A modular form is a (complex) analytic function on the upper half-plane satisfying a certain kind of functional equation with respect to the group action of the modular group.

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Proof of $\frac{1}{e^{\pi}+1}+\frac{3}{e^{3\pi}+1}+\frac{5}{e^{5\pi}+1}+\ldots=\frac{1}{24}$

I would like to prove that $\displaystyle\sum_{\substack{n=1\\n\text{ odd}}}^{\infty}\frac{n}{e^{n\pi}+1}=\frac1{24}$. I found a solution by myself 10 hours after I posted it, here it is: ...
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Intuition for the Importance of Modular Forms

I am learning about modular forms for the first time this term and am just starting to wrap my head around what might be the big picture of things. I was wondering if the following interpretation of ...
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How does one see Hecke Operators as helping to generalize Quadratic Reciprocity?

My question is really about how to think of Hecke operators as helping to generalize quadratic reciprocity. Quadratic reciprocity can be stated like this: Let $\rho: Gal(\mathbb{Q})\rightarrow ...
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Other interesting consequences of $d=163$?

Question: Any other interesting consequences of $d=163$ having class number $h(-d)=1$ aside from the list below? Let $\tau = \tfrac{1+\sqrt{-163}}{2}$. We have (see notes at end of list), ...
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In what sense is Taniyama-Shimura the $n=2$ case of Langlands?

As I understand it (If I'm imprecise, as I will likely be, please correct me), Langlands says roughly as follows: For every representation $Gal(\mathbb{Q}) \rightarrow GL_n(\mathbb{C})$ we can form a ...
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Deligne, elliptic curves and modular forms

I'm trying to understand an argument of Deligne (in Courbes elliptiques: Formulaire d'après J. Tate), but I'm not familiar enough with algebraic geometry, so I'm getting quite confused. So even in my ...
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527 views

The importance of modular forms

I'm studying modular forms and my professor started the course talking about elliptic functions. These particular functions form a field (once that the lattice $\Lambda$ is fixed) called ...
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Proving finite dimensionality of modular forms using representation theory?

It is well known how to use algebraic geometry (differentials, divisors, and Riemann-Roch) in order to prove the finite dimensionality of the vector space of modular forms of some fixed weight and ...
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Why is $\tau(n) \equiv \sigma_{11}(n) \pmod{691}$?

If $n$ is a natural number, let $\displaystyle \sigma_{11}(n) = \sum_{d \mid n} d^{11}$. The modular form $\Delta$ is defined by $\displaystyle \Delta(q) = q \prod_{n=1}^{\infty}(1 - q^n)^{24}$. ...
14
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240 views

Modular interpretation of modular curves

Let $\Gamma$ be a congruence subgroup of level $N$. What is the modular interpretation of $\Gamma\backslash \mathcal{H}^*$, by that I mean what are the elliptic curves + additional structure it ...
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What is the exact value of $\eta(6i)$?

Let $\eta(\tau)$ be the Dedekind eta function. In his Lost Notebook, Ramanujan played around with a related function and came up with some of the nice evaluations, $$\begin{aligned} \eta(i) &= ...
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Galois Properties of the Values of Modular Forms

Let $f \in S_0(N)$ be a normalized Hecke eigenform. It is well known that its coefficients are algebraic integers, and $f^\sigma$ lies in $S_0(N)$ for $\sigma \in G_{\mathbb{Q}}$. At CM points $z \in ...
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Is there a general way to prove series and products are modular?

The following$$\eta(q)=q^{1/24}(q)_\infty$$ $$E_{n}(z)=\sum_{z \in \Lambda\setminus \lbrace0\rbrace}z^{-n}$$ $$F(q)=q^{-1/60} \sum_{n \ge0} \frac{q^{n^2}}{(q;q)_\infty}$$ $$F(q)=q^{11/60} \sum_{n ...
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How does one graduate from Hecke Operators to Hecke Correspondences?

I've read (skimmed heartily) basic books on the topic of modular forms. (The last being Silverman's Advanced Topics in the Arithmetic of Elliptic Curves.) I strive for an understanding which is as ...
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483 views

Representing a number as a sum of at most $k$ squares

Fix an integer $k >0 $ and would like to know the maximum number of different ways that a number $n$ can be expressed as a sum of $k$ squares, i.e. the number of integer solutions to $$ n = x_1^2 + ...
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Converting an infinite product to sum; Ramanujan $\tau$ function

I've gotten what seems most of the way, but I'm quite stuck at this point. Define $\tau(n)$ by \begin{align*} q\prod_{n=1}^\infty (1-q^n)^{24} = \sum_{n=1}^\infty\tau(n)q^n. \end{align*} ...
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Connection between the $L$-function of a modular form and the $L$-function of its associated $\ell$-adic representation as defined by Bloch-Kato

Let $f\in\mathcal{S}_k(\Gamma_1(N),\epsilon)$ is a normalized eigenform for all the Hecke operators, with character $\epsilon$, $k\geq 2$, and assume the $q$-expansion of $f$ has rational ...
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324 views

Relation between congruence subgroups. $\Gamma(M)\Gamma(N) = \Gamma(\gcd(M,N))$

I'm hoping there's a pleasant way to solve this one. Prove that $\Gamma(M)\Gamma(N) = \Gamma(\gcd(M,N))$. Showing that $\Gamma(M)\Gamma(N) \subset \Gamma(\gcd(M,N))$ is rather straight forward, ...
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Whats the difference between modular forms of different levels?

We have a natural surjective group homomorphism: $\phi : SL_2(\mathbb{Z}) \to SL_2(\mathbb{Z}/(n\mathbb{Z}))$ from which, given any subgroup $H<SL_2(\mathbb{Z}/(n\mathbb{Z}))$, we may take the ...
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Modular parametrization of elliptic curve

Let $f$ be a cusp form of weight $2$ on $\Gamma_0(N)$ and assume that $f$ is a Hecke form and a newform. Then, we easily see that $$C(\gamma)=2i\pi \int_{\tau}^{\gamma \tau}{f(\tau')d\tau'} \quad ...
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What are applications of number theory in physics?

I was reading Goro Shimura's The Map of My Life. He wrote the following quote in the book. It made me come up with the title question. In particular, is there any application of the theory of modular ...
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How to show that $\Delta\left(\frac{az+b}{cz+d}\right)=(cz+d)^{12}\Delta(z)$?

Let $(a, b; c, d) \in SL_2(\mathbb{Z})$ and $\Delta(z)=q\prod_{n=1}^{\infty} (1-q^n)^{24}$, $q=e^{2\pi i z}$. How to show that $\Delta(\frac{az+b}{cz+d})=(cz+d)^{12}\Delta(z)$? Thank you very much. I ...
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Concerning the classical normalized Eisenstein series

Earlier I asked this question. As of today, it has not been answered. Yet still, I have a follow-up question: In general, how does one express $E_4(\tau)$ and $E_6(\tau)$ in closed form for special ...
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Eisenstein Series and cusps of $\Gamma_{1}(N)$

Let $q = e^{2\pi i\tau}$, $\operatorname{Im}\tau > 0$ and let $$G(\tau) = 1 - 24\sum_{n = 1}^{\infty}\frac{nq^{n}}{1 - q^{n}}$$ be the weight 2 Eisenstein series for $\Gamma(1)$. Consider the ...
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Hecke operators on modular forms

Would you please explain the importance of Hecke operators on modular forms? I am studying modular forms mostly on my own and I have a pretty good understanding up to Hecke operators. So, I just ...
8
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2answers
585 views

Ramanujan's Tau function, an arithmetic property

The problem: Let $\tau(n)$ denote the Ramanujan $\tau$-function and $\sigma(n)$ be the sum of the positive divisors of $n$. Show that $$ (1-n)\tau(n) = 24\sum_{j=1}^{n-1} \sigma(j)\tau(n-j).$$ ...
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288 views

Euler Product of Modular L-series

This question is probably really easy to someone that knows the theory of modular forms well, so I apologize if this is obvious. Suppose $E_1$ and $E_2$ are elliptic curves over $\mathbb{Q}$ and the ...
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Flatness of residual representations associated to modular forms

Let $f\in S_k(\Gamma_1(N),\chi)$ be a Hecke eigenform of weight $k\geq 2$, $p$ an odd prime not dividing $N$, and $K_f$ the number field generated by the Hecke eigenvalues of $f$. Fixing a prime ...
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Hypergeometric formulas for the Rogers-Ramanujan identities?

Let $q = e^{2\pi i \tau}$. Given the j-function, $$j = j(q) = 1/q + 744 + 196884q + 21493760q^2 + \dots$$ and define, $$k = j-1728$$ Let $\tau =\sqrt{-N}$, where $N > 1$. Anybody knows how ...
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When does a modular form satisfy a differential equation with rational coefficients?

Given a modular form $f$ of weight $k$ for a congruence subgroup $\Gamma$, and a modular function $t$ for $\Gamma$ with $t(i\infty)=0$, we can form a function $F$ such that $F(t(z))=f(z)$ (at least ...
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Definition of cusp of a congruence group

I am reading p.22 of Dan Bump's Automorphihic forms and representations. A cusp of the congruence group acting on the upper half plane is defined to be an orbit of the action of the congruence ...
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Integral relations in Fricke and Klein

Can someone please explain how Fricke and Klein obtain the integral relationa stated at the top of p. 34 in this book? The entire book can be previewed on Google Books. It is an old book and I do not ...
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An infinite product for $\left(\frac{\eta(13\tau)}{\eta(\tau)}\right)^2$?

Given the Dedekind eta function, $$\eta(\tau) = q^{1/24} \prod_{n=1}^\infty (1-q^n)$$ where $q = \exp(2\pi i\tau)$. Consider the following "family", $\begin{align} ...
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why does a certain formula in Lang's book on modular forms hold?

Background: Let $k$ be an even integer. The Eisenstein series are defined by $$E_{k} = 1 - \frac{2k}{B_{k}}\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \sigma_{k-1}(n)q^{n}$$ where $$\sigma_{k-1}(n)= \sum\limits_{d \mid ...
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A question on FLT and Taniyama Shimura

Sometime back i watched the documentary of Andrew Wiles proving the Fermat's Last theorem. A truly inspiring video and i still watch it whenever i am in a depressed mood. There are certain ...
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Ideal of cusp forms for $\Gamma_0(4)$ is principal

Let $\Gamma_0(4)$ be a congruence subgroup of $SL(2,\mathbb{Z})$ defined as $$\Gamma_0(4)=\{M=\begin{pmatrix} a &b\\ c& d \end{pmatrix}\in SL(2,\mathbb{Z})\mid c=0\bmod 4\}.$$ Dedekind ...
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p-adic modular form example

In Serre's paper on $p$-adic modular forms, he gives the example (in the case of $p = 2,3,5$) of $\frac{1}{Q}$ and $\frac{1}{j}$ as $p$-adic modular forms, where $Q = E_4 = 1 + 540\sum ...
7
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1answer
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How can I determine in practice whether two elliptic curves over $\mathbb{Q}$ have isomorphic $p$-torsion?

Let $E_1$ and $E_2$ be elliptic curves over $\mathbb{Q}$ with good, ordinary reduction at an odd prime $p$. I'm wondering how to determine whether $E_1[p]$ and $E_2[p]$ are isomorphic ...
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Residue of Rankin-Selberg L-function for non-trivial nebentypus

Let $f\in S_k(\Gamma_0(N),\chi)$ be a normalized holomorphic newform (i.e. weight $k$, level $N$, nebentypus $\chi$) and write its Fourier expansion as $$ f(z)=\sum_{n\ge 1} ...
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Proving that $\sigma_7(n) = \sigma_3(n) + 120 \sum_{m=1}^{n-1} \sigma_3(m)\sigma_3(n-m)$ without using modular forms?

This problem appears as a (starred!) exercise in D. Zagier's notes on modular forms. I have to admit that I have no idea how to do it. Here, $\sigma_k(n) =\sum_{d\mid n} d^k$, as usual. This ...
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Purpose of cusps

In the theory of of modular forms, there is the set of of cusps defined by $\mathbb{P}^1 (\mathbb{Q})= \mathbb{Q} \cup \{\infty\}$. For an subgroup $\Gamma < \text{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$ of finite ...
6
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Definition of Modular Forms over finite Fields

I'm still severely lacking in background at the moment, but I'm interested in doing something with congruence properties of modular forms (relations between coefficients of the q-expansions that hold ...
6
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1answer
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Why do modular curves parametrise elliptic curves?

Let $Y_1(N)=\Gamma_1(N)/H$, where $H$ is the upper half plane. In these lecture notes http://math.uga.edu/~pete/modularandshimura.pdf , the author makes the following statement: "$Y_1(N)$ ...
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How should I think about Ihara's Lemma?

I am trying to learn about Ihara's lemma because I see it mentioned in many papers in arithmetic geometry. To be more precise, I would like to know: What is the significance of this result? Why is ...
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Connection between Hecke operators and Hecke algebras

Hecke operators are things that act on modular forms and give rise to a lot of interesting arithmetical results: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hecke_operator On the other hand on the wikpedia page ...
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Do general automorphic factors arise in some canonical way?

Disclaimer: none of what I'm about to say I understand particularly well; corrections and clarifications are not only welcome but will be accepted with great gratitude. The wikipedia article on ...
6
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247 views

Modular forms database

Suppose one was given a sequence and $a_{0}, a_{1}, a_{2}, \ldots$. Is there a searchable database somewhere to see if $a_{0} + a_{1}q + a_{2}q^{2} + \cdots$ is expressible as modular form (or some ...
6
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Recognizing if a power series is a $q$-expansion of a modular form

Given a power series in $q$, is it possible to tell if it is the $q$-expansion of a modular form (of level $N$ say)? I don't need to show results of this sort, but it has come up enough that I'm ...
6
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Cusp forms' Fourier coefficients sign changes

I need some clarification on the following, if possible: I have seen in that for every $ f \in S_k$ which Fourier transform is $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a(n)q^n$ there is an upper bound $\sum_{n=1}^N ...
6
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Serre's Modularity Conjecture — Weight

I was reading Serre's paper "Sur les Représentations Modulaires de Degré $2$ de Gal($\bar{\mathbb{Q}}/\mathbb{Q}$)" where he states his modularity conjecture (which is now a theorem). Following his ...