Metric spaces are sets on which you can measure the "distance" between any two points. The distance measurement is generally required to be symmetric (so distance from $A$ to $B$ is the same as distance from $B$ to $A$), positive for two distinct points, and obeying the triangle inequality.

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Pearson correlation and metric properties

Assuming that the data set was $z$-standardized to zero mean and unit variance (also assuming that it does not contain constant vectors). Then Pearson's r reduces to Covariance: $$\rho(X,Y) := ...
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39 views

How to prove this result about this space of sequences?

Let $s$ denote the metric space of all sequences of real or complex numbers with the following metric: $$ d( (\xi_j), (\eta_j) ) := \sum_{j=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{2^j} \frac{|\xi_j - \eta_j|}{ 1 + ...
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141 views

How to prove the metric which defined by supremum of all semi-metric?

Define the function $f:X\times X \to R$ by $d(x,y)=\sup\{d_i(x,y):i\in I\}$, when each $d_i$ is a pseudometric; $d_i(x,y)=0$ need not imply $x=y$; for every $i$ in a directed set $(I,\leq)$ and $X$ is ...
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83 views

A question about a metric on $\mathbb{R}^\mathbb{N}$

Consider the metric space $(\mathbb{R}^{\mathbb{N}},d)$ where for $x,y\in\mathbb{R}^\mathbb{N}$ $$ d(x,y) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} 2^{- n} \frac{\bigvee_{k\leq n}\left|x_k-y_k\right|}{1 + \bigvee_{k\leq ...
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176 views

Showing a differential equation has a unique solution in $C[0, 1]$

Show that $$F(f)(t) = t^2 + \frac{t}{3}f(t) + \frac{1}{5}\int_0^t e^uf(u) du$$ is a contraction on $(C[0, 1), d_u)$. Deduce that the differential equation $$(15 − 5t)\frac{df}{dt} = (5 + 3e^{t})f + ...
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177 views

Prove metric space…

Let $l=\{(a_n)_{n \in ℕ}|a_n \in \Bbb R \text{ and } \sup|a_n|<\infty\}$ If $a=(a_n)$ and $b=(b_n)$ are in $l$, define a metric on $l$ by $$d(a,b)=\sup_{n \in \Bbb N}|a_n-b_n|$$ Prove that $d$ is ...
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83 views

Reference for the characterization of completeness for metric spaces

I have the following criteria for the completeness of a metric space that I want to use in some research paper. Let $(X,d)$ be a metric space. The following conditions are equivalent: (1) $X$ ...
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143 views

Convergence of a function in a metric space to its metric

Given a metric space $(\mathbb{A},d)$ with a metric $d$ being the Euclidean metric, if $\lim_{t \rightarrow \infty}||A_{t+1}-A_t||\rightarrow 0$ is a convergent sequence where $A$ is a matrix with the ...
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108 views

What is the correct distance measure for the (anti) de-Sitter space?

Given these two expressions 1) $\sinh{d}=\frac{\sqrt{t^2−x^2}}{\sqrt{1−(t^2−x^2)}}$ 2) $\sin{d}=\frac{\sqrt{t^2−x^2}}{\sqrt{1+(t^2−x^2)}}$ for distance $d$ from the origin $(0,0)$ to point $(x,t)$, ...
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97 views

Inner product and inequalities

Suppose $p:[0,1]\to \mathbb C$ is a curve where $p(t)=u(t)+iv(t)$ and $u,v$ are smooth functions of $t$. Why then is $$\left(\int_0^1 \langle \dot{p},\dot{p}\rangle^{1\over 2} dt\right)^2\le \int_0^1 ...
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138 views

What's the relationship between the riemannian metric and Jacobi field?

I encounter to the question in reading the following Excise: Let $(M,g)$ be a $m$-dimensional Riemannian manifold, and $(r,\theta^1,\theta^2,\ldots,\theta^{m-1})$ be the (geodesic) polar ...
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271 views

the hyperbolic plane is complete

I'd like to prove that the hyperbolic plane is complete in a short, nice way. Here's my proof, but I'm not convinced of its correctness yet. Let $\mathbb{H}=\left\{(x,y)\in\mathbb{R}^2\big\vert ...
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79 views

Embedding tree metric isometrically into $\ell_\infty$

I just started (independent) learning on metric embeddings from the Fall 2003 offering of the course at CMU. I have a limited mathematical background and alas, it made me stumble at the first exercise ...
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213 views

Trouble with some equivalent conditions of compactness

I'm afraid this question may turn out to be a stupid one. Though it is related to a previous question of mine, I'll write it down in full. Let $(X, d)$ be a metric space (MS). I have to prove the ...
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106 views

Probability metric spaces for which $r \leq R$ implies $\frac{Pr(B(x,r))}{Pr(B(x,R))} \geq \frac{r}{R}$

I'm looking for examples of spaces $X$ such that: $X$ is a probability space. $X$ is a metric space. If $x \in X$ and $0 < r \leq R$ then $\frac{Pr(B(x,r))}{Pr(B(x,R))} \geq \frac{r}{R}$. I ...
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14 views

Density character of a metric subspaces

Is it true that if $M$ is a metric space and $N$ is a metric subspace of $M$ (I mean, $N\subseteq M$ and the metric defined on $N$ is the same metric on $M$ restricted to $N$) then the density ...
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21 views

Rationals in an interval $[a,b] \in \Bbb R$

(i) For which real values $a$ and $b$, ($a < b$), is the set $[a,b] \cap \Bbb Q$ open in $(\Bbb Q, d)$, (where $d(x,y)= \lvert x-y \rvert$)? (ii)For which real values $a,b$ is the set $[a,b] \cap ...
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19 views

Entropy of isometric extension

A similar question to mine was asked before at the address below but it was not answered there so I am asking it again. Also there is a more specific case I am interested in. Topological entropy of ...
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17 views

Question on Uniform Continuity

Is it generally true that all uniformly continuous bijections $f: X \to Y$, where $X$ and $Y$ are metric spaces, have uniformly continuous inverses? If not, then what would be a counterexample, and is ...
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38 views

General Relativity perturbation

Could anyone explain to me what I have misunderstood/missed when trying to understand this paper on GR perturbation? The paper is http://arxiv.org/pdf/0704.0299v1.pdf In equation 25 for $R_{00}$, ...
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24 views

What condition is needed on $S$ and $T$ such that $C(S,T)$ be compact.

If $C(T,S)$ is the set of all continuos function between $T$ and $S$ metric spaces and $S$ compact with the uniform metric. What conditions are needed on $T$ and $S$ such that $C(T,S)$ be compact? ...
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19 views

Ultraproduct of a metric space

I am currently trying to understand "Curvature bounded below: a definition a la Berg--Nikolaev" by Nina Lebedeva and Anton Petrunin. They start with a complete, intrinsic metric and space $X$ and say ...
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16 views

Proving compactness in a geometric scenario

Let $C$ be a compact subset of $R^2$. Let $D$ be the set of all pairs of points $(P,Q)$ from $C$, such that the open segment between $P$ and $Q$ is contained in $C$: $$D = \{(P,Q)|P\in C, Q\in C, ...
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17 views

Proof of Kuratowski-Wojdyslawski theorem

I was reading the Wikipedia page on Kuratowski Embedding, and the following result is stated: The Kuratowski–Wojdysławski theorem states that every bounded metric space $X$ is isometric to a ...
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29 views

Comparison Triangle Angles

I am recently studying CAT(0) spaces and I have some doubts. (this because my intuition goes against what I wrote in classroom, thus I am not sure if I am doing something wrong or I ...
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14 views

Equivalence of Theorems; the sphere on $\ell^2$ is finitely oscillation stable.

I just started reading the book Dynamics of Infinite-dimensional Groups, by Pestov, and right in the introduction the following theorem by Milman is cited: Let $\mathbb{S}^\infty$ denote the sphere in ...
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26 views

Physical Meaning of Minkowski Distance when p > 2

Suppose we have two vectors in $u, v \in \mathbb{R}^d$. For $p \geq 1$, the Minkowski distance between these vectors is defined as $ \lVert u - v \rVert_p = \Bigl( \sum_{i=1}^d \lvert u_i - v_i ...
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29 views

$d,e$ be metrices on $X$ , under what condition(s) the function $g:X \times X \to \mathbb R $ , $g(x,y):=\min \{d(x,y),e(x,y)\}$ , is a metric ?

Let $d,e$ be metrices on a set $X$ , then under what condition(s) the function $g:X \times X \to \mathbb R $ defined by $g(x,y):=\min \{d(x,y),e(x,y)\}$ , is a metric ?
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13 views

Estimate bounds on Minkowski distance from point to a segment in Lp space

Assumptions Let $L_p(x,y)=(\sum_i|x_i - y_i|^p)^{1/p}$ (Minkowski metric), $a,b$ be arbitrary $n$-dimensional points, $c$ be a point that satisfies $L_p(a,b) = L_p(a,c) + L_p(c,b)$, i.e., a point ...
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52 views

How is this topological space different from the euclidean one?

I'm preparing for my topology exam and came across this example which I can't figure out. Let $\mathcal{T}$ be a such family of all sets $U\subset \mathbb{R}^2$ that $U\cap L$ is an open set in L, ...
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27 views

Positive definite functions defined on the embedding of a planar graph in the plane

By way of motivation: Let $f:[0,1]\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^2$ and $g:\mathbb{S}_1\rightarrow\mathbb{R}^2$ be continuous injections, where $\mathbb{S}_1$ is the circle ($\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Z}$). Then, ...
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45 views

Problem 30 in the Exercises following Chapter 2 in Baby Rudin: How to immitate the proof of Theorem 2.43?

Here's problem 30, the very last one, in the Exercises after Chapter 2 in Walter Rudin's Principles of Mathematical Analysis, 3rd edition: Imitate the proof of Theorem 2.43 to obtain the following ...
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25 views

Structure of the space $X:=\{x \subset \mathbb{R}^3: |x| < \infty\}$, where $|x|$ is the cardinality of $x$

I am interested in the space $$ X:=\{x \subset \mathbb{R}^3: |x| < \infty\}, $$ where $|x|$ is the cardinality of the subset $x$. This is basically configuration space for a quantum system with a ...
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30 views

Prove this map is continuous

$(rcos(t),rsin(t))↦((1/r).cos(t),(1/r).sin(t)), 0≤t≤2pi $ first for $0<r<1$, then for $r>1$ My idea is to say $(rcos(t),rsin(t)) = r .(cos(t),sin(t))$ then the cos and sin map with an ...
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36 views

check proof that $B[a,b]$ is not seperable

This is what I have to prove: prove that metric space $B[a,b]$, $a<b$ is not separable. Where $B[a,b]$ is the set of all bounded and defined functions on $[a,b]$, with the metric ...
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60 views

Calculating Euclidean dissimilarity for a given cluster with itself

Suppose I have clusters $$A= \{(1,1)^T, (1,2)^T\} $$ $$B=\{(2,3)^T, (3,4)^T\} $$ $$C= \{(4,5)^T, (5,6)^T, (1,2)^T\} $$ I wish to use the Euclidean dissimilarity and Average linkage to calculate a ...
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26 views

Continuous functions dense in $L_p(X,\mu)$ if $X$ has a special property

Let $X$ be a metric space endowed with a measure $\mu$ satisfying the following condition: all the open and closed sets of $X$ are measurable and for any measurable set $M\subset X$ and any ...
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42 views

highway metric topologically equivalent to euclidean metric?

Consider the Euclidean metric space $(S, d_1)$ on $\mathbb{R^2}$ and the highway metric space $(S, d_h)$ on $\mathbb{R^2}$, where the highway metric is defined as $$d_h(x,y) = \begin{cases} |x_2 ...
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70 views

Confirm solution to chapter 2, Problem 18 in Rudin's book: principals of mathematical analysis

Is there a non-empty perfect set $E$ in $\mathbb{R}^1$ which contains no rational numbers? My effort: Yes, there is. We take $E_0 \colon = [\sqrt{2},\sqrt{3}]$. Then $E_0$ is non-empty, closed, ...
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26 views

Is the following function uniformly continuous?

I am supposed to prove if the function $ f:X \to \mathbb {R}, f (x) = dist (x, A)$ where $ A$ is an arbitrary subset o the metric space $X $ is uniformly continuous. If both points $ x $ and $ y $ ...
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38 views

Is there any standard procedure to properly define a composite metric?

For example, space $A$ has a metric $\rho$, and its subspace $B\subset A$ has a metric $d$, which happens to have much better properties than $\rho$. So if $x_{1},x_{2}\in A\setminus B$, but they are ...
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56 views

Point-set topology - derived sets, boundaries, etc.

Consider the metric space $(\mathbb R^2,\sigma)$, where $\sigma$ is the discrete metric. Let $$E=\lbrace(x,y)\in \mathbb R^2 : x^2+y^2<1 \rbrace$$ i.e. the unit disc. Find the following sets ...
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43 views

Assumptions of Kolmogorov extension theorem

As far as I know, a class of spaces for which the Kolmogorov theorem works and which is closed under countable products, are the spaces of complete separable metric spaces which are also called Polish ...
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49 views

Reference for convergence properties of the Hausdorff distance

Consider the following properties of the Hausdorff distance in $\mathbb R^n$. Let $\Omega_n \supset \Omega_{n+1} \supset ...$ a sequence of open, convex and bounded sets with ...
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51 views

Metric on total space, connection and Hopf fibration

As is well known that the three sphere $S^3$ may be viewed as a $S^1$ bundle over base space $S^2$. And it is more interesting, but likewise confusing to me that the metric on $S^3$ may be written as: ...
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105 views

Regarding metrizability of weak/weak* topology and separability of Banach spaces.

Let $X$ be a Banach space, $X^*$ its dual, $\mathcal{B}$ the unit ball of $X$ and $\mathcal{B}^*$ the unit ball of $X^*$. The following result is well-known Theorem. If $X$ is separable, then ...
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15 views

distance metric between multisets

I am trying to define a distance $F(X,Y)$ between two multisets $X$ and $Y$. For each pair of $x \in X , y \in Y$ there exists a distance function $f(x,y)$ which takes the range of $[0,1]$. An ...
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27 views

Does a strictly convex and weak metrizable unit sphere of a Banach space imply separability?

I want know If $X$ be a Banach space with strictly convex norm and a metrizable unit sphere, $S_X=\{x\in X: \|x\|=1\}$, for the weak topology. Does a strictly convex and weak metrizable unit ...
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51 views

Inequality proof using the triangle inequality

I am reading Kreyszig's Intro to Functional Analysis and am a bit stoked with one of the problems (problem 12 in section 1.1, page 9): Problem: Given a metric space $(X, d)$, show, using the ...
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67 views

$p$-adic metric proof

I need to prove this, Let $p$ be an odd number. It is defined the function $v_p:\mathbb{Q}\to \mathbb{Z}$ as $$v_p\left(p^n\frac{a}{b}\right)=n, \hbox{ if } \mathrm{mcd}(a,p)=\mathrm{mcd}(b,p)=1.$$ ...