Metric spaces are sets on which you can measure the "distance" between any two points. The distance measurement is generally required to be symmetric (so distance from $A$ to $B$ is the same as distance from $B$ to $A$), positive for two distinct points, and obeying the triangle inequality.

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Kullback-Leibler $KL(p,q)\neq KL(q,p)$

I'm doing a course of Artificial Intelligence and in my homework I must to provide a counter example to show that the Kullback-Leibler distance is not a symmetric function of its arguments: $$ ...
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100 views

Pointwise convergence on a complete metric space

Let $ f_n :X \rightarrow R $ be sequence of continuous function on complete metric space $(X,d)$, which convergence pointwisely to $ f: X\rightarrow R $ mean that $ f_n(x)\rightarrow f(x)$ $ ...
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90 views

Discontinuous function on Q

let $ f_n :X \rightarrow R $ be sequence of continuous function on complete metric space $(X,d)$, which convergence pointwisely to $ f: X\rightarrow R $ mean that $ f_n(x)\rightarrow f(x)$ $ ...
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65 views

When is a function space a Fréchet space?

Let $Q$ be a space of indices, and let $(V, |\cdot|)$ be a Banach space of values. Define the function space $X = C(Q,V)$, and equip it with the topology generated by seminorms $\|x\|_D := \sup_{d \in ...
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60 views

Is there a non-complete and non-separate metric space?

Is there a (non-trival) non-complete and non-separate metric space? Some notions are here: math.stackexchange.com/questions/182316.
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43 views

On local rings $(R,m)$ having a metrizable $m$-adic topology

If $R$ is a local ring with maximal ideal $m$ and the intersection of powers of $m$ is $0$, then the $m$-adic topology is metrizable. Is there a condition on $R$ assuring that the metric space so ...
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44 views

The characterization of asymptotic dimension

Let X be a metric space. The following conditions are equivalent (a)asdimX = n (b)n is the smallest integer such that for every R > 0 there exists n + 1 families Ui i=0,1,2,...,n, and S > 0 such ...
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46 views

Finding an isometry given the distance between points

If $A,B,C,D \in \mathbb{R}^n$, such that $d(A,B)=d(C,D)$, then exists an isometry $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n $, such that $f(A)=C, f(B)=D$. Thanks a lot for the help.
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136 views

Completeness of metric space induced by outer measure (similar to Nikodym metric)

Let $S_\mu$ be a semi-ring of subsets of $X$ and $\mu$ be a $\sigma$-additive measure on $S_\mu$. Let $\mu^*$ be the induced outer measure on $P(X)$. Define a relation $\sim$ on $P(X)$ by ...
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84 views

Constructing a metric for a metrizable space.

I am an electrical engineering PhD student, not a formally educated mathematician. I could prove that the main space I am using in my dissertation is metrizable (using Urysohn's metrization ...
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95 views

Show that the distance between these two sets is not bounded.

I have a homework question that asks: "Consider the curve $\gamma : [1, \infty] \to \mathbb{R}^2$ defined by $\gamma (t) = \langle t \cos (\ln t), t \sin (\ln t) \rangle$. Show that this curve is ...
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335 views

Proving the $l_p$ space is complete.

I'm trying to prove $l_p$ spaces are complete. We have an $l_p$ space $W$. Let us take a cauchy sequence. There exists $N_0\in\Bbb{N}$ such that for $m,n>N_0$, $d(x^m,x^n)<\epsilon$. This ...
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73 views

Is this case possible (hedgehog metric, colinearity)

My topology class was asked to prove that the hedgehog metric was indeed a metric (the details are irrelevant for my question). This does not concern the proof itself, but rather the structure of the ...
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47 views

Does this have a name (metric space related measure of closeness)?

Consider a metric space $(M,d)$, and let $D: M \times M \to \mathbb{R}_+$ be a measure of similarity on it, so that $D(x,y)$ is large when $x$ and $y$ are close (i.e., $d(x,y)$ is small). Consider a ...
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244 views

Bounded Lipschitz Metric on Space of Positive Measures

The bounded Lipschitz metric ($d_{BL}$) metrizes the weak convergence of probability measures on $\mathbb{R}$ with respect to bounded continuous test functions $C^0_b(\mathbb{R})$ $$d(\mu, \nu) = ...
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82 views

Let $x=(x_n)$ be a Cauchy sequence in a metric space $X$ having a convergent subsequene

Let $x=(x_n)$ be a Cauchy sequence in a metric space $X$ having a convergent subsequene $x\sigma=(x_{\sigma_n})$ where $\sigma:\mathbb N\to\mathbb N$ is strictly increasing. Then $(x_n)$ is ...
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78 views

Metric on the set of CDFs with finite p-th moment

Let $\mathcal{F}_p$, $p \ge 1$, be the set of all cumulative distribution functions of real valued random variables whose $p$-th moment is finite. I'm looking for a metric on $\mathcal{F}_p$ and ...
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61 views

Distance between sets in a partial metric space

How can we define distance between two sets say, $A$ and $B$ in a partial metric space $(X, p)$? Will it be non-symmetric as in the case of a metric $d$, i.e.; we have $d(A, B)$ not equal to $d(B, A)$ ...
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141 views

a problem on metric spaces

I am reading the book by Burago and Ivanov "A course in metric geometry". I tried to do some problems but have some difficulties. For example, page 66 exercise 3.1.26: Let $(X, d)$ be a metric space ...
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80 views

convergence in metric space

Let $C[-1, 1]$ be the space of continuous functions equipped with the metric $(f, g) = \displaystyle\max_{x \in [-1, 1]} |f(x)-g(x)|$. Consider the sequence $(f_n)$ of functions $f_n : [-1, 1] \to ...
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96 views

Regarding nowhere dense subsets and their measure.

A while ago it was made clear that a nowhere dense subset $P \subset [0;1]$ whose Lebesgue measure $\mu(P) = \mu([0;1]) = 1$ doesn't exist. But is it possible in principle to define a nowhere dense ...
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138 views

Space of functions that are everywhere differentiable

Define the space $\beta^1([a,b])$ as the space of functions $f : [a,b] \mapsto \Bbb R$ which are everywhere differentiable and whose derivative $f'$ is a bounded function. One equips this space with ...
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135 views

For a family of functions $F\subset C(X)$ in the metric space $(C(X),d)$, if $F$ is compact on compact subsets of $X$, then $F$ is compact on $X$

The problem as stated in the title isn't quite correct. Let $X$ be a topological space. What I have is a family of functions $F\subset C(X)$ in the metric space $(C(X),d)$ which on compact subsets ...
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444 views

Pearson correlation and metric properties

Assuming that the data set was $z$-standardized to zero mean and unit variance (also assuming that it does not contain constant vectors). Then Pearson's r reduces to Covariance: $$\rho(X,Y) := ...
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40 views

How to prove this result about this space of sequences?

Let $s$ denote the metric space of all sequences of real or complex numbers with the following metric: $$ d( (\xi_j), (\eta_j) ) := \sum_{j=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{2^j} \frac{|\xi_j - \eta_j|}{ 1 + ...
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142 views

How to prove the metric which defined by supremum of all semi-metric?

Define the function $f:X\times X \to R$ by $d(x,y)=\sup\{d_i(x,y):i\in I\}$, when each $d_i$ is a pseudometric; $d_i(x,y)=0$ need not imply $x=y$; for every $i$ in a directed set $(I,\leq)$ and $X$ is ...
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84 views

A question about a metric on $\mathbb{R}^\mathbb{N}$

Consider the metric space $(\mathbb{R}^{\mathbb{N}},d)$ where for $x,y\in\mathbb{R}^\mathbb{N}$ $$ d(x,y) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} 2^{- n} \frac{\bigvee_{k\leq n}\left|x_k-y_k\right|}{1 + \bigvee_{k\leq ...
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179 views

Showing a differential equation has a unique solution in $C[0, 1]$

Show that $$F(f)(t) = t^2 + \frac{t}{3}f(t) + \frac{1}{5}\int_0^t e^uf(u) du$$ is a contraction on $(C[0, 1), d_u)$. Deduce that the differential equation $$(15 − 5t)\frac{df}{dt} = (5 + 3e^{t})f + ...
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228 views

Prove metric space…

Let $l=\{(a_n)_{n \in ℕ}|a_n \in \Bbb R \text{ and } \sup|a_n|<\infty\}$ If $a=(a_n)$ and $b=(b_n)$ are in $l$, define a metric on $l$ by $$d(a,b)=\sup_{n \in \Bbb N}|a_n-b_n|$$ Prove that $d$ is ...
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83 views

Reference for the characterization of completeness for metric spaces

I have the following criteria for the completeness of a metric space that I want to use in some research paper. Let $(X,d)$ be a metric space. The following conditions are equivalent: (1) $X$ ...
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145 views

Convergence of a function in a metric space to its metric

Given a metric space $(\mathbb{A},d)$ with a metric $d$ being the Euclidean metric, if $\lim_{t \rightarrow \infty}||A_{t+1}-A_t||\rightarrow 0$ is a convergent sequence where $A$ is a matrix with the ...
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108 views

What is the correct distance measure for the (anti) de-Sitter space?

Given these two expressions 1) $\sinh{d}=\frac{\sqrt{t^2−x^2}}{\sqrt{1−(t^2−x^2)}}$ 2) $\sin{d}=\frac{\sqrt{t^2−x^2}}{\sqrt{1+(t^2−x^2)}}$ for distance $d$ from the origin $(0,0)$ to point $(x,t)$, ...
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97 views

Inner product and inequalities

Suppose $p:[0,1]\to \mathbb C$ is a curve where $p(t)=u(t)+iv(t)$ and $u,v$ are smooth functions of $t$. Why then is $$\left(\int_0^1 \langle \dot{p},\dot{p}\rangle^{1\over 2} dt\right)^2\le \int_0^1 ...
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146 views

What's the relationship between the riemannian metric and Jacobi field?

I encounter to the question in reading the following Excise: Let $(M,g)$ be a $m$-dimensional Riemannian manifold, and $(r,\theta^1,\theta^2,\ldots,\theta^{m-1})$ be the (geodesic) polar ...
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80 views

Embedding tree metric isometrically into $\ell_\infty$

I just started (independent) learning on metric embeddings from the Fall 2003 offering of the course at CMU. I have a limited mathematical background and alas, it made me stumble at the first exercise ...
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220 views

Trouble with some equivalent conditions of compactness

I'm afraid this question may turn out to be a stupid one. Though it is related to a previous question of mine, I'll write it down in full. Let $(X, d)$ be a metric space (MS). I have to prove the ...
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108 views

Probability metric spaces for which $r \leq R$ implies $\frac{Pr(B(x,r))}{Pr(B(x,R))} \geq \frac{r}{R}$

I'm looking for examples of spaces $X$ such that: $X$ is a probability space. $X$ is a metric space. If $x \in X$ and $0 < r \leq R$ then $\frac{Pr(B(x,r))}{Pr(B(x,R))} \geq \frac{r}{R}$. I ...
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33 views

Name of the metric: $d(f,g)=\max \limits_{a\leq x \leq b} |f(x)-g(x)|$

What is the name of the metric: $$d(f,g)=\max \limits_{a\leq x \leq b} |f(x)-g(x)|$$ Where $f,g\in X$ where $X$ is the space of all continuous functions. I can't find any documentation on this ...
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22 views

Embedding of $K_{2,3}$ into $\ell_1$

I am looking for hints for the following problem: Prove that every embedding of $K_{2,3}$ (with the shortest path metric and unit edge-length) into $\ell_1$ has distortion at least 4/3! Notation: ...
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34 views

A measure on the space of probability measures

I've been reading about optimal transport and it's connections to geometry. At some point one has to study a bit of the structure of the space of probability measures, $\mathcal{P}(X)$, (over a metric ...
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30 views

Order and Metric

Consider the Reals as a totally ordered set via its natural order ( linear continuum ). Such order induces an order topology ( basis is the collection of open-intervals of that order), which ...
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52 views

If $E= A\cup B \cup C$ and $E$ is connected , where $A$ and $B$ are disconnected and $C$ is connected, then $A \cup C$ is connected.

If $E= A\cup B \cup C$ and $E$ is connected in a metric space $(X,d)$, where $A$ and $B$ are disconnected and $C$ is connected, then $A \cup C$ is connected. If we consider that $A \cup C$ is not ...
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0answers
20 views

Weak Convergence in Metric Space proof

I have been reading Billingsleys book where I came across this theorem and proof. I am having difficulty understanding the theorem/proof. I feel there is a better, more complete way to prove it. Does ...
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66 views

$A \subset \Bbb R$ such that $A$, $clA$, $int(A)$, $cl(int(A))$, $int(clA)$ are pairwise distinct

Do there exist subsets with internal closures $A$ of $\mathbb R$ such that $A$ , $\bar A$ , $A^0$ , $(\bar A)^0$ , $\overline{A^0}$ are pairwise distinct ? I found an example from a book that such a ...
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18 views

small expected contraction embedding into trees?

I learned FRT theorem for probabilistic metric embedding into trees: For any finite metric d, there exists a distribution over non contracting, small expected expansion tree metrics. The theorem can ...
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19 views

Let $V$ be a NLS (over $\mathbb R$ ) of dimension $>1$, then for any $0 \le a < b$ , is the set $\{v \in V : a < ||v|| < b\}$ connected?

Let $V$ be a normed linear space (over $\mathbb R$ ) , then for any $0 \le a < b$ , is the set $\{v \in V : a < ||v|| < b\}$ connected ? I know that if $V$ is the space of complex numbers ...
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20 views

How to show $\mathbb{R^2}$ is sequentially connected without path-connectedness

Definitions: Connected: Not separated Separated: If $C$ is a subset of a metric space, then $(A, B)$ is a separation of $C$ if $C = A \cup B$, $A \neq \varnothing$, $B \neq \varnothing$, and ...
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0answers
23 views

Trying to prove Tietze extension theorem

I am trying to prove Tietze extension theorem for metric spaces that is " If $X$ is a metric space , $F$ is a closed set in $X$ and $f:F \to [0,1]$ is a continuous function , then there is a ...
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0answers
34 views

Topologizing ergodic system so that certain function becomes continuous

Let $X$ be a compact metric space and $\mathcal{B}$ its Borel $\sigma$-algebra. Suppose that $(X,\mathcal{B},\mu,T)$ is an invertible ergodic system ($T$ is only a measurable isomorphism, not ...
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30 views

Sequence of bounded sequence in metric space

I am reading a paper and bumped at this lemma which I do not know the proof and would like to see some reference. Please suggested me a possible reference. Let $M$ be a metric space and ...