For any topic related to matrices. This includes: systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors (diagonalization, triangularization), determinant, trace, characteristic polynomial, adjugate, transpose, Jordan normal form, matrix algorithms (e.g. LU, Gauss elimination, SVD, QR), ...

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130
votes
21answers
26k views

If $AB = I$ then $BA = I$

If $A$ and $B$ are square matrices such that $AB = I$ where $I$ is identity matrix. Show that $BA = I$. I do not understand anything more than the following. Elementary row operations. Linear ...
28
votes
5answers
3k views

Similar matrices and field extensions

Given a field $F$ and a subfield $K$ of $F$. Let $A$, $B$ be $n\times n$ matrices such that all the entries of $A$ and $B$ are in $K$. Is it true that if $A$ is similar to $B$ in $F^{n\times n}$ then ...
19
votes
7answers
7k views

How to prove and interpret $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq \operatorname{min}(\operatorname{rank}(A), \operatorname{rank}(B))$?

Let $A$ and $B$ be two matrices which can be multiplied. Then $$\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq \operatorname{min}(\operatorname{rank}(A), \operatorname{rank}(B)).$$ I proved $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

The Center of $\operatorname{GL}(n,k)$

The given question: Let $k$ be a field and $n \in \mathbb{N}$. Show that the centre of $\operatorname{GL}(n, k)$ is $\lbrace\lambda I\mid λ ∈ k^∗\rbrace$. I have spent a while trying to prove this ...
27
votes
1answer
20k views

Simultaneously Diagonalizable Proof

Two $n\times n$ matrices $A, B$ are said to be simultaneously diagonalizable if there is a nonsingular matrix $S$ such that both $S^{-1}AS$ and $S^{-1}BS$ are diagonal matrices. a.) Show that ...
58
votes
9answers
85k views

Inverse of the sum of matrices

I have two square matrices - $A$ and $B$. $A^{-1}$ is known and I want to calculate $(A+B)^{-1}$. Are there theorems that help with calculating the inverse of the sum of matrices? In general case $B^{-...
0
votes
4answers
548 views

Given a $4\times 4$ symmetric matrix, is there an efficient way to find its eigenvalues and diagonalize it?

I have a $4\times 4$ matrix $$A=\left(\begin{array}{cccc}8 & 11 & 4 & 3\\11 & 12 & 4 & 7\\4 & 4 & 7 & 12\\3 & 7 & 12 & 17\end{array}\right).$$ I want to ...
16
votes
2answers
10k views

Are the eigenvalues of $AB$ equal to the eigenvalues of $BA$? (Citation needed!)

First of all, am I being crazy in thinking that if $\lambda$ is an eigenvalue of $AB$, where $A$ and $B$ are both $N \times N$ matrices (not necessarily invertible), then $\lambda$ is also an ...
15
votes
3answers
3k views

Why do the $n \times n$ non-singular matrices form an “open” set?

Why is the set of $n\times n$ real, non-singular matrices an  open subset of the set of all $n\times n$ real matrices? I don't quite understand what "open" means in this context. Thank you.
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Proof of this result related to Fibonacci numbers: $\begin{pmatrix}1&1\\1&0\end{pmatrix}^n=\begin{pmatrix}F_{n+1}&F_n\\F_n&F_{n-1}\end{pmatrix}$?

$$\begin{pmatrix}1&1\\1&0\end{pmatrix}^n=\begin{pmatrix}F_{n+1}&F_n\\F_n&F_{n-1}\end{pmatrix}$$ Somebody has any idea how to go about proving this result? I know a proof by ...
91
votes
11answers
22k views

Intuition behind Matrix Multiplication

If I multiply two numbers, say $3$ and $5$, I know it means add $3$ to itself $5$ times or add $5$ to itself $3$ times. But If I multiply two matrices, what does it mean ? I mean I can't think it ...
11
votes
8answers
2k views

How to calculate the following determinants (all ones, minus $I$)

How do I calculate the determinant of the following $n\times n$ matrices $ \left[ \begin {matrix} 0 & 1 & \ldots & 1 \\ 1 & 0 & \ldots & 1 \\ \vdots & \vdots & \...
6
votes
3answers
3k views

I don't understand why the inverse is this?

my question is related to matrix inverting and Hill cipher(you don't have to know what it is to help me) My teacher gave me an example. First we have a matrix (the key matrix) that multiplied by a ...
15
votes
3answers
2k views

Traces of all positive powers of a matrix are zero implies it is nilpotent

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ complex nilpotent matrix. Then we know that because all eigenvalues of $A$ must be $0$, it follows that $\text{tr}(A^n)=0$ for all positive integers $n$. What I would like ...
24
votes
4answers
4k views

Do $ AB $ and $ BA $ have same minimal and characteristic polynomials?

Let $ A, B $ be two square matrices of order $n$. Do $ AB $ and $ BA $ have same minimal and characteristic polynomials? I have a proof only if $ A$ or $ B $ is invertible. Is it true for all cases?
6
votes
4answers
427 views

$M,N\in \Bbb R ^{n\times n}$, show that $e^{(M+N)} = e^{M}e^N$ given $MN=NM$

I am working on the following problem. Let $e^{Mt} = \sum\limits_{k=0}^{\infty} \frac{M^k t^k}{k!}$ where $M$ is an $n\times n$ matrix. Now prove that $$e^{(M+N)} = e^{M}e^N$$ given that $MN=NM$, ie ...
38
votes
4answers
4k views

Solutions to the matrix equation $\mathbf{AB-BA=I}$ over general fields

Some days ago, I was thinking on a problem, which states that $AB-BA=I$ does not have a solution in $M_{n\times n}(\mathbb R)$ and $M_{n\times n}(\mathbb C)$. (Here $M_{n\times n}(\mathbb F)$ denotes ...
36
votes
5answers
30k views

How do I tell if matrices are similar?

I have two $2\times 2$ matrices, $A$ and $B$, with the same determinant. I want to know if they are similar or not. I solved this by using a matrix called $S$: $$\left(\begin{array}{cc} a& b\\ ...
25
votes
3answers
35k views

A matrix and its transpose have the same set of eigenvalues

Let $ \sigma(A)$ be the set of all eigenvalues of $A$. Show that $ \sigma(A) = \sigma(A^T)$ where $A^T$ is the transposed matrix of $A$.
6
votes
2answers
2k views

How to show if $ \lambda$ is an eigenvalue of $AB^{-1}$, then $ \lambda$ is an eigenvalue of $ B^{-1}A$?

Statement: If $ \lambda$ is an eigenvalue of $AB^{-1}$, then $ \lambda$ is an eigenvalue of $ B^{-1}A$ and vice versa. One way of the proof. We have $B(B^{-1}A ) B^{-1} = AB^{-1}. $ Assuming $ \...
16
votes
4answers
1k views

Relation of this antisymmetric matrix $r = \left(\begin{smallmatrix}0 &1\\-1&0\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ to $i$

I was reviewing some matrices and found this interesting if $r = \begin{pmatrix} 0&1\\ -1&0 \end{pmatrix}$ then $rr=-I$, also $$\exp{(\theta r)} = \cos\theta I + \sin\theta r$$ No wonder, the ...
13
votes
5answers
28k views

Similar matrices have the same eigenvalues with the same geometric multiplicity

Suppose $A$ and $B$ are similar matrices. Show that $A$ and $B$ have the same eigenvalues with the same geometric multiplicities. Similar matrices: Suppose $A$ and $B$ are $n\times n$ matrices ...
15
votes
2answers
840 views

What's the name for the property of a function $f$ that means $f(f(x))=x$?

I can think of several examples of functions such that twice application of the function is equivalent to no application of it. Additive inverse Multiplicative inverse Fourier transform Complex ...
16
votes
1answer
3k views

Probability that a random binary matrix is invertible?

What is the probability that a random $\{0,1\}$, $n \times n$ matrix is invertible? Assume the 0 and 1 are each present in an entry with probability $\frac{1}{2}$. Is there an explicit formula as a ...
24
votes
4answers
24k views

Inverse of an invertible triangular matrix (either upper or lower ) is triangular of the same kind

How can we prove that the inverse of an upper (lower) triangular matrix is upper (lower) triangular?
13
votes
4answers
9k views

Prove that $A+I$ is invertible if $A$ is nilpotent [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Units and Nilpotents Given $A^{2012}=0$ prove that $A+I$ is invertible and find an expression for $(A+I)^{-1}$ in terms of $A$. ($I$ is the identity matrix).
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Order of general- and special linear groups over finite fields.

Let $\mathbb{F}_3$ be the field with three elements. Let $n\geq 1$. How many elements do the following groups have? $\text{GL}_n(\mathbb{F}_3)$ $\text{SL}_n(\mathbb{F}_3)$ Here GL is the general ...
5
votes
5answers
1k views

How to compute the determinant of a tridiagonal matrix with constant diagonals?

How to show that the determinant of the following $(n\times n)$ matrix $$\begin{pmatrix} 5 & 2 & 0 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 2 & 5 & 2 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & ...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

Is adjoint of singular matrix singular? What would be its rank?

Let $A$ be square and singular matrix of order $ n $. Is $ adj (A) $ necessarily singular? What would be rank of $ adj (A) $.?
7
votes
2answers
586 views

Show $\operatorname{rank}(A) + \operatorname{rank}(B) \ge \operatorname{rank}(A+B)$

Show $\operatorname{rank}(A) + \operatorname{rank}(B) \ge \operatorname{rank}(A+B)$, where $A,B \in M_{m\times n}(\mathbb{F})$. I'm trying to think in terms of linear transformations. We can define $...
6
votes
1answer
815 views

System of linear equations having a real solution has also a rational solution.

I saw this question Let $A ∈ M_{m\times n}(\mathbb{Q})$ and $b ∈ \mathbb{Q}^m$. Suppose that the system of linear equations $Ax = b$ has a solution in $\mathbb{R}^n$. Does it necessarily have ...
41
votes
14answers
75k views

Calculate Rotation Matrix to align Vector A to Vector B in 3d?

I have one triangle in 3d space that I am tracking in a simulation. Between time steps I have the the previous normal of the triangle and the current normal of the triangle along with both the current ...
49
votes
12answers
11k views

Looking for an intuitive explanation why the row rank is equal to the column rank for a matrix

I am looking for an intuitive explanation as to why/how row rank of a matrix = column rank. I've read the proof at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rank_of_a_linear_transformation and I understand the ...
38
votes
8answers
57k views

When is matrix multiplication commutative?

I know that matrix multiplication in general is not commutative. So, in general: $A, B \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}: A \cdot B \neq B \cdot A$ But for some matrices, this equations holds, e.g. A = ...
38
votes
3answers
5k views

Why, historically, do we multiply matrices as we do?

Multiplication of matrices — taking the dot product of the $i$th row of the first matrix and the $j$th column of the second to yield the $ij$th entry of the product — is not a very ...
32
votes
5answers
22k views

Is the rank of a matrix the same of its transpose? If yes, how can I prove it?

I am auditing a Linear Algebra class, and today we were taught about the rank of a matrix. The definition was given from the row point of view: "The rank of a matrix A is the number of non-zero ...
19
votes
8answers
9k views

Why is the complex number $z=a+bi$ equivalent to the matrix form $\left(\begin{smallmatrix}a &-b\\b&a\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Relation of this antisymmetric matrix $r = \left(\begin{smallmatrix}0 &1\\-1 & 0\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ to $i$ On Wikipedia, it says that: Matrix ...
16
votes
4answers
5k views

Square root of a matrix

Under what conditions does a matrix $A$ have a square root? I saw somewhere that this is true for Hermitian positive definite matrices(whose definition I just looked up). Moreover, is it possible ...
11
votes
1answer
268 views

Similarity of real matrices over $\mathbb{C}$

$A \underset{\mathbb{C}}{\sim} B \overset{\text{def}}{\iff} A=C^{-1}BC, \space C\in M_{n}(\mathbb{C})$ and similarly for $\underset{\mathbb{R}}{\sim}$. I want to prove that $ A \underset{\mathbb{...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

Proof: $\mathrm{adj}(\mathrm{adj}(A)) = (\mathrm{det}(A))^{n-2} \cdot A$ for $A \in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$

I had my exam of linear algebra today and one of the questions was this one. Given $ A \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$, prove that: $$\mathrm{adj}(\mathrm{adj}(A)) = (\mathrm{det}(A))^{n-2} \cdot A.$$ ...
27
votes
2answers
12k views

Matrix multiplication: interpreting and understanding the process

I have just watched the first half of the 3rd lecture of Gilbert Strang on the open course ware with link: http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mathematics/18-06-linear-algebra-spring-2010/video-lectures/ It ...
40
votes
8answers
5k views

How many connected components does $\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb R)$ have?

I've noticed that $\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb R)$ is not a connected space, because if it were $\det(\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb R))$ (where $\det$ is the function ascribing to each $n\times n$ matrix its ...
37
votes
6answers
38k views

Show that the determinant of $A$ is equal to the product of its eigenvalues.

Show that the determinant of a matrix $A$ is equal to the product of its eigenvalues $\lambda_i$. So I'm having a tough time figuring this one out. I know that I have to work with the characteristic ...
21
votes
2answers
3k views

necessary and sufficient condition for trivial kernel of a matrix over a commutative ring

In answering Do these matrix rings have non-zero elements that are neither units nor zero divisors? I was surprised how hard it was to find anything on the Web about the generalization of the ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Jordan Canonical Form determined by characteristic and minimal polynomials in dimension $3$, but not beyond

Why and how is the Jordan Canonical form of a matrix in $M_3(\mathbb C)$ fully determined by its characteristic and minimal polynomials? And why does it fail for $n >3$?  Thanks.
9
votes
2answers
398 views

If $ \mathrm{Tr}(M^k) = \mathrm{Tr}(N^k)$ for all $1\leq k \leq n$ then how do we show the $M$ and $N$ have the same eigenvalues?

Let $M,N$ be $n \times n$ square matrices over an algebraically closed field with the properties that the trace of both matrices coincides along with all powers of the matrix. More specifically, ...
4
votes
4answers
5k views

Square root of Positive Definite Matrix

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ positive definite matrix. Show that there exists a unique positive definite matrix $B$ such that $B^2=A$. I do know the existence. But what about the uniqueness? Would you ...
17
votes
2answers
4k views

$AB-BA=I$ having no solutions

The question is from Artin's Algebra. If $A$ and $B$ are two square matrices with real entries, show that $AB-BA=I$ has no solutions. I have no idea on how to tackle this question. I tried block ...
15
votes
3answers
730 views

For every matrix $A\in M_{2}( \mathbb{C}) $ there's $X\in M_{2}( \mathbb{C})$ such that $X^2=A$?

True\False? For every matrix $A\in M_{2}( \mathbb{C}) $ there's $X\in M_{2}( \mathbb{C})$ such that $X^2=A$. I know that every complexed matrix has a Jordan form matrix $J$ such that $P^{-1}CP=J$, ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Congruence and diagonalizations

How does one find matrix $M\in M_3(\mathbb R)$ such that $M^TAM=I$ where $$A=\left(\begin{array}{rrr}2&0&0\\ 0&3&-1\\ 0&-1&3\end{array}\right)$$ and simultaneously, $M^TBM$ is ...