For any topic related to matrices. This includes: systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors (diagonalization, triangularization), determinant, trace, characteristic polynomial, adjugate, transpose, Jordan normal form, matrix algorithms (e.g. LU, Gauss elimination, SVD, QR), ...

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68
votes
16answers
13k views

If $AB = I$ then $BA = I$

If $A$ and $B$ are square matrices such that $AB = I$ where $I$ is identity matrix. Show that $BA = I$. I do not understand anything more than the following. Elementary row operations. Linear ...
56
votes
9answers
11k views

Intuition behind Matrix Multiplication

If I multiply two numbers, say $3$ and $5$, I know it means add $3$ to itself $5$ times or add $5$ to itself $3$ times. But If I multiply two matrices, what does it mean ? I mean I can't think it ...
43
votes
3answers
1k views

Alice and Bob matrix problem.

Alice and Bob play the following game with an $n*n$ matrix, where $n$ is odd. Alice fills in one of the entries of the matrix with a real number. then Bob fills one. Then Alice and so on so forth ...
38
votes
14answers
2k views

'Linux' math program with interactive terminal?

Are there any open source math programs out there that have an interactive terminal and that work on linux? So for example you could enter two matrices and specify an operation such as multiply and ...
37
votes
1answer
3k views

Is the following matrix invertible?

$$ \begin{bmatrix} 1235 &2344 &1234 &1990\\ 2124 & 4123& 1990& 3026 \\ 1230 &1234 &9095 &1230\\ 1262 &2312& 2324 &3907 \end{bmatrix}$$ Clearly its ...
37
votes
2answers
1k views

Polynomial equations $p(A, B) = 0$ for matrices that ensure $AB = BA$

Let $k$ be a field with characteristic different from $2$, and $A$ and $B$ be $2 \times 2$ matrices with entries in $k$. Then we can prove, with a bit art, that $A^2 - 2AB + B^2 = O$ implies $AB = ...
36
votes
4answers
42k views

Is a matrix multiplied with its transpose something special?

In my math lectures, we talked about the Gram-Determinant where a matrix times its transpose are multiplied together. Is $A A^T$ something special for any matrix $A$?
31
votes
6answers
2k views

How many connected components does $\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb R)$ have?

I've noticed that $\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb R)$ is not a connected space, because if it were $\det(\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb R))$ (where $\det$ is the function ascribing to each $n\times n$ matrix its ...
30
votes
4answers
2k views

Solutions to the matrix equation $\mathbf{AB-BA=I}$ over general fields

Some days ago, I was thinking on a problem, which states that $AB-BA=I$ does not have a solution in $M_{n\times n}(\mathbb R)$ and $M_{n\times n}(\mathbb C)$. (Here $M_{n\times n}(\mathbb F)$ denotes ...
30
votes
3answers
1k views

Why, historically, do we multiply matrices as we do?

Multiplication of matrices — taking the dot product of the $i$th row of the first matrix and the $j$th column of the second to yield the $ij$th entry of the product — is not a very ...
27
votes
2answers
878 views

Can commuting matrices $X,Y$ always be written as polynomials of some matrix $A$?

Consider square matrices over a field $K$. I don't think additional assumptions about $K$ like algebraically closed or characteristic $0$ are pertinent, but feel free to make them for comfort. For any ...
26
votes
8answers
1k views

Can the matrices $A$ and $I+A$ have the same determinant?

Let $A\in\mathbb R^{n\times n}$ be an arbitrary matrix. Can $A$ and $I+A$ have the same determinant, if not how to prove it? Furthermore, can $A$ and $I+A$ have the same eigenvalues?
26
votes
3answers
1k views

How to find the determinant of this matrix?

Today at my linear algebra exam, there was this question that I couldn't solve. There was a matrix $A$ $$A=\begin{bmatrix} n^{2} & (n+1)^{2} &(n+2)^{2} \\ (n+1)^{2} &(n+2)^{2} & ...
26
votes
3answers
553 views

Square matrices satisfying certain relations must have dimension divisible by $3$

I saw this tucked away in a MathOverflow comment and am asking this question to preserve (and advertise?) it. It's a nice problem! Problem: Suppose $A$ and $B$ are real $n\times n$ matrices with ...
25
votes
9answers
2k views

Are most matrices invertible? [duplicate]

I asked myself this question, to which I think the answer is "yes". One reason would be that an invertible matrix has infinitely many options for its determinant (except $0$), whereas a non-invertible ...
25
votes
7answers
2k views

How to tell if some power of my integer matrix is the identity?

Given an $n\times n$-matrix $A$ with integer entries, I would like to decide whether there is some $m\in\mathbb N$ such that $A^m$ is the identity matrix. I can solve this by regarding $A$ as a ...
25
votes
4answers
12k views

How do I tell if matrices are similar?

I have two $2\times 2$ matrices, $A$ and $B$, with the same determinant. I want to know if they are similar or not. I solved this by using a matrix called $S$: $$\left(\begin{array}{cc} a& b\\ ...
25
votes
2answers
1k views

Word origin / meaning of 'kernel' in linear algebra

It may be the dumbest question ever asked on math.SE, but... Given a real matrix $\mathbf A\in\mathbb R^{m\times n}$, the column space is defined as $$C(\mathbf A) = \{\mathbf A \mathbf x : ...
24
votes
5answers
10k views

Importance of rank of a matrix

What is the importance of rank of a matrix ? I know that rank of a matrix is the number of linearly independent rows/columns (whichever is smaller). Why is it a problem if a matrix is rank ...
23
votes
7answers
2k views

Looking for an intuitive explanation why the row rank is equal to the column rank for a matrix

I am looking for an intuitive explanation as to why/how row rank of a matrix = column rank. I've read the proof at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rank_of_a_linear_transformation and I understand the ...
23
votes
1answer
550 views

How prove this matrix $\det (A)=\left(\frac{1}{\ln{(a_{i}+a_{j})}}\right)_{n\times n}\neq 0$

Question: let $a_{i}>1,i=1,2,3,\cdots,n$,and such $a_{i}\neq a_{j}$,for any $i\neq j$ define the matrix $$A=\left(\dfrac{1}{\ln{(a_{i}+a_{j})}}\right)_{n\times n}$$ show that: ...
23
votes
1answer
713 views

Prove the determinant of this matrix

We have a square matrix, that all elements on main diagonal are zero, and other elements are following: $$a_{i,j}=\begin{cases} 1,&\text{if i+j belongs to Fibonacci numbers,}\\ 0,&\text{if ...
22
votes
5answers
33k views

Inverse of the sum of matrices

I have two square matrices - $A$ and $B$. $A^{-1}$ is known and I want to calculate $(A+B)^{-1}$. Are there theorems that help with calculating the inverse of the sum of matrices? In general case ...
21
votes
2answers
1k views

Determinant of a non-square matrix

I wrote an answer to this question based on determinants, but subsequently deleted it because the OP is interested in non-square matrices, which effectively blocks the use of determinants and thereby ...
21
votes
5answers
8k views

Is the rank of a matrix the same of its transpose? If yes, how can I prove it?

I am auditing a Linear Algebra class, and today we were taught about the rank of a matrix. The definition was given from the row point of view: "The rank of a matrix A is the number of non-zero ...
21
votes
4answers
766 views

Prove that the set of $n$-by-$n$ real matrices with positive determinant is connected

Math people: In the fourth edition of Strang's "Linear Algebra and its Applications", page 230, he poses the following problem (I have changed his wording): show that if $A \in \mathbf{R}^{n \times ...
21
votes
3answers
470 views

Multiplying by a $1\times 1$ matrix?

For matrix multiplication to work, you have to multiply an $m \times n$ matrix by an $n \times p$ matrix, so we have $$\bigg(m \times n\bigg)\bigg( n\times p \bigg).$$ But what about a $1 \times 1$ ...
21
votes
2answers
401 views

Showing $\prod\limits_{i<j} \frac{x_i-x_j}{i-j}$ is an integer

Let $x_1,...,x_n$ be distinct integers. Prove that $$\prod_{i<j} \frac{x_i-x_j}{i-j}\in \mathbb Z$$ I know there is a solution using determinant of a matrix, but I can't remember it now. Any ...
21
votes
0answers
638 views

How to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this matrix

Can you help to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the following matrix? Here is the matrix: $$C = \small \begin{pmatrix} -\sin(\theta_{2} - \theta_{M}) & \sin(\theta_{1} - \theta_{M}) & 0 ...
20
votes
11answers
11k views

What is the usefulness of matrices?

I have matrices for my syllabus but I don't know where do they find their use. I even asked my teacher but she also has no answer. Can anyone please tell me where are they used? And please also give ...
20
votes
4answers
475 views

Can every nonsingular $n\times n$ matrix with real entries be made singular by changing exactly one entry?

I was just thinking about this problem: Can every nonsingular $n\times n$ matrix with real entries be made singular by changing exactly one entry? Thanks for helping me.
20
votes
2answers
561 views

Old AMM problem

I am working on an old AMM problem: Suppose $A,B$ are $n\times n$ real symmetric matrices with $\operatorname{tr} ((A+B)^k)= \operatorname{tr}(A^k) + \operatorname{tr}(B^k) $ for every positive ...
20
votes
0answers
685 views

Limit of sequence of growing matrices

Let $$ H=\left(\begin{array}{cccc} 0 & 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 & 0 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 0 & 1/2\\ 0 & 1/2 & 1/2 & 0 \end{array}\right), $$ ...
19
votes
6answers
16k views

Is the inverse of a symmetric matrix also symmetric?

Let $A$ be a symmetric invertible matrix, $A^T=A$, $A^{-1}A = A A^{-1} = I$ Can it be shown that $A^{-1}$ is also symmetric? I seem to remember a proof similar to this from my linear algebra class, ...
19
votes
10answers
1k views

Coordinate-free proof of $\operatorname{Tr}(AB)=\operatorname{Tr}(BA)$?

I am searching for a short coordinate-free proof of $\operatorname{Tr}(AB)=\operatorname{Tr}(BA)$ for linear operators $A$, $B$ between finite dimensional vector spaces of the same dimension. The ...
19
votes
2answers
6k views

Motivation behind Definition of Matrix Multiplication

I have just watched the first half of the 3rd lecture of Gilbert Strang on the open course ware with link: http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mathematics/18-06-linear-algebra-spring-2010/video-lectures/ It ...
19
votes
2answers
307 views

How find this determinant $\det(\cos^4{(i-j)})_{n\times n}$

Question: Define the matrix $A_{k}=(a^k_{ij})_{n\times n}\quad$where $a_{ij}=\cos{(i-j)},\quad n\ge 6$ Find the value $$\det(A_{4})=\:?$$ My try: since $$\det(A_{4})=\begin{vmatrix} ...
18
votes
5answers
1k views

Every Function in a Finite Field is a Polynomial Function

From a bank of past master's exams I am going through: Let $F$ be a finite field. Show that any function from $F$ to $F$ is a polynomial function. I know that finite fields are fields of $p$ ...
18
votes
4answers
858 views

A problem on Condition $\det(A+B)=\det(A)+\det(B)$

Let $A$ be a matrix $n\times n$ matrix that for any matrix $B$ we have $\det(A+B)=\det(A)+\det(B)$. If this imply that $A=0$? or $\det(A)=0$?
18
votes
2answers
2k views

necessary and sufficient condition for trivial kernel of a matrix over a commutative ring

In answering Do these matrix rings have non-zero elements that are neither units nor zero divisors? I was surprised how hard it was to find anything on the Web about the generalization of the ...
18
votes
3answers
721 views

Determinant of transpose?

$$\det(A^T) = \det(A)$$ Using the geometric definition of the determinant as the area spanned by the columns could someone give a geometric interpretation of the property? Thanks!
18
votes
1answer
171 views

How many pairs of nilpotent, commuting matrices are there in $M_n(\mathbb{F}_q)$?

As a follow-up to this question, I've been doing some work counting pairs of commuting, nilpotent, $n\times n$ matrices over $\mathbb{F}_q$. So far, I believe that for $n=2$, there are $q^3+q^2-q$ ...
17
votes
2answers
1k views

Is it always true that $\det(A^2+B^2)\geq0$?

Let $A$ and $B$ be real square matrices of the same size. Is it true that $$\det(A^2+B^2)\geq0\,?$$ If $AB=BA$ then the answer is positive: ...
17
votes
4answers
18k views

Inverse of an invertible triangular matrix (either upper or lower ) is triangular of the same kind

How can we prove that the inverse of an upper (lower) triangular matrix is upper (lower) triangular?
17
votes
6answers
10k views

if eigenvalues are positive, is the matrix positive definite?

If the matrix is positive definite, then all its eigenvalues are strictly positive. Is the converse also true? That is, if the eigenvalues are strictly positive, then matrix is positive definite? Can ...
17
votes
4answers
1k views

The arithmetic-geometric mean for symmetric positive definite matrices

A while back, I wanted to see if the notion of the arithmetic-geometric mean could be extended to a pair of symmetric positive definite matrices. (I considered positive definite matrices only since ...
17
votes
1answer
859 views

Proof of $\det(\textbf{ST})=\det(\textbf{S})\det(\textbf{T})$ in Penrose graphical notation

For two matrices $\textbf{S}$ and $\textbf{T}$, a proof of $\det(\textbf{ST})=\det(\textbf{S})\det(\textbf{T})$ is given below in the diagrammatic tensor notation. Here $\det$ denotes the ...
16
votes
8answers
3k views

Do all square matrices have eigenvectors?

I came across a video lecture in which the professor stated that there may or may not be any eigenvectors for a given linear transformation. And, so far I thought every matrix has eigenvectors. Please ...
16
votes
9answers
3k views

Why is the complex number $z=a+bi$ equivalent to the matrix form $\left(\begin{smallmatrix}a &-b\\b&a\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Relation of this antisymmetric matrix $r = \left(\begin{smallmatrix}0 &amp;1\\-1&amp;0\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ to $i$ On Wikipedia, it says that: Matrix ...
16
votes
4answers
3k views

Matrices which are both unitary and Hermitian

Matrices such as $$ \begin{bmatrix} \cos\theta & \sin\theta \\ \sin\theta & -\cos\theta \end{bmatrix} \text{ or } \begin{bmatrix} \cos\theta & i\sin\theta \\ ...