# Tagged Questions

Metric spaces are sets on which a metric is defined. A metric is a generalisation of the concept of "distance". Metric spaces should not be confused with topological spaces.

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### Does there exist a bijection of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with itself such that the forward map is connected but the inverse is not?

Let $(X,\tau), (Y,\sigma)$ be two topological spaces. We say that a map $f: \mathcal{P}(X)\to \mathcal{P}(Y)$ between their power sets is connected if for every $S\subset X$ connected, $f(S)\subset Y$ ...
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### Connected metric spaces with disjoint open balls

Let $X$ be the $S^1$ or a connected subset thereof, endowed with the standard metric. Then every open set $U\subseteq X$ is a disjoint union of open arcs, hence a disjoint union of open balls. Are ...
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### $\pi$ in arbitrary metric spaces

Whoever finds a norm for which $\pi=42$ is crowned nerd of the day! Can the principle of $\pi$ in euclidean space be generalized to 2-dimensional metric/normed spaces in a reasonable way? For ...
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### Is there a categorical definition of submetry?

(Updated to include effective epimorphism.) This question is prompted by the recent discussion of why analysts don't use category theory. It demonstrates what happens when an analyst tries to use ...
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### Why is it that $\mathbb{Q}$ cannot be homeomorphic to _any_ complete metric space?

Why is it that $\mathbb{Q}$ cannot be homeomorphic to any complete metric space? Certainly $\mathbb{Q}$ is not a complete metric space. But completeness is not a topological invariant, so why is the ...
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### Difference between metric and norm made concrete: The case of Euclid

This is a follow-up question on this one. The answers to my questions made things a lot clearer to me (Thank you for that!), yet there is some point that still bothers me. This time I am making ...
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### When is the closure of an open ball equal to the closed ball?

It is not necessarily true that the closure of an open ball $B_{r}(x)$ is equal to the closed ball of the same radius $r$ centered at the same point $x$. For a quick example, take $X$ to be any set ...
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### Not every metric is induced from a norm

I have studied that every normed space $(V, \lVert\cdot \lVert)$ is a metric space with respect to distance function $d(u,v) = \lVert u - v \rVert$, $u,v \in V$. My question is whether every metric ...
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### Homeomorphic to the disk implies existence of fixed point common to all isometries?

A fellow grad student was working on this seemingly simple problem which appears to have us both stuck. (The problem naturally came up in his work so isn't from the literature as far as we know). Let ...
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### Continuous function on a compact metric space is uniformly continuous

I am struggling with this question: Prove or give a counterexample: If $f$ is a continuous function on a compact subset $Y$ of a metric space $X$, then $f$ is uniformly continuous on $Y$. ...
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### Difference between complete and closed set

What is the difference between a complete metric space and a closed set? Can a set be closed but not complete?
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### Nonobvious examples of metric spaces that do not work like $\mathbb{R}^n$

This week, I come to the end of the first year analysis, and suffer from a "crisis of motivation." With this question, I want to chase away my thought, "Why is it important to study the general ...
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### Can a collection of points be recovered from its multiset of distances?

Consider $n$ distinct points $x_1,\dots,x_n$ on $\mathbb{R}$. Associated to these points is the multiset of all distances $d(x_i,x_j)$ between two points. Suppose one is only handed this multiset (you ...
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### The category of compact metric spaces

Let us denote by $(\mathrm{CompMet})$ the category of compact metric spaces with Lipschitz maps as morphisms. I'm interested in properties of this category. It seems to me that it has finite products ...
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### Why are every structures I study based on Real number?

I've been studying basic concepts of inner product vector space, normed vector space and metric space. And all the inner products, norms and metrics are defined to be real-valued functions in my ...
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### When is a metric space Euclidean, without referring to $\mathbb R^n$?

Normally, the Euclidean space is introduced as $\mathbb R^n$. However, I've now been thinking about how one might define the $n$-dimensional Euklidean space only from the properties of the metric. ...
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### If every real-valued continuous function is bounded on $X$ (metric space), then $X$ is compact.

Let $X$ be a metric space. Prove that if every continuous function $f: X \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is bounded, then $X$ is compact. This has been asked before, but all the answers I have seen prove the ...
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### Can you define arc length using a piece of string?

In calculus, how we calculate the arc length of a curve is by approximating the curve with a series of line segments, and then we take the limit as the number of line segments goes to infinity. This ...
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### Two metrics induce the same topology, but one is complete and the other isn't

I'm looking for an example of two metrics that induce the same topology, but so that one metric is complete and the other is not (Since it is known that completeness isn't a topological invariant). ...
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### If $d$ is a metric, is $d(x,y)/(1+d(x,0)+d(y,0))$ a metric?

I now that one can show that if $d$ is a metric on a vectorspace $X$ then so is $$\varrho(x,y):=\frac{d(x,y)}{1+d(x,y)}.$$ This easily follows from the fact that the function $s \mapsto \frac{s}{1+s}$ ...
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### Proving that the triangle inequality holds for a metric on $\mathbb{C}$

Show that $(X,d)$ is a metric space where $X =\Bbb C$ and the distance function is defined as: $$d(x,y) = \frac {2|x-y|}{\sqrt {1+|x|^2} + \sqrt {1 + |y|^2}}, \text{ for } x,y \in \Bbb C.$$ I ...
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### How to develop an intuitive feel for spaces

I'm a physicist who's currently delving deeper into what I would call more 'hardcore' maths (e.g. FEM and control theory). Every now and then, I come across various spaces, such as vector spaces, ...
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### A and B disjoint, A compact, and B closed implies there is positive distance between both sets

Claim: Let $X$ be a metric space. If $A,B\in X$ are disjoint, if A is compact, and if B is closed, then $\exists \delta>0: |\alpha-\beta|\geq\delta\;\;\;\forall\alpha\in A,\beta\in B$. Proof. ...
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### What is a metric for $\mathbb Q$ in the lower limit topology?

A useful source of counterexamples in topology is $\mathbb R_\ell$, the set $\mathbb R$ together with the lower limit topology generated by half-open intervals of the form $[a,b)$. For example this ...
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### A strangely connected subset of $\Bbb R^2$

Let $S\subset{\Bbb R}^2$ (or any metric space, but we'll stick with $\Bbb R^2$) and let $x\in S$. Suppose that all sufficiently small circles centered at $x$ intersect $S$ at exactly $n$ points; if ...
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### Counterexample to “ a closed ball in M is a closed subset.”

I am studying topology, on my own, using a text I found online. I am currently reviewing the “Metrics” section that reminds me of the real analysis course I took over 10 years ago. The text ask me to ...
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### Isometry in compact metric spaces

Why is the following true? If $(X,d)$ is a compact metric space and $f: X \rightarrow X$ is non-expansive (i.e $d(f(x),f(y)) \leq d(x,y)$) and surjective then $f$ is an isometry.
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### Convex metric on a contiuum.

I am having troubles with this problem. Translation: A metric $d$ on a continuum is called convex if for any two points $p$ and $q$ of $X$ there is a point $x\in X$ such that ...
It is well known that passing from metric spaces to quasi-metric spaces (i.e., dropping the requirement that the metric function $d:X\times X\to \mathbb R$ satisfies $d(x,y)=d(y,x)$) carries with it ...