# Tagged Questions

Model theory is the study of (classes of) mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) using tools from mathematical logic. Objects of study in model theory are models for formal languages which are structures that give meaning to the sentences of these formal ...

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### A *finite* first order theory whose finite models are exactly the $\Bbb F_p$?

Since this question turned out to be trivial, I'm now asking this strengthened version: Is there a finitely axiomatized first order theory $T$ in the language of rings such that its finite models ...
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### Tennenbaum's theorem without overspill

While trying to clean up Wikipedia's proof sketch for Tennenbaum's theorem (there is no computable non-standard model of Peano Arithmetic), the following strategy occurred to me. Since it seems to be ...
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### What lessons have mathematicians drawn from the existence of non-standard models?

So, as someone whose knowledge of mathematics has always come from studying it with an eye towards philosophical/foundational issues and studying it with other philosophers (who are not primarily ...
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### Example of non-isomorphic structures which are elementarily equivalent

I just started learning model theory on my own, and I was wondering if there are any interesting examples of two structures of a language L which are not isomorphic, but are elementarily equivalent (...
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### Showing any countable, dense, linear ordering is isomorphic to a subset of $\mathbb{Q}$

I'm trying to knock out a few of the later exercises from Enderton's Elements of Set Theory. This problem is #17, found on page 227. A partial ordering $R$ is said to be dense iff whenever $xRz$, ...
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### Axiom of Choice and Determinacy

In my set theory course we have been talking about the axiom of determinacy. One of the first things we showed was that $AD$ and $AC$ are incompatible. We later showed that $ZF+AD$ implies the ...
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### How can there be genuine models of set theory?

I know that this a beginner's question asked too many times, but I still didn't get an answer which lets me quit asking: Given that a model/interpretation of a theory (in the Tarskian sense) is a ...
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### On Pudlak's “Life in an Inconsistent World”

In his Logical Foundation of Mathematics and Computational Complexity (2013), Pavel Pudlak invites the readers to ponder about fictitious people whose natural numbers are nonstandard. His exposition ...
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### Does “=” have to be interpreted as equality?

To put it briefly: In model theory, we are allowed to interpret any relation symbol in any way we like. So why do people seem to require that "$=$" is interpreted as the actual equality? Let me ...
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### Non-axiomatisability and ultraproducts

Let $T$ be a first-order theory over a language $L$, and let $\mathcal{M}$ be a subclass of the class of models of $T$. As I understand it, if there is no theory $\hat{T}$ over $L$ whose class of ...
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### Does every complete theory admit quantifier elimination?

Does every complete theory admit quantifier elimination? I know that at least in some simple cases the reverse is true; such as some reducts of number theory.Thanks
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### Tarski's decidability proof on real closed field and Peano arithmetic

It seems very confusing that real closed field (which also can be used as the theory of real number) is decidable, while Peano arithmetic, which seems to be a subset of real closed field is ...
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### Does a finite first-order theory which has a model always have a finite model?

I'm curious whether this is true or not: Let T be a finite, first-order theory. If T has a model, then T has a finite model. I would assume the answer is 'yes', but I wanted to make sure I haven'...
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### How does Gödel Completeness fail in second-order logic?

So a while ago I saw a proof of the Completeness Theorem, and the hard part of it (all logically valid formulae have a proof) went thusly: Take a theory $K$ as your base theory. Suppose $\varphi$ ...
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### Is algebra needed to really understand and/or enjoy model theory?

What are the desirable pre-requisites to be able to learn model theory well? In particular, it seems that connections to algebra are used heavily especially as examples. I would like to know if a ...
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### Is Gödel's incompleteness theorem provable without any model-theoretic notion?

The entry on Gödel's incompletenss theorem in Wikipedia says: Any effectively generated theory capable of expressing elementary arithmetic cannot be both consistent and complete. In particular, ...
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### Is Foundational Research a Dead Field?

I'm a second year mathematics major at a pretty good school. Ever since I became a math major I have been most interested in set theory and logic, which I guess can be lumped into the category of ...
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### First Order Logic: Prove that the infinitely many twin primes conjecture is equivalent to existence of infinite primes

I'm learning First Order Logic independently using a college textbook. I've been doing some self exercise question in it and came across this one, which I can't seem to figure out how to do: Let ...
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### Surjective exponentials for algebraically closed fields

The existence of the exponential on $\mathbb{C}$ has a very basic, yet very strong consequence : $(\mathbb{C}^*,\cdot)$ is a quotient of $(\mathbb{C},+)$. This question is concerned with fields $K$ ...
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### Putting down axioms for some symbols. Playing with their consequences qualitatively and symbolically. Building theories. The book?

I am interested in the design and building of theories. By building theories, I mean putting down axioms of various kinds, over various fields, exploring their perhaps interesting, or probably boring, ...
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### Can A Decidable Theory Have Nonrecursive Models?

Tennenbaum's theorem proves neither addition nor multiplication can be recursive in any countable non-standard model of arithmetic. Tennenbaum's proof applies to theories much weaker than PA. ...
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### Why does creating a model show consistency?

As per the title, why does the ability to generate a model from axioms prove they are consistent?
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### Number of automorphisms of saturated models

I have the following assignment question: Let $M$ be an $L$-model of cardinality $\kappa$. Assume $M$ is saturated. How can you show that $|\text{Aut}(M)|=2^{|M|}$? I see two possible ideas/...
Or more importantly, is it independent of the axiom of choice. The compactness theorem states the given a set of sentences $T$ in a first order Language $L, T$ has a model iff every finite subset of \$...