Model theory is the study of (classes of) mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) using tools from mathematical logic. Objects of study in model theory are models for formal languages which are structures that give meaning to the sentences of these formal ...

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6answers
1k views

What is an efficient nesting of mathematical theorems?

Various mathematical areas of research evolved from a wide and diverse range of questions. Many are physical in nature or come from informatics/computer science, some are procedural or optimization ...
12
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1answer
662 views

(Why) is topology nonfirstorderizable?

Is it the right point of view to say, that topology is nonfirstorderizable (only) because the union of arbitrarily many open sets has to be open? And if "arbitrarily many" was relaxed to "finitely ...
3
votes
1answer
441 views

$2\mathbb Z$ is not a definable set in the structure $(\mathbb Z, 0, S,<)$

This is (a translation of) an excerpt from a model theory textbook that shows that $2\mathbb Z$ is not a definable set in the structure $(\mathbb Z, 0, S, <)$, where $S$ is the successor function. ...
15
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1answer
1k views

Non-standard models of arithmetic for Dummies

Why is (1) a copy of $\mathbb{N}$ "followed by" a copy of $\mathbb{Z}$ not a (non-standard) model of arithmetic, neither (2) a copy of $\mathbb{N}$ followed by an infinite sequence of copies of ...
9
votes
1answer
560 views

Show that binary < “less than” relation is not definable on set of Natural Numbers with successor function

After reading about the question, I've come to believe that it would suffice to exhibit and automorphism of that is not order preserving. However, I'm unsure of how to construct such an automorphism, ...
3
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2answers
193 views

What axioms need to be added to second-order ZFC before it has a unique model (up to isomorphism)?

What axioms need to be added to ZFC2 (second-order ZFC) before the theory has a unique model (up to isomorphism)? I was thinking: adjoin the generalized continuum hypothesis (GCH) and a statement ...
3
votes
2answers
157 views

dense linear orders DLO

I am asked to prove that if I have two models of dense linear orders DLOs WITH the minimum and maximum. must be izomorpic to each other by fining direct izomorphy. I seem to always get stuck ...
4
votes
2answers
625 views

A first order sentence such that the finite Spectrum of that sentence is the prime numbers

The finite spectrum of a theory $T$ is the set of natural numbers such that there exists a model of that size. That is $Fs(T):= \{n \in \mathbb{N} | \exists \mathcal{M}\models T : |\mathcal{M}| =n\}$ ...
1
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1answer
83 views

Why is class of one-dimensional vector spaces not axiomatizable?

Prove, class of all one-dimensional vector spaces over R isn't axiomatizable in the signature σ=< +, α, 0>, α* is single function vector multiplication by a scalar $\alpha$ of R. There are ...
13
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9answers
627 views

Learning Model Theory

What books/notes should one read to learn model theory? As I do not have much background in logic it would be ideal if such a reference does not assume much background in logic. Also, as I am ...
21
votes
1answer
310 views

FO-definability of the integers in (Q, +, <)

With $Q$ the set of rational numbers, I'm wondering: Is the predicate "Int($x$) $\equiv$ $x$ is an integer" first-order definable in $(Q, +, <)$ where there is one additional constant symbol ...
4
votes
2answers
389 views

Model existence theorem in set theory

From the FOM newsgroup I learned: It's a theorem of (first-order) set theory that every consistent first-order theory has a model. What's the exact formulation of this theorem in purely ...
5
votes
1answer
426 views

What's the best way to teach oneself both Category Theory & Model Theory?

I've done a bit of reading around both Category Theory & Model Theory (CT & MT) as a novice in each field. I'm interested in how they might combine, particularly when applied to Algebra. [So ...
14
votes
2answers
381 views

Comparing countable models of ZFC

Let us consider the class $\cal C$ of countable models of ZFC. For ${\mathfrak A}=(A,{\in}_A)$ and ${\mathfrak B}=(B,{\in}_B)$ in $\cal C$ I say that ${\mathfrak A}<{\mathfrak B}$ iff there is a ...
8
votes
2answers
220 views

Fraïssé limits and groups

I was recently reading up on Fraïssé limits in Hodges' "A shorter model theory." I was trying to think of some examples and wanted to see if I could take the Fraïssé limit on the category of finite ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Showing any countable, dense, linear ordering is isomorphic to a subset of $\mathbb{Q}$

I'm trying to knock out a few of the later exercises from Enderton's Elements of Set Theory. This problem is #17, found on page 227. A partial ordering $R$ is said to be dense iff whenever $xRz$, ...
6
votes
1answer
273 views

Topological spaces as model-theoretic structures — definitions?

How do model theorists treat topological spaces as structures, i.e., what are the options for the domain, relations, and operations? I've never done any topology, so I have only the definition to go ...
5
votes
1answer
315 views

Does the existence of a $\mathbb{Q}$-basis for $\mathbb{R}$ imply that choice holds up to $\frak c$?

The axiom of choice is, for ZF, equivalent to the statement that every vector space has a basis. The implication of AoC by the existence of a basis for any vector space is shown in this paper. The ...
4
votes
1answer
157 views

Types and Algebraicity

Let $\Phi(\bar x)$ be a type over a set $X$ with respect to a structure $A$. Show that if $\Phi$ is algebraic, then $\Phi$ contains a formula $\phi$ s.t. $A\models\exists\ _{<n}\bar x\phi(\bar x)$ ...
3
votes
1answer
102 views

Automorphism of an elementary extension of a structure that moves an undefinable element

I know that the easiest way to show a point is not definable is to find an automorphism of the structure that moves the given point. I've also seen many examples undefinable points that couldn't be ...
3
votes
1answer
110 views

Existence of elementary substructures of a uncountable structure over a countable language

Let $\kappa$ be an regular uncountable cardinal carrying a $\tau$-structure for some countable language $\tau$. What can be said regarding the existence of ordinals $\alpha <\kappa$ carrying ...
3
votes
1answer
138 views

Why do $\omega$-models of subsystems of $\mathsf{Z}_2$ satisfy full induction?

Richard Shore, in his 2010 paper in the Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, 'Reverse Mathematics: The Playground of Logic', writes that Obviously, if an $\omega$-model $\mathcal{M}$ (those with $M = ...
2
votes
1answer
114 views

Show that if U is a principal ultrafilter then the canonical inmersion is an isomorphism between $\mathcal A$ and $Ult_{U}\mathcal A$

Show that: If $U$ is a principal ultrafilter, then the canonical inmersion $j$ is an isomorphism between $\mathcal A$ and $Ult_{U}\mathcal A$
2
votes
2answers
65 views

Confused about models of ZFC and passage of book

I have a question about a passage of Just/Weese. In the following, let $\mathcal M = \langle M, E \rangle$ be a model of ZFC. Here is the first half of what I'm about to ask a question: So I asked ...
2
votes
2answers
301 views

What is the difference between $\omega$ and $\mathbb{N}$?

What is the difference between $\omega$ and $\mathbb{N}$? I know that $\omega$ is the "natural ordering" of $\mathbb{N}$. And I know that $\mathbb{N}$ is the set of natural numbers (order doesn't ...
1
vote
1answer
145 views

Does elementary embedding exist between two elementary equivalent structures?

By previous question, if there is a elementary embedding from $\mathfrak A$ into $\mathfrak B$, then $\mathfrak A \equiv \mathfrak B$. Now it is naturally to ask conversely, if $\mathfrak A \equiv ...
1
vote
1answer
184 views

Is one structure elementary equivalent to its elementary extension?

Let $\mathfrak A,\mathfrak A^*$ be $\mathcal L$-structures and $\mathfrak A \preceq \mathfrak A^*$. That implies forall n-ary formula $\varphi(\bar{v})$ in $\mathcal L$ and $\bar{a} \in \mathfrak A^n$ ...
25
votes
4answers
968 views

Is $\mathbb{N}$ impossible to pin down?

I don't know if this is appropriate for math.stackexchange, or whether philosophy.stackexchange would have been a better bet, but I'll post it here because the content is somewhat technical. In ZFC, ...
13
votes
3answers
584 views

Comparing Category Theory and Model Theory (with examples from Group Theory).

The following question eats my brain: The standard definition of a "category" and a list of examples following this definition confuses me. My question is simple: (Q1)If someone write "the category ...
14
votes
1answer
272 views

A *finite* first order theory whose finite models are exactly the $\Bbb F_p$?

Since this question turned out to be trivial, I'm now asking this strengthened version: Is there a finitely axiomatized first order theory $T$ in the language of rings such that its finite models ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Is Foundational Research a Dead Field?

I'm a second year mathematics major at a pretty good school. Ever since I became a math major I have been most interested in set theory and logic, which I guess can be lumped into the category of ...
14
votes
2answers
287 views

Applications of model theory to analysis

Some of the more organic theories considered in model theory (other than set theory, which, from what I've seen, seems to be quite distinct from "mainstream" model theory) are those which arise from ...
10
votes
4answers
871 views

How can there be genuine models of set theory?

I know that this a beginner's question asked too many times, but I still didn't get an answer which lets me quit asking: Given that a model/interpretation of a theory (in the Tarskian sense) is a ...
7
votes
5answers
389 views

Most astonishing applications of compactness theorem outside logic

The compactness theorem has a lot of applications to logic and model theory. I'm looking for applications. I'm looking for theorems in other areas of mathematics which seem at first sight to have ...
5
votes
1answer
176 views

Questions about the concept of Structure, Model and Formal Language

When we start to define mathematical logic (specifically, propositional, first order, and second order logic) we start defining the concept of a language. At the begining this is done in a purely ...
10
votes
1answer
113 views

Is there a universal property for the ultraproduct?

Given an ultrafilter U on a set I and a collection of ser X_i ($I \in I$) one defines the ultraproduct as the quotient of $\prod X_i $ by the identification $x_i=y_i :\leftrightarrow \{i:x_i=y_i\} \in ...
10
votes
0answers
221 views

Number of automorphisms of saturated models

I have the following assignment question: Let $M$ be an $L$-model of cardinality $\kappa$. Assume $M$ is saturated. How can you show that $|\text{Aut}(M)|=2^{|M|}$? I see two possible ...
8
votes
1answer
190 views

Is this a characterization of well-orders?

While grading some papers and thinking about a question related to well-orders (in particular, pointing a mistake in a solution), I came to think of a reasonable characterization for well-orders. I ...
8
votes
1answer
147 views

Independence results that cannot be established by forcing.

I read the Wikipedia article on Absoluteness recently and found mention of Shoenfield’s Absoluteness Theorem, which states that if $ \phi $ is any $ \Sigma^{1}_{2} $- or $ \Pi^{1}_{2} $-sentence of ...
8
votes
2answers
118 views

Definability in a given structure

I want to prove the following statements: Is the function "sin" definable in the structure $(\Bbb{R},<,+,\cdot,0,1)$, that is does there exists a formula $\phi=\phi(x_0,x_1)$ such that for all ...
4
votes
0answers
77 views

Gödel's Completeness Theorem and logical consequence

At the end of a long process of "rumination" on "old" math log textbooks, I've found the "missing link" - from my personal point of view - between some issues I've raised in the previous months : (i) ...
3
votes
1answer
168 views

Why every member of ${}^{*}\mathbb{R}$ is infinitely close to some member of ${}^{*}\mathbb{Q}$

Let $\mathbb{Q}$ be the set of rational numbers. Show that every member of ${}^{*}\mathbb{R}$ is infinitely close to some member of ${}^{*}\mathbb{Q}$. This is an exercise on page 180, A ...
2
votes
2answers
112 views

Should axioms be viewed as part of the signature?

I included category theory in the tags in order to get feedback from the categorial logic community. It goes without saying that this isn't really category theory. A semigroup can be defined as a ...
7
votes
2answers
282 views

Is the compactness theorem (from mathematical logic) equivalent to the Axiom of Choice?

Or more importantly, is it independent of the axiom of choice. The compactness theorem states the given a set of sentences $T$ in a first order Language $L, T$ has a model iff every finite subset of ...
6
votes
2answers
235 views

Why continuum hypothesis implies the unique hyperreal system, ${}^{\ast}{\Bbb R}$?

On page 33, Robert Goldblatt, Lectures on Hyperreals(1998): Now it has been shown under certain set-theoretic assumption called continuum hypothesis the choice of $\mathcal F$ is irrelevant: All ...
5
votes
1answer
148 views

Why is there apparently no general notion of structure-homomorphism?

In model theory, one typically defines only embeddings of structures and isomorphisms, but I haven't seen a definition of general structure homomorphisms. Is there some particular reason behind that? ...
5
votes
1answer
159 views

In ZF, does there exist an ordinal of provably uncountable cofinality?

Question is in the title. In ZFC, one can prove that $\aleph_{\alpha+1}$ is regular, so there is a large source of cardinals with uncountable cofinality, but in ZF, it is consistent that ${\rm ...
4
votes
0answers
160 views

Difference between elementary submodel and elementary substructure

This is a really "elementary" question, forgive the pun. What is the difference between an elementary submodel and an elementary substructure (in first-order Logic)? Sincere thanks for help.
4
votes
1answer
196 views

Lindenbaum algebra is a free algebra

The following is a continuation of this question. I would like to prove that the Lindenbaum algebra is a free algebra. Hopefully I would like to hear hints on how to proceed in the 'right' ...
4
votes
1answer
361 views

advantage of first-order logic over second-order logic

As I look over the post that has the similar question, I began to wonder: The only reason I found is that first-order logic can prove validity of some second-order logic formula/sentences, as some of ...