Tagged Questions

Modular arithmetic (clock arithmetic) is a system of integer arithmetic based on the congruence relation $a \equiv b \pmod{n}$ which means that $n$ divides $b-a$.

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How do I compute $a^b\,\bmod c$ by hand?

How do I efficiently compute $a^b\,\bmod c$: When $b$ is huge, for instance $5^{844325}\,\bmod 21$? When $b$ is less than $c$ but it would still be a lot of work to multiply $a$ by itself $b$ times, ...
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Linear diophantine equation $100x - 23y = -19$

I need help with this equation: $$100x - 23y = -19.$$ When I plug this into Wolfram|Alpha, one of the integer solutions is $x = 23n + 12$ where $n$ is a subset of all the integers, but I can't seem ...
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Modulus of Fraction

I just want to confirm I am doing this problem correctly. The problem asks to compute without a calculator: 3 * 2/5 mod 7 The way I am solving the problem: 3 * 2/5 mod 7 3 * 2 * 1/5 mod 7 gcd(5,7) ...
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Order of an Element Modulo $n$ Divides $\phi(n)$

How can I show that the order of an element modulo $n$ divides $\phi(n)$? I know that if $a$ and $n$ are relatively prime, then the least positive integer $x$ such that $a^x\equiv1\pmod n$ is its ...
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How to Prove the divisibility rule for $3$

The divisibility rule for $3$ is well-known: if you add up the digits of $n$ and the sum is divisible by $3$, then $n$ is divisible by three. This is quite helpful for determining if really large ...
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If $n$ is composite, then $n$ divides $(n-1)!$.

I have a proof and need some feedback. It seems really obvious that the statement is true but it is always the obvious ones that are a little trickier to prove. So I would appreciate any feedback. ...
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Getting an X for Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT)

how do I get modulo equations to satisfy a given X in CRT. For example say I have X = 1234. I choose mi as ...
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Finding a primitive root of a prime number

How would you find a primitive root of a prime number such as 761? How do you pick the primitive roots to test? Randomly? Thanks
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I don't understand why the inverse is this?

my question is related to matrix inverting and Hill cipher(you don't have to know what it is to help me) My teacher gave me an example. First we have a matrix (the key matrix) that multiplied by a ...
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Calculating the Modular Multiplicative Inverse without all those strange looking symbols

I am sure all those symbols are really easy for you guys to understand, but I would appreciate it if someone could bring it down to earth for me. How could I do this on a basic calculator? or with a ...
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Number of consecutive zeros at the end of $11^{100} - 1$.

How many consecutive zeros are there at the end of $11^{100} - 1$? Attempt Trial and error on Wolfram Alpha shows using modulus shows that there are 4 zeros (edit: 3 zeros, not 4). Otherwise, I have ...
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Not understanding Simple Modulus Congruency

Hi this is my first time posting on here... so please bear with me :P I was just wondering how I can solve something like this: $$25x ≡ 3 \pmod{109}.$$ If someone can give a break down on how to do ...
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What will be the one's digit of the remainder in: $\left|5555^{2222} + 2222^{5555}\right|\div 7=?$

What will be the ones digit of the remainder in: $$\frac{\left|5555^{2222} + 2222^{5555}\right|} {7}$$
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Calculate which day of the week a date falls in using modular arithmetic

In Summer Wars the main character (he is a mathematician) calculates the day of the week of someone's birthday (19/07/1992 is Sunday). I know (very) basic modular arithmetic but I can't figure out how ...
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Frog Jump Problem

Lotus leaves are arranged around a circle. A Frog starts jumping from one leaf in the manner described below. In the first jump it skips one leaf,next jump it skips two,three the next jump and ...
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Solving simultaneous congruences

Trying to figure out how to solve linear congruence by following through the sample solution to the following problem: $x \equiv 3$ (mod $7$) $x \equiv 2$ (mod $5$) $x \equiv 1$ (mod $3$) Let: ...
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I finally understand simple congruences. Now how to solve a quadratic congruence?

Now that I have plain old congruences, $19x\equiv 4 \pmod {141}$ for example, I am trying to wrap my brain around quadratic ones. My textbook shows how to tackle the aforementioned congruences, but ...
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How to use Fermat's little theorem to find $50^{50}\pmod{13}$?

I don't understand how to use Fermat's little theorem to find remainders e.g if we are asked to find remainder of $50^{50}$ on division by $13$, what is a and what is $p$ in the formula? Also I ...
When is $\binom{n}{k}$ divisible by $n$?
Is there any way of determining if $\binom{n}{k} \equiv 0\pmod{n}$. Note that I am aware of the case when $n =p$ a prime. Other than that there does not seem to be any sort of pattern (I checked up ...