the Leibnizian formalism?

The precise question appears at the end of this entry. With all the recent advances in understanding infinitesimals, we still don't fully understand why Leibniz's definition of $\frac{dy}{dx}$ as ...
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How can one replace a set with a base set in nonstandard analysis?

In the superstructure approach of nonstandard analysis, one builds the superstructure $V(X)$ as ($X$ being a set) : $V_0(X)=X$ For $n$ in $\mathbb{N}$, $V_{n+1}(X)=V_n(X)\cup\mathcal{P}(V_n(X))$ ...
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Modified division, hyperreal numbers and transfinite derivatives

Suppose we are shooting from a cannon and measuring the speed of the projectile. The shorter period of time it takes for the projectile to reach the target, the faster it is. If the projectile hits ...
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96 views

Best mathematical object to describe speed

Suppose we want to describe speed of a particle, moving between two points on a real line: ---------------$0$----------------$1$----------------- If the particle starts at $0$ at $t=0$ and moves ...
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Why is a *-finite standard set a finite set?

In internal set theory, why is it that if there is a bijection between $x$ standard and $n\in\mathbb{N}$, then $n$ is necessarily standard ?
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Hyperreals - is there a “boundary” between convergent and divergent series?

Hypearreals are equivalence classes of sequences of real numbers. Is there a hypperreal number $ h $ such that for every convergent (real) series $ \sum a_n $ we have that the equivalence class of ...
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158 views

Can hyperreal numbers be studied 'naively', like surreal numbers?

Surreal numbers are constructed 'explicitly', many of them have labels on which one can do arithmetic, an extension of the natural ordinal arithmetic on Cantor's normal forms, and their theory is ...
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$\approx$ and $\ll$ for different-order infinitesimals

This seems like a pretty basic question, but I've been searching around and haven't come across the answer. Consider two infinitesimal numbers, $\epsilon$ and $\epsilon^2$. On the one hand, it would ...
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30 views

A basic, basic question about the definition of a superstructure

A superstructure $V(X)$ over a set $X$ is defined as: $V_0(X) =X$ $V_{i+1}(X) = V_i(X) \cup P(V_i(X))$ $V(X) = ⋃_{i=0}^{\infty}V_i(X)$ My question is in regard the line item 2, where the set ...
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495 views

There is no smallest infinitely large prime

I'm reading Kunen's Foundations of Mathematics and trying to solve Exercise II.16.19, which constructs an elementary extension of the reals as an ordered field, and asks the reader to prove various ...
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Problem reconciling this proof with what I know about the Reals.

I'm currently reading a book on non-standard analysis. The proof states that there is an infinite integer greater than all reals. How is this possible? I thought that the reals contained the integers? ...