Metric spaces are sets on which you can measure the "distance" between any two points. The distance measurement is generally required to be symmetric (so distance from $A$ to $B$ is the same as distance from $B$ to $A$), positive for two distinct points, and obeying the triangle inequality.

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Defining a metric in the tangent spaces $ T_xM $

I'm working with a metric $D$ over the manifold of grassman $G_n(\mathbb{R}^{d})$ and have difficulties to extend $D$. Let me explain: If $M$ is a submanifold of dimension $n$ in $\mathbb{R}^{d}$ ...
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19 views

When does equality occur in the triangle inequality in metric space? [on hold]

When I think of $\mathbb{R}^n$ , $n\leq 3$ ; it is very easy given the usual metric. But what if the metric is not usual?
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4answers
63 views

Are there an infinite number of open balls in an open set in a metric space?

Let's start off by recalling the definition of an open set in a metric space: A set $A$ in a metric space $(X,d)$ is open if for each point $x\in A$ there is a number $r\gt0$ such that $B_r(x)\subset ...
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23 views

The convergence of different metrics on the same space

The following example is from my notes, and I would like clarification on some wider points connected to it, namely about extensions from what we understand metrics and metric spaces to be. It follows ...
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1answer
25 views

Changing of the limits of integration with the integral metric.

Consider the following sequence of functions, $$f_n(x) = \begin{cases} nx & \text{for $0\le x \le \frac1n$} \\ 1 & \text{for $x\ge \frac1n$} \end{cases}$$ And call to mind the integral ...
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On a metric over m-subsets of [n]

Given an integer $n$, denote the set of integers $\{1,2,\dots,n\}$ as $[n]$. For two $m$-subsets $A$ and $B$ of $[n]$, list their elements in the increasing order as $a_1 < a_2 < \dots < a_m$ ...
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1answer
37 views

Showing $d(x,y)=0$ iff $x_{n}=y_{n}$

Consider the space $\mathbb{R}^{\infty}$ of all sequences $x=\left \{ x_{1},x_{2},... \right \}$ of real numbers. Define the function $d:\mathbb{R}^{\infty}\times \mathbb{R}^{\infty}\rightarrow ...
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2answers
30 views

Predicate logic inference in a simple proof of uniform continuity.

For a function $f$ from a metric space $X$ into a metric space $Y$, uniform continuity can defined in this way: $\forall ε>0:\existsδ > 0:\forall p,q\in X:d_{X}(p,q)<δ \rightarrow ...
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2answers
26 views

$A$ is a convex subset with non-empty interior and $D$ is dense in $\mathbb R^n$ ; then $\mathbb R^n$ , $U\cap D \cap A \ne \phi$? [on hold]

Let $A$ be a convex subset , with non-empty interior , of $\mathbb R^n$ and $D$ be a dense subset of $\mathbb R^n$ ; then is it true that for every open subset $U$ of $\mathbb R^n$ , $U\cap D \cap A$ ...
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3answers
12 views

$A$ be a convex subset and $D$ be dense in a real NLS ; then for every non-empty open subset $U$ of the NLS , $U\cap D\cap V \ne \phi$?

Let $A$ be a convex subset of a real normed linear space $V$ and $D$ be a dense subset of $V$ ; then is it true that for every non-empty open subset $U$ of $V$ , $U\cap D\cap A $ is non-empty ?
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1answer
30 views

Complement of the union of countably many , mutually disjoint , non-empty open balls in $\mathbb R^n , (n >1) $ is path connected?

Let $n \ge 2$ and $\{B_m\}_{m=1}^\infty$ be countably infinitely many , mutually disjoint , non-empty open balls in $\mathbb R^n$ , then is $\mathbb R^n \setminus \cup_{m=1}^\infty B_m$ ...
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1answer
48 views

Confused about the open/closed set in metric space

Let $(M,d)$ be a metric space. I understand well that $\emptyset$ and $\mathbb{R}$ are both open and closed sets. I read some notes that say, that $\emptyset$ and $M$ are both open and closed. So, ...
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1answer
42 views

Distance between a point and an empty set: meaning and value?

On page 253 in General Topology by R Engelking: The distance $\rho(x, A)$ from a point $x$ to a set $A$ in a metric space $(X,\rho)$ is defined by letting $\rho(x, A) = \text {inf}\ {\{\rho(x, a) ...
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26 views

Statement about the discrete (metric) space, and both an open and closed ball.

I have the following statement from my notes: "Let $(X,d)$ be the discrete space i.e. any non-empty set with the discrete metric ($d_d(x,y)=1$ for all $x\neq y$). Then, amazingly, $B_1(x)=\{x\}$, a ...
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13 views

Find Connected Components

Let $X = \mathbb{R^2}$ and let $F_k$ be the closed line segment joining $(-1,2^{-k})$ and $(1,2^{-k})$ Additionally let $a = (-1,0) \ ,\ b=(1,0)$ Consider $A = \{a,b\} \cup \ ...
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1answer
38 views

Dense $G_{\delta}$ set implies comeagre set

Suppose that $X$ is a metric space. Show that if $D$ is a dense $G_{\delta}$ set, then $D$ is comeagre, that is, countable intersection of dense sets. My attempt: Let $D=\bigcap_{n \in ...
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1answer
62 views

Why is the Gromov-Hausdorff distance a metric?

The Gromov-Hausdorff distance is: $$ d_{GH}(A,B) = \inf_{f,g}d_H(A',B') $$where $f$ and $g$ are isometric embeddings of $A,B$ into some metric space, and their images are $A', B'$. The inf is taken ...
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3answers
43 views

Constructing true metrics in infinite dimensional vector spaces?

Is there an example of a true metric defined on a function space? I'd imagine it is some type of integral involving two functions, and it will return a value that obeys the metric axioms, but I have ...
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1answer
30 views

Quadratic form as generalized distance?

In the book A Linear Systems Primer (by Antsaklis and others), they first mention squared distance of a point x from the origin: $$x^{T}x = ||{x}||^2$$ which represents the square of the ...
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1answer
14 views

Lipschitz maps on locally compact groups

Suppose $G$ is a locally compact second countable group. This means that there exists a proper (closed bounded sets are compact) left invariant ($d(gx,gy) = d(x,y) \ \forall g,x,y \in G$) metric on ...
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1answer
20 views

Inherited properties of boundary points [on hold]

My question is related to subspaces of metric spaces, and the inherited properties of points in those subspaces. Given a subspace $(D,d) \subset (X,d)$, where $d$ is a well defined metric. Say that ...
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1answer
34 views

How to prove this two separations of connectedness is equivalent?

Definition 1$\quad$ A metric space $E$ is connected if it cannot be written as the union of two nonempty separated sets (in $E$). Definition 2$\quad$ A metric space $E$ is connected if it cannot be ...
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1answer
63 views

What is wrong with my brute-force approach to proving that $\mathbb R$ as a metric space obeys the triangle inequality?

In a self-study of metric spaces, I'm looking at the very basic exercise of proving that $(\mathbb R, |y-x|)$ is a metric space. The sticking point was the triangle inequality. I did manage to ...
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1answer
41 views

How to show $G$ is a perfect set that contains no rational points?

For $E:=[0,1]$, since $\Bbb Q\cap E$ is enumerable, let it be $\{q_1,q_2,\cdots\}$. If I remove the elements of $V_1:=(q_1-\frac1{10},q_1+\frac1{10})$ from $E$, I obtain a closed (and compact) set ...
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1answer
28 views

Prove the Supremum is attained.

Let $F$ denote denote the set of real valued functions on $[0,1]$ such that, 1) $ \; |f(x)| \leq 1 \; \forall x \; \in [0,1]$ 2) $ \; |f(x)-f(x')| \leq |x-x'| \; \: \forall x,x' \: \in [0,1] $ ...
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2answers
18 views

Proving that a subset endowed with the discrete metric is both open and closed - choice of radius of the ball around a point

My question is related to proving that any subset $D \subset X$, where $(X,d)$ is a metric space with $d$ being the discrete metric, is both open and closed. I've read some suggestions to a ...
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2answers
15 views

Suppose $X$ is a metric space. Let $C$ denote the collection of all dense subsets of $X$. Show that $\bigcap C = iso(X)$

Suppose $X$ is a metric space. Let $C$ denote the collection of all dense subsets of $X$. Show that $\bigcap C = \mathrm{iso}(X)$, where $\mathrm{iso}(X)$ refers to the set of all isolated points of ...
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1answer
34 views

Proving that is $A:X \implies Y$ is a linear operator from metric space X to Y is continuous iff it is bounded bounded

The $\implies$ part interests me. The proof given goes like this: Let $A$ be continuous in 0 (because the 0 vector is in every vector space) $B_y(0,r)=\{y \in Y | \| y\|<r \} \implies \exists ...
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2answers
38 views

How do I rate smoothness of discretely sampled data? (Picture!!!)

In the sense that the following curves pictured in order will be rated 98%, 80%, 40%, 5% smooth approximating by eye. My ideas: (1) If the curves all follow some general shape like a polynomial ...
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1answer
56 views

Continuity of norm. Need to understand how and why

$f:X \to \mathbb R \ \ \ , \ f(x)=\| x\|.$ Prove that $f$ is continuous. I have this definition of continuity in metric spaces: Let $(X, d_x)$ and $(Y,d_y)$ be metric spaces. $$f\in C(a) ...
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1answer
36 views

Show that $A\subseteq B\implies A^{\circ} \subseteq B^{\circ}$ in a different way.

Let $A$ and $B$ be subsets of a metric space $(M,d)$. If $A\subseteq B$, then $A^{\circ} \subseteq B^{\circ}$. Proof : Assume that $a\in A^{\circ}$. Then there exists a $r>0$ such that ...
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1answer
15 views

Separability of $l^{p}$ spaces

How can I prove that the space $l^{p}$ equipped with the norm (for $x=(x_{n}) \in l^{p})$: $||x||_{p}=(\displaystyle\sum_{n}|x_{n}|^{p})^{1/p}$ Is a separable space? (i.e. showing that there is a ...
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1answer
60 views

Homeomorphism $\mathbb{R}^{2}\setminus \mathbb Z^2$ to $\mathbb{R}^{2}\setminus \{ (x,y) \ | \ (x-n)^2+(y-m)^2<\frac{1}{10}, n, m \in\mathbb Z \}$

Show that $\mathbb{R}^{2}\setminus \{(x,y)\, |\, x \text{ and } y \text{ integers }\}$ is homeomorphic to the space $\mathbb{R}^{2}\setminus \big\{(x,y) \ | \text{ there are integers } $n$, $m$ ...
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1answer
25 views

Evaluation function is Lipschitz wrt uniform conv metric

In the book on Brownian motion by Schilling and Praetzsch there is following statement: Let $\mathcal{C}_{(0)}:=\{f\in\mathcal{C}[0,\infty):\ f(0)=0\}$ be the space of all continuous functions ...
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What does it mean when two sets are “adjoined” in a metric space?

I encountered the word "adjoined" in Baby Rudin, Chapter 2 concerning basic topology on Euclidean space. It appeared in the proof to Theorem 2.35 Theorem$\quad$ Closed subsets of compact sets are ...
3
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3answers
55 views

Continuity of distance function

I wonder if this is obvious because it does not appear to me obvious at all: Reference: [Hormander: An introduction to Complex Analysis in Several Variables], page 37: Here is the quote Now, let ...
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1answer
28 views

Doubling measure and Riesz Potential

I am currently trying to solve some analysis exercises on metric spaces, but I cannot quite tackle on of them. The exercises read as follows: Define the measure ...
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1answer
42 views

Prove that if the closure of each open ball in compact metric space is the closed ball with the same radius, then any ball in this space is connected

I'm having some difficulty with the following problem in general topology: Prove that if the closure of each open ball in compact metric space is the closed ball with the same center and radius, then ...
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weakly compact convex subset of Banach space and separability

Let E be a weakly compact convex subset of Banach space X. T:E→KC(E) nonexpansive self mapping. Since T is a sellf mapping we may assume that E is separable. Why?
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25 views

Using CAT(0) inequality

Let $X$ be a CAT(0) space with metric $d$. Let $p,x,y$ three points on $X$, and let $u,v$ be points on geodesic $[p,x]$ and geodesic $[p,y]$ such that $d(p,u)\geq a,d(p,v)\geq a$,where a is some ...
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1answer
57 views

Is every compact set in $\mathbb R^2$ a continuous image of some compact set of $\mathbb R$?

Is it true that for every compact subset $A$ of $\mathbb R^2$ , there exist a compact set $B$ in $\mathbb R$ such that there is a continuous surjection from $B$ to $A$ ?
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1answer
48 views

Prove that metric Space $X$ must be complete

If every nest $F$ of non empty closed subsets of a metric spaces $X$ satisfying $\inf\{diam(A)~|~A \in F\}=0$ has singleton intersection,then $X$ must be complete. Attempt: My textbook gives the ...
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2answers
56 views

Basic topology: having trouble understanding a couple of things in Baby Rudin

I'm reading Baby Rudin's chapter 2 concerning Euclidean space. First, I find these two statements very confusing to me, which seemingly contradict: (1). In Example 2.16 there is a statement that ...
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1answer
52 views

Proof of Cantor's Intersection Theorem

I am going through metric spaces by Michael Searcoid. The text proves the Cantor's Intersection theorem as shown in the image below. I understand the proof. However, just one thing, I am a little in ...
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10 views

Finiteness of Assouad-Nagata dimension in neighbourhood

Given a metric space $Y \subset X$ with finite Assouad-Nagata dimension. When is it possible to find a $\epsilon$-neighbourhood (meaning $N_\epsilon = \{x \in X : d(x,Y) \leq \epsilon\})$ which also ...
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2answers
23 views

If $\inf\{diam ~(A)~|~A \in F\} =0.$ Show that $\bigcap F = \emptyset$ or $\bigcap F$ is a singleton set.

Suppose $(X,d)$ is a metric space and that $F$ is a nest of non empty subsets of $X$ for which $\inf\{diam ~(A)~|~A \in F\} =0.$ Show that $\bigcap F = \emptyset$ or $\bigcap F$ is a singleton set. ...
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2answers
56 views

Prove that $f_A (x) = d({\{x}\}, A)$, is continuous.

Prove that: Let $(X, d)$ be a metric space, and let $A$ be a subset of $X$. The function $f_A\colon X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, defined by $f_A (x) = d({\{x}\}, A)$, is continuous. Honestly, I ...
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1answer
24 views

Subset of a $F_{\sigma}$ set is $F_{\sigma}$

Suppose that $X$ is a metric space. Is it always true that for any $F_{\sigma}$ set $A$, any subset $B \subset A$, $B$ is $F_{\sigma}$? It seems correct to me but I have no idea how to prove it.
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3answers
46 views

A nice way to see that $(\ell^\infty,d_\infty)$ is not separable

Let $(X,d)$ a metric space such that $\exists A\subseteq X$ uncountable and $\exists \epsilon\gt0$ such that $\forall x,y \in A,x\neq y\Rightarrow d(x,y)\gt\epsilon$. Prove that $X$ is not a ...
2
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2answers
39 views

Existence of an metric or a topology so that every subset is compact

Let $X$ be a infinite set. Is there a metric on $X$ such that every sub set of $X$ is compact? What about a topology on $X$? I think that if we can answer first question then we can answer the ...