Model theory is the study of (classes of) mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) using tools from mathematical logic. Objects of study in model theory are models for formal languages which are structures that give meaning to the sentences of these formal ...

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135
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4k views

Is there a 0-1 law for the theory of groups?

For each first order sentence $\phi$ in the language of groups, define : $$p_N(\phi)=\frac{\text{number of nonisomorphic groups $G$ of order} \le N\text{ such that } \phi \text{ is valid in } ...
48
votes
8answers
4k views

How is the Gödel's Completeness Theorem not a tautology?

As a physicist trying to understand the foundations of modern mathematics (in particular Model Theory) $-$ I have a hard time coping with the border between syntax and semantics. I believe a lot would ...
30
votes
6answers
1k views

What is an efficient nesting of mathematical theorems?

Various mathematical areas of research evolved from a wide and diverse range of questions. Many are physical in nature or come from informatics/computer science, some are procedural or optimization ...
26
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4answers
1k views

Is $\mathbb{N}$ impossible to pin down?

I don't know if this is appropriate for math.stackexchange, or whether philosophy.stackexchange would have been a better bet, but I'll post it here because the content is somewhat technical. In ZFC, ...
26
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2answers
487 views

Is $ \pi $ definable in $(\Bbb R,0,1,+,×, <,\exp) $?

Is there a first-order formula $\phi(x) $ with exactly one free variable $ x $ in the language of ordered fields together with the unary function symbol $ \exp $ such that in the standard ...
22
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1answer
505 views

Model existence for infinitary logics

One of the problems of infinitary logic is that it is possible for compactness to fail in a spectacular way: for example, one can concoct an inconsistent set of axioms whose proper subsets are all ...
21
votes
1answer
338 views

FO-definability of the integers in (Q, +, <)

With $Q$ the set of rational numbers, I'm wondering: Is the predicate "Int($x$) $\equiv$ $x$ is an integer" first-order definable in $(Q, +, <)$ where there is one additional constant symbol ...
16
votes
3answers
348 views

Applications of model theory to analysis

Some of the more organic theories considered in model theory (other than set theory, which, from what I've seen, seems to be quite distinct from "mainstream" model theory) are those which arise from ...
15
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1answer
1k views

Non-standard models of arithmetic for Dummies

Why is (1) a copy of $\mathbb{N}$ "followed by" a copy of $\mathbb{Z}$ not a (non-standard) model of arithmetic, neither (2) a copy of $\mathbb{N}$ followed by an infinite sequence of copies of ...
15
votes
1answer
237 views

Is $\Bbb R$ definable in $(\Bbb C,0,1,+,*,\exp)$?

Is there a first-order formula ϕ(x) with exactly one free variable $x$ in the language of fields together with the unary function symbol $\exp$ such that in the standard interpretation of this ...
14
votes
3answers
620 views

Comparing Category Theory and Model Theory (with examples from Group Theory).

The following question eats my brain: The standard definition of a "category" and a list of examples following this definition confuses me. My question is simple: (Q1)If someone write "the category ...
14
votes
2answers
471 views

Comparing countable models of ZFC

Let us consider the class $\cal C$ of countable models of ZFC. For ${\mathfrak A}=(A,{\in}_A)$ and ${\mathfrak B}=(B,{\in}_B)$ in $\cal C$ I say that ${\mathfrak A}<{\mathfrak B}$ iff there is a ...
14
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2answers
622 views

Intersection of Algebraic Topology/Geometry and Model Theory/Set Theory

Is there any intersection between the ideas of Algebraic Topology/Geometry (I know that there is most certainly a non-trivial intersection between Algebraic Geometry, Algebraic Topology, Arithmetic ...
14
votes
1answer
542 views

Is there a natural model of Peano Arithmetic where Goodstein's theorem fails?

Goodstein's Theorem is the statement that every Goodstein sequence eventually hits 0. It is known to be independent of Peano Arithemtic (PA), and in fact, was the first such purely number theoretic ...
14
votes
1answer
296 views

A *finite* first order theory whose finite models are exactly the $\Bbb F_p$?

Since this question turned out to be trivial, I'm now asking this strengthened version: Is there a finitely axiomatized first order theory $T$ in the language of rings such that its finite models ...
14
votes
1answer
314 views

What lessons have mathematicians drawn from the existence of non-standard models?

So, as someone whose knowledge of mathematics has always come from studying it with an eye towards philosophical/foundational issues and studying it with other philosophers (who are not primarily ...
14
votes
1answer
531 views

Non-ZFC set theory and the hyperreals: problem solved?

The reals are the unique complete ordered field. The hyperreals $\mathbb{R}^*$ are not unique in ZFC, and many people seemed to think this was a serious objection to them. Abraham Robinson responded ...
13
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9answers
799 views

Learning Model Theory

What books/notes should one read to learn model theory? As I do not have much background in logic it would be ideal if such a reference does not assume much background in logic. Also, as I am ...
13
votes
2answers
296 views

A sentence false in a field of characteristic $0$ but true in all fields of positive characteristic?

Consider the language $L=\{+,\cdot, 0, 1\}$ of rings. It is easy to show using compactness that if $\sigma$ is a sentence that holds in all fields of characteristic $0$, there is some $N\in \mathbb N$ ...
13
votes
5answers
211 views

Does “=” have to be interpreted as equality?

To put it briefly: In model theory, we are allowed to interpret any relation symbol in any way we like. So why do people seem to require that "$=$" is interpreted as the actual equality? Let me ...
12
votes
1answer
719 views

(Why) is topology nonfirstorderizable?

Is it the right point of view to say, that topology is nonfirstorderizable (only) because the union of arbitrarily many open sets has to be open? And if "arbitrarily many" was relaxed to "finitely ...
12
votes
3answers
236 views

Axiom of Choice and Determinacy

In my set theory course we have been talking about the axiom of determinacy. One of the first things we showed was that $AD$ and $AC$ are incompatible. We later showed that $ZF+AD$ implies the ...
12
votes
3answers
383 views

On Pudlak's “Life in an Inconsistent World”

In his Logical Foundation of Mathematics and Computational Complexity (2013), Pavel Pudlak invites the readers to ponder about fictitious people whose natural numbers are nonstandard. His exposition ...
12
votes
3answers
379 views

Does every complete theory admit quantifier elimination?

Does every complete theory admit quantifier elimination? I know that at least in some simple cases the reverse is true; such as some reducts of number theory.Thanks
12
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1answer
135 views

Tennenbaum's theorem without overspill

While trying to clean up Wikipedia's proof sketch for Tennenbaum's theorem (there is no computable non-standard model of Peano Arithmetic), the following strategy occurred to me. Since it seems to be ...
11
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4answers
970 views

How can there be genuine models of set theory?

I know that this a beginner's question asked too many times, but I still didn't get an answer which lets me quit asking: Given that a model/interpretation of a theory (in the Tarskian sense) is a ...
11
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2answers
233 views

Putting down axioms for some symbols. Playing with their consequences qualitatively and symbolically. Building theories. The book?

I am interested in the design and building of theories. By building theories, I mean putting down axioms of various kinds, over various fields, exploring their perhaps interesting, or probably boring, ...
11
votes
3answers
314 views

Why does creating a model show consistency?

As per the title, why does the ability to generate a model from axioms prove they are consistent?
11
votes
0answers
348 views

Non-axiomatisability and ultraproducts

Let $T$ be a first-order theory over a language $L$, and let $\mathcal{M}$ be a subclass of the class of models of $T$. As I understand it, if there is no theory $\hat{T}$ over $L$ whose class of ...
10
votes
2answers
404 views

Is Gödel's incompleteness theorem provable without any model-theoretic notion?

The entry on Gödel's incompletenss theorem in Wikipedia says: Any effectively generated theory capable of expressing elementary arithmetic cannot be both consistent and complete. In particular, ...
10
votes
1answer
198 views

Do ordered fields and archimedian ordered fields have the same first-order theory?

Let us suppose that the first-order language of ordered fields has symbols for addition, subtraction, multiplication and order, and constant symbols for 0 and 1. An ordered field is said to be ...
10
votes
2answers
477 views

A question on linear orders and elementary equivalence

Does anybody know whether the following statement is true or false? Conjecture: For every linear order $\langle A, \leq \rangle$ there is a (topologically) closed subset $X$ of $\mathbb{R}$ (the real ...
10
votes
1answer
123 views

Is there a universal property for the ultraproduct?

Given an ultrafilter U on a set I and a collection of ser X_i ($I \in I$) one defines the ultraproduct as the quotient of $\prod X_i $ by the identification $x_i=y_i :\leftrightarrow \{i:x_i=y_i\} \in ...
10
votes
1answer
142 views

Saturated Boolean algebras in terms of model theory and in terms of partitions

Let $\kappa$ be an infinite cardinal. A Boolean algebra $\mathbb{B}$ is said to be $\kappa$-saturated if there is no partition (i.e., collection of elements of $\mathbb{B}$ whose pairwise meet is $0$ ...
10
votes
2answers
281 views

Can A Decidable Theory Have Nonrecursive Models?

Tennenbaum's theorem proves neither addition nor multiplication can be recursive in any countable non-standard model of arithmetic. Tennenbaum's proof applies to theories much weaker than PA. ...
10
votes
0answers
244 views

Number of automorphisms of saturated models

I have the following assignment question: Let $M$ be an $L$-model of cardinality $\kappa$. Assume $M$ is saturated. How can you show that $|\text{Aut}(M)|=2^{|M|}$? I see two possible ...
9
votes
5answers
2k views

Example of non-isomorphic structures which are elementarily equivalent

I just started learning model theory on my own, and I was wondering if there are any interesting examples of two structures of a language L which are not isomorphic, but are elementarily equivalent ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Showing any countable, dense, linear ordering is isomorphic to a subset of $\mathbb{Q}$

I'm trying to knock out a few of the later exercises from Enderton's Elements of Set Theory. This problem is #17, found on page 227. A partial ordering $R$ is said to be dense iff whenever $xRz$, ...
9
votes
2answers
257 views

Can a model of set theory think it is well-founded and in fact not be?

ZF's axiom of regularity implies that no infinite descending sequence of sets $x_1 \ni x_2 \ni x_3 \ni \cdots$ exists. Precisely this theorem asserts the non-existence of a map from $\mathbb{N}$ to ...
9
votes
2answers
233 views

Is there a well defined “intended” model of the real numbers in the same sense as there is one for the natural numbers?

Background: We know that PA has more models than the intended model, N, because it is not strong enough and is also satisfied by non-intended models, known as non-standard models of arithmetic. When ...
9
votes
1answer
185 views

Gödel's way of teaching non-standard models to Takeuti.

In Memoirs of a Proof Theorist, Gaisi Takeuti relates how Gödel taught him about nonstandard models in an "interesting" way: It went as follows. Let T be a theory with a nonstandard model. By ...
9
votes
1answer
211 views

Is this a characterization of well-orders?

While grading some papers and thinking about a question related to well-orders (in particular, pointing a mistake in a solution), I came to think of a reasonable characterization for well-orders. I ...
9
votes
1answer
640 views

Show that binary < “less than” relation is not definable on set of Natural Numbers with successor function

After reading about the question, I've come to believe that it would suffice to exhibit and automorphism of that is not order preserving. However, I'm unsure of how to construct such an automorphism, ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Choosing a Master Thesis Topic: Logic - Model Theory

I am a first-year graduate student in maths. Around these days, I feel I must decide on which exact part of mathematics I shall go through. Infact, I have narrowed down the suitable options but still ...
9
votes
1answer
211 views

$\mathcal U$ Grothendieck universe. Is $\mathcal{P(U)}$ a model for NBG?

Suppose we are in ZFC, let $\mathcal U$ be an uncountable Grothendieck universe and consider the set of its parts $\mathcal{P(U)}$. (I will index axioms as $(\mathcal U.n)$) Note that if $x \in ...
9
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1answer
276 views

Compactness Theorem Application

I am doing an exercise on the compactness theorem of first order logic. The task is to prove that there is no singe first order sentence which is satisfied in exactly the infinite graphs (thereby, a ...
8
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5answers
462 views

What is exactly the meaning of being isomorphic?

I know that the concept of being isomorphic depends on the category we are working in. So specifically when we are building a theory, like when we define the natural numbers, or the real numbers, or ...
8
votes
2answers
356 views

Is the compactness theorem (from mathematical logic) equivalent to the Axiom of Choice?

Or more importantly, is it independent of the axiom of choice. The compactness theorem states the given a set of sentences $T$ in a first order Language $L, T$ has a model iff every finite subset of ...
8
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2answers
274 views

Why is the class of topological spaces not axiomatizable?

This is a follow-up question to this one, where in the answer it is explained how topological spaces may very well be described in a purely first-order manner. Furthermore, the set of first-order ...
8
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3answers
2k views

Is Foundational Research a Dead Field?

I'm a second year mathematics major at a pretty good school. Ever since I became a math major I have been most interested in set theory and logic, which I guess can be lumped into the category of ...