For any topic related to matrices. This includes: systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors (diagonalization, triangularization), determinant, trace, characteristic polynomial, adjugate, transpose, Jordan normal form, matrix algorithms (e.g. LU, Gauss elimination, SVD, QR), ...

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

17
votes
1answer
870 views

Proof of $\det(\textbf{ST})=\det(\textbf{S})\det(\textbf{T})$ in Penrose graphical notation

For two matrices $\textbf{S}$ and $\textbf{T}$, a proof of $\det(\textbf{ST})=\det(\textbf{S})\det(\textbf{T})$ is given below in the diagrammatic tensor notation. Here $\det$ denotes the ...
16
votes
8answers
4k views

Do all square matrices have eigenvectors?

I came across a video lecture in which the professor stated that there may or may not be any eigenvectors for a given linear transformation. And, so far I thought every matrix has eigenvectors. Please ...
16
votes
8answers
3k views

Why is the complex number $z=a+bi$ equivalent to the matrix form $\left(\begin{smallmatrix}a &-b\\b&a\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Relation of this antisymmetric matrix $r = \left(\begin{smallmatrix}0 &1\\-1&0\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ to $i$ On Wikipedia, it says that: Matrix ...
16
votes
4answers
3k views

Matrices which are both unitary and Hermitian

Matrices such as $$ \begin{bmatrix} \cos\theta & \sin\theta \\ \sin\theta & -\cos\theta \end{bmatrix} \text{ or } \begin{bmatrix} \cos\theta & i\sin\theta \\ ...
16
votes
5answers
7k views

Differences between a matrix and a tensor

What is the difference between a matrix and a tensor? Or, what makes a tensor, a tensor? I know that a matrix is a table of values, right? But, a tensor?
16
votes
5answers
1k views

What's the point of orthogonal diagonalisation?

I've learned the process of orthogonal diagonalisation in an algebra course I'm taking...but I just realised I have no idea what the point of it is. The definition is basically this: "A matrix A is ...
16
votes
5answers
20k views

When is matrix multiplication commutative?

I know that matrix multiplication in general is not commutative. So, in general: $A, B \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}: A \cdot B \neq B \cdot A$ But for some matrices, this equations holds, e.g. A = ...
16
votes
4answers
6k views

Determining whether a symmetric matrix is positive-definite (algorithm)

I'm trying to create a program, that will decompose a matrix using the Cholesky decomposition. The decomposition itself isn't a difficult algorithm, but a matrix, to be eligible for Cholesky ...
16
votes
3answers
7k views

Physical Meaning of Null Space of a Matrix

What is an intuitive meaning of the null space of a matrix? Why is it useful? I'm not looking for textbook definitions... my textbook gives me the definition, but I just don't "get" it. E.g.: I ...
16
votes
4answers
626 views

Determinant of a generalized Pascal matrix

Let $M$ denote the infinite matrix defined recursively by $$ M_{ij} = \begin{cases} 1, & \text{if } i=1 \text{ and } j=1; \\ aM_{i-1,j}+bM_{i,j-1}+cM_{i-1,j-1}, & ...
16
votes
4answers
446 views

Powers of random matrices

Let $M$ be an $n \times n$ matrix whose elements are random reals in [0,1]. Two questions. What is the growth rate of the magnitude of the elements of $M^k$ as a function of $k$? It is definitely ...
16
votes
3answers
996 views

Ratio of largest eigenvalue to sum of eigenvalues — where to read about it?

Let $E_j$ be the $j$th largest-magnitude eigenvalue of a real symmetric $N \times N$ matrix $M$. I've found that the ratio $$\frac{|E_1|}{\sum_{j=1}^N{|E_j|}},$$ is a measure of the "rank-one-ness" ...
15
votes
4answers
3k views

Intuitive explanation of a positive-semidefinite matrix

What is an intuitive explanation of a positive-semidefinite matrix? Or a simple example which gives more intuition for it rather than the bare definition. Say $x$ is some vector in space and $M$ is ...
15
votes
5answers
647 views

Is this matrix obviously positive definite?

Consider the matrix $A$ whose elements are $A_{ij} = a^{|i-j|}$ for $-1<a<1$ and $i,j=1,\dots,n$ e.g. for $n=4$ the matrix is $$A = \left[ \begin{matrix} 1 & a & a^2 & a^3 \\ a ...
15
votes
5answers
708 views

Every integer vector in $\mathbb R^n$ with integer length is part of an orthogonal basis of $\mathbb R^n$

Suppose $\vec x$ is a (non-zero) vector with integer coordinates in $\mathbb R^n$ such that $\|\vec x\| \in \mathbb Z$. Is it true that there is an orthogonal basis of $\mathbb R^n$ containing $\vec ...
15
votes
9answers
920 views

Why do determinants have their particular form?

I know that for a matrix $A$, if $\det(A)=0$ then the matrix does not have an inverse, and hence the associated system of equations does not have a unique solution. However, why do the determinant ...
15
votes
4answers
889 views

A matrix is diagonalizable, so what?

I mean, you can say it's similar to a diagonal matrix, it has n independent eigenvectors, etc., but what's the big deal of having diagonalizability? Can I solidly perceive the differences between two ...
15
votes
4answers
877 views

Why is the trace of a matrix the sum along its diagonal?

Define the trace of a matrix with entries in $\mathbb C$ to be the sum of its eigenvalues, counted with multiplicity. It is a standard (but I think extremely surprising) fact that this is the sum of ...
15
votes
2answers
399 views

easier way of calculating the determinant for this matrix

I have to calculate the determinant of this matrix: $$ \begin{pmatrix} a&b&c&d\\b&c&d&a\\c&d&a&b\\d&a&b&c \end{pmatrix} $$ Is there an easier way of ...
15
votes
3answers
818 views

Matrices - Conditions for $AB+BA=0$

The Problem Let $A$ be the matrix $\bigl(\begin{smallmatrix}a&b\\c&d\end{smallmatrix} \bigr)$, where no one of $a,b,c,d$ is $0$. Let $B$ be a $2\times 2$ matrix such that ...
15
votes
1answer
152 views

How to calculate the number of factorizations of a square matrix?

I need to write a function, that, given a square matrix M of non-negative integers, calculates the number of representations of M as a product of two square matrices of non-negative integers. Could ...
15
votes
1answer
477 views

Trace inequality for real matrices

Is there any general result characterizing real matrices $A$ such that $$[\mathrm{tr}(A)]^2\leq n\mathrm{tr}(A^2)?$$ I can see that the inequality holds if: all eigenvalues of $A$ are real (by the ...
14
votes
7answers
1k views

How can I show that $\begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 1\end{pmatrix}^n = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & n \\ 0 & 1\end{pmatrix}$?

Well, the original task was to figure out what the following expression evaluates to for any $n$. $$\begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 1\end{pmatrix}^{\large n}$$ By trying out different values of ...
14
votes
5answers
727 views

Does there exist a matrix $\mathbf{A}\in\mathbb{R}^{3\times3}$ such that $\mathbf{A}^{2}=-\mathbf{I}$?

Is it possible for a matrix $\mathbf{A}\in\mathbb{R}^{3\times3}$, $$\mathbf{A}^2=-\mathbf{I}$$ I know that It is possible for $2\times2$ matrix, but is it possible for $3\times3$ matrix ?
14
votes
5answers
807 views

A symmetric matrix whose square is zero

I was once asked in an oral exam whether there can be a symmetric non zero matrix whose square is zero. After some thought I replied that there couldn't be because the minimal polynomial of such a ...
14
votes
4answers
590 views

Relation of this antisymmetric matrix $r = \left(\begin{smallmatrix}0 &1\\-1&0\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ to $i$

I was reviewing some matrices and found this interesting if $r = \begin{pmatrix} 0&1\\ -1&0 \end{pmatrix}$ then $rr=-I$, also $$\exp{(\theta r)} = \cos\theta I + \sin\theta r$$ No wonder, the ...
14
votes
6answers
8k views

Matrix Inverses and Eigenvalues

I was working on this problem here below, but seem to not know a precise or clean way to show the proof to this question below. I had about a few ways of doing it, but the statements/operations were ...
14
votes
5answers
2k views

$\sin(A)$, where $A$ is a matrix

If $A$ is an $n\times n$ matrix with elements $a_{ij}$ $i=$i'th row, $j=$j'th column. Then $e^A$ is also a matrix as can be seen by expanding it in a power series.Is $e^A$ always convergent and ...
14
votes
3answers
1k views

Why is the determinant of a symplectic matrix 1?

suppose $A \in M_{2n}(\mathbb{R})$. and$$J=\begin{pmatrix} 0 & E_n\\ -E_n&0 \end{pmatrix}$$ where $E_n$ represents identity matrix. if $A$ satisfies $$AJA^T=J$$ How to figure out ...
14
votes
4answers
1k views

How does multiplying by trigonometric functions in a matrix transform the matrix?

I found this comic: But I can't understand the humor because I can't understand how trig functions affect matrix multiplication. Can someone please explain?
14
votes
1answer
578 views

Why does the inverse of the Hilbert matrix have integer entries?

Let $A$ be the $n\times n$ matrix given by $ A_{ij}=\frac{1}{i + j - 1}$. I need to show that $A$ is invertible and the inverse has integer entries. I was able to show that $A$ is invertible. How do I ...
14
votes
2answers
239 views

Why does calculating matrix inverses, roots, etc. using the spectrum of a matrix work?

Suppose $A$ is a $n \times n$ matrix from $M_n(\mathbb{C})$ with eigenvalues $\lambda_1, \ldots, \lambda_s$. Let $$m(\lambda) = (\lambda - \lambda_1)^{m_1} \ldots (\lambda - \lambda_s)^{m_s}$$ be the ...
14
votes
1answer
232 views

What do characteristic polynomials characterize?

Let $R$ be an integral domain and $F$ a finitely generated free module over $R$. For a linear transformation $\alpha\in\operatorname{End}_R(F)$, the characteristic polynomial is \begin{equation} ...
13
votes
8answers
3k views

How to prove and interpret $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq \operatorname{min}(\operatorname{rank}(A), \operatorname{rank}(B))$?

Let A and B be two matrices which can be multiplied. Then $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq \operatorname{min}(\operatorname{rank}(A), \operatorname{rank}(B))$ I proved $\operatorname{rank}(AB) \leq ...
13
votes
4answers
927 views

Is $A + A^{-1}$ always invertible?

Let $A$ be an invertible matrix. Then is $A + A^{-1}$ invertible for any $A$? I have a hunch that it's false, but can't really find a way to prove it. If you give a counterexample, could you please ...
13
votes
10answers
434 views

$2\times2$ matrices are not big enough

Olga Tausky-Todd had once said that "If an assertion about matrices is false, there is usually a 2x2 matrix that reveals this." There are, however, assertions about matrices that are true for ...
13
votes
4answers
5k views

Show that the determinant of $A$ is equal to the product of its eigenvalues.

Show that the determinant of a matrix $A$ is equal to the product of its eigenvalues $\lambda_i$. So I'm having a tough time figuring this one out. I know that I have to work with the characteristic ...
13
votes
4answers
528 views

Expected Value of a Determinant

Suppose that I construct an $n \times n$ matrix $A$ such that each entry of $A$ is a random integer in the range $[1, \, n]$. I'd like to calculate the expected value of $\det(A)$. My conjecture is ...
13
votes
4answers
6k views

What is the geometric meaning of singular matrix

Could anyone help explain what is the geometric meaning of singular matrix ? What's the difference between singular and non-singular matrix ? I know the definition, but couldn't understand it very ...
13
votes
3answers
333 views

Theorem about positive matrices

We will call a matrix positive matrix if all elements in the matrix are positive, and we will denote the largest eigenvalue with $\lambda_{\max}$, what is exist because of the Perron–Frobenius ...
13
votes
4answers
365 views

Converting recursive equations into matrices

How do we convert recursive equations into matrix forms? For instance, consider this recursive equation(Fibonacci Series): $$F_n = F_{n-1} + F_{n-2}$$ And it comes out to be that the following that ...
13
votes
4answers
392 views

Choosing an orthonormal basis in which a linear operator has a sparse matrix

Given a linear operator $T$ on an $n$-dimensional vector space $V$ (over $\mathbb R$), I want to find an orthonormal basis for $V$ in which the matrix of $T$ is sparse (has many zeros). How many zeros ...
13
votes
8answers
19k views

Calculate Rotation Matrix to align Vector A to Vector B in 3d?

I have one triangle in 3d space that I am tracking in a simulation. Between time steps I have the the previous normal of the triangle and the current normal of the triangle along with both the current ...
13
votes
1answer
978 views

Effect of elementary row operations on determinant?

1) Switching two rows or columns causes the determinant to switch sign 2) Adding a multiple of one row to another causes the determinant to remain the same 3) Multiplying a row as a constant results ...
13
votes
3answers
410 views

If $C$ commutes with certain matrices $A$ and $B$, why is $C$ a scalar multiple of the identity?

I'm self studying Steven Roman's Advanced Linear Algebra, and this is problem 10 of Chapter 8. Let $A,B\in M_2(\mathbb{C})$, $A^2=B^3=I$, $ABA=B^{-1}$, but $A\neq I$ and $B\neq I$. If $C\in ...
13
votes
3answers
817 views

How to show determinant of a specific matrix is nonnegative

How to show that $$\det A= \det \begin{pmatrix}\cos\frac{\pi}{n}&-\frac{\cos\theta_1}{2}&0&0&\cdots&0&-\frac{\cos\theta_n}{2} ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

Topology of matrices

1.Consider the set of all $n×n$ matrices with real entries as the space $\mathbb R^{n^2}$ . Which of the following sets are compact? (a) The set of all orthogonal matrices. (b) The set of all ...
13
votes
1answer
828 views

Max dimension of a subspace of singular $n\times n$ matrices

I am sure the answer to this is (kind of) well known. I've searched the web and the site for a proof and found nothing, and if this is a duplicate, I'm sorry. The following question was given in a ...
13
votes
3answers
374 views

when does $\det(AB^T+BA^T)\le \det(AA^T+BB^T)$ hold?

When does the following matrix inequality hold? $$\det(AB+B^TA^T)\le \det(AA^T+BB^T)$$ $A$ and $B$ are any real matrices. My reply gives a counter example. The question is under what condition ...
12
votes
8answers
2k views

I need to calculate $x^{50}$ [duplicate]

$x=\begin{pmatrix}1&0&0\\1&0&1\\0&1&0\end{pmatrix}$, I need to calculate $x^{50}$ Could anyone tell me how to proceed? Thank you.