For any topic related to matrices. This includes: systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors (diagonalization, triangularization), determinant, trace, characteristic polynomial, adjugate, transpose, Jordan normal form, matrix algorithms (e.g. LU, Gauss elimination, SVD, QR), ...

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2
votes
1answer
177 views

for any ring $A$ the matrix ring $M_n(A)$ is simple if and only if $A$ is simple

Let integer $n\geq 1$. I have obtained that for any field $k$, the matrix ring $M_n(k)$ is simple, i.e., $M_n(k)$ contains no nonzero proper two sided ideals. Now I want to prove that: for any ring $A$...
20
votes
3answers
9k views

Eigenvalues for the rank one matrix $uv^T$

Suppose $A=uv^T$ where $u$ and $v$ are non-zero column vectors in ${\mathbb R}^n$, $n\geq 3$. $\lambda=0$ is an eigenvalue of $A$ since $A$ is not of full rank. $\lambda=v^Tu$ is also an eigenvalue of ...
17
votes
1answer
15k views

Elegant proofs that similar matrices have the same characteristic polynomial?

It's a simple exercise to show that two similar matrices has the same eigenvalues and eigenvectors (my favorite way is noting that they represent the same linear transformation in different bases). ...
21
votes
5answers
3k views

Why is the determinant of a symplectic matrix 1?

suppose $A \in M_{2n}(\mathbb{R})$. and$$J=\begin{pmatrix} 0 & E_n\\ -E_n&0 \end{pmatrix}$$ where $E_n$ represents identity matrix. if $A$ satisfies $$AJA^T=J$$ How to figure out $$\det(A)...
11
votes
2answers
18k views

extracting rotation, scale values from 2d transformation matrix

How can I extract rotation and scale values from a 2D transformation matrix? ...
21
votes
5answers
5k views

$\sin(A)$, where $A$ is a matrix

If $A$ is an $n\times n$ matrix with elements $a_{ij}$ $i=$i'th row, $j=$j'th column. Then $e^A$ is also a matrix as can be seen by expanding it in a power series.Is $e^A$ always convergent and ...
17
votes
6answers
971 views

How to show path-connectedness of $GL(n,\mathbb{C})$

Well, I am not getting any hint how to show $GL_n(\mathbb{C})$ is path connected. So far I have thought that let $A$ be any invertible complex matrix and $I$ be the idenity matrix, I was trying to ...
6
votes
2answers
769 views

The relationship between eigenvalues of matrices $XY$ and $YX$

If $X \in \mathbb{C}^{m \times n}$ and $Y \in \mathbb{C}^{n \times m}$ ($m \geq n$), how to prove that $\lambda (XY) = \lambda (YX) \cup \underbrace{\left \{ 0, ..., 0 \right \}}_{m-n}$? Here, $\...
17
votes
6answers
7k views

Sylvester rank inequality

If $A$ and $B$ are two matrices of the same order $n$, then $$ \operatorname{rank} A + \operatorname{rank}B \leq \operatorname{rank} AB + n. $$ I don't know how to start proving this inequality. I ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Characterization of positive definite matrix with principal minors

A symmetric matrix $A$ is positive definite if $x^TAx>0$ for all $x\not=0$. However, such matrices can also be characterized by the positivity of the principal minors. A statement and proof can, ...
5
votes
7answers
1k views

How to find the exact value of $ \cos(36^\circ) $?

The problem reads as follows: Noting that $t=\frac{\pi}{5}$ satisfies $3t=\pi-2t$, find the exact value of $$\cos(36^\circ)$$ it says that you may find useful the following identities: $$\cos^...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Why does the $n$-th power of a Jordan matrix involve the binomial coefficient?

I've searched a lot for a simple explanation of this. Given a Jordan block $J_k(\lambda)$, its $n$-th power is: $$ J_k(\lambda)^n = \begin{bmatrix} \lambda^n & \binom{n}{1}\lambda^{n-1} & \...
2
votes
2answers
168 views

Calculate determinant of Vandermonde using specified steps.

$V_n(a_1,a_2\dots, a_n)$ is a $n\times n$ Vandermonde matrix = $$\left|\begin{array}[cccc] 11&a_1&\cdots&a^{n-1}_1\\ 1&a_2&\cdots&a^{n-1}_2\\ 1&a_3&\cdots&a^{n-1}...
2
votes
1answer
5k views

what are pivot numbers in LU decomposition? please explain me in an example

studying many pages like wikipedia, wolfram, Mathworks, Math Stack Exchange, lu-pivot, LU_Decomposition I couldn't find exactly whart are the pivot numbers in a specific example: for example what are ...
24
votes
6answers
19k views

if eigenvalues are positive, is the matrix positive definite?

If the matrix is positive definite, then all its eigenvalues are strictly positive. Is the converse also true? That is, if the eigenvalues are strictly positive, then matrix is positive definite? Can ...
35
votes
2answers
2k views

Can commuting matrices $X,Y$ always be written as polynomials of some matrix $A$?

Consider square matrices over a field $K$. I don't think additional assumptions about $K$ like algebraically closed or characteristic $0$ are pertinent, but feel free to make them for comfort. For any ...
23
votes
2answers
11k views

Determinant of transpose?

$$\det(A^T) = \det(A)$$ Using the geometric definition of the determinant as the area spanned by the columns could someone give a geometric interpretation of the property? Thanks!
11
votes
2answers
10k views

Eigenvalues and power of a matrix

Let $A$ be an n×n matrix with eigenvalues $\lambda_i, i=1,2,\dots,n$. Then $\lambda_1^k,\dots,\lambda_n^k$ are eigenvalues of $A^k$. I was wondering if $\lambda_1^k,\dots,\lambda_n^k$ are all the ...
6
votes
5answers
6k views

How to calculate gradient of $x^TAx$

I am watching the following video lecture: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G_p4QJrjdOw In there, he talks about calculating gradient of $ x^{T}Ax $ and he does that using the concept of exterior ...
13
votes
4answers
5k views

How to prove $\det(e^A) = e^{\operatorname{tr}(A)}$?

Prove $$\det(e^A) = e^{\operatorname{tr}(A)}$$ for all matrices $A \in \mathbb{C}_{n×n}$.
6
votes
4answers
352 views

if $A=AB-BA$ then $A^n=0$?

Let matrix $A_{n\times n}$, be such that there exists a matrix $B$ for which $$AB-BA=A$$ Prove or disprove there exsit $n\in N^{+}$such $$A^n=0,$$ I know $$tr(A)=tr(AB)-tr(BA)=0$$ then I can't....
8
votes
4answers
1k views

how many unique patterns exist for a NxN grid

I'm trying to figure out if there is a way to determine how many unique patterns exist for a given NxN grid if you choose N points on the grid. For example, for a 2x2 grid we can get two unique ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

Why does a diagonalization of a matrix B with the basis of a commuting matrix A give a block diagonal matrix?

I am trying to understand a proof concerning commuting matrices and simultaneous diagonalization of these. It seems to be a well known result that when you take the eigenvectors of A as a basis and ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Characterization of the trace function

We know that the trace of a matrix is a linear map for all square matrices and that $\operatorname{tr}(AB)=\operatorname{tr}(BA)$ when the multiplication makes sense. On the Wikipedia page for trace,...
6
votes
3answers
5k views

What are the eigenvalues of matrix that have all elements equal 1? [duplicate]

As in subject: given a matrix $A$ of size $n$ with all elements equal exactly 1. What are the eigenvalues of that matrix ?
2
votes
2answers
262 views

Determining eigenvalues, eigenvectors of $A\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}(n\geq 2)$.

Let $a$ and $b$ be distinct nonzero real numbers and let $A\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}(n\geq 2)$ with each diagonal entry equal to $a$ and each off-diagonal entry equal to $b$. Determine all ...
11
votes
3answers
5k views

Rank of skew-symmetric matrix

Is there a succinct proof for the fact that the rank of a non-zero skew-symmetric matrix ($A = -A^T$) is at least 2? I can think of a proof by contradiction: Assume rank is 1. Then you express all ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Is sum of two orthogonal matrices singular?

I am trying to solve following problem. Let $A,B\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be an orthogonal matrices and $\det(A)=-\det(B)$. How can be proven that $A+B$ is singular? I could start with ...
4
votes
4answers
7k views

Prove $\det(kA)=k^n\det A$

Let $A$ be a $n \times n$ invertible matrix, prove $\det(kA)=k^n\det A$. I really don't know where to start. Can someone give me a hint for this proof?
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Quaternions vs Axis angle

Whats the use of representing rotation with quaternions compared to normal axis angle representation? I've been trying to learn quaternions and they make enough sense but as far as I can tell ...
3
votes
5answers
725 views

$\left \| \cdot \right \|$ is an induced norm. If $\left \| A \right \|<1$, how to show that $I-A$ is nonsingular and …?

The induced norm $\left \| \cdot \right \|$ is defined for a matrix $A\in\mathbb{C}^{n\times n}$ as $\left \| A \right \|=\sup_{||x||=1} \left \| Ax \right \|$. If $\left \| A \right \|<1$, show ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Constructing a graph from a degree sequence

Let's say I'm given several degree sequences like {4,3,3,2,2} {3,3,3,3} {5,3,3,2,2,1} I can find the number of edges using the handshaking lemma But how do I construct a graph just given these ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

How Do I Compute the Eigenvalues of a Small Matrix?

If I have a $2\times 2$ or $3\times 3$ matrix, how should I go about computing the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix? NB: I am making this question to provide a unified answer to questions ...
92
votes
1answer
6k views

Is the following matrix invertible?

$$ \begin{bmatrix} 1235 &2344 &1234 &1990\\ 2124 & 4123& 1990& 3026 \\ 1230 &1234 &9095 &1230\\ 1262 &2312& 2324 &3907 \end{bmatrix}$$ Clearly its ...
29
votes
10answers
3k views

Coordinate-free proof of $\operatorname{Tr}(AB)=\operatorname{Tr}(BA)$?

I am searching for a short coordinate-free proof of $\operatorname{Tr}(AB)=\operatorname{Tr}(BA)$ for linear operators $A$, $B$ between finite dimensional vector spaces of the same dimension. The ...
31
votes
11answers
53k views

What is the usefulness of matrices?

I have matrices for my syllabus but I don't know where they find their use. I even asked my teacher but she also has no answer. Can anyone please tell me where they are used? And please also give me ...
35
votes
3answers
20k views

Determinant of a non-square matrix

I wrote an answer to this question based on determinants, but subsequently deleted it because the OP is interested in non-square matrices, which effectively blocks the use of determinants and thereby ...
24
votes
4answers
2k views

Prove that the set of $n$-by-$n$ real matrices with positive determinant is connected

Math people: In the fourth edition of Strang's "Linear Algebra and its Applications", page 230, he poses the following problem (I have changed his wording): show that if $A \in \mathbf{R}^{n \times n}...
14
votes
4answers
6k views

How to calculate the matrix exponential explicitly for a matrix which isn't diagonalizable?

How can I compute an expression for $(\exp(Qt))_{i,j}$ for some fixed $i, j$ and matrix $Q$? When $Q$ is diagonalizable, we can diagonalize, but what can be done otherwise? Thanks.
9
votes
1answer
5k views

Intersection of conics using matrix representation

I came across a very interesting section of a wikipedia article on conics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conic_section#Intersecting_two_conics I am trying to work out a couple of examples to add to ...
13
votes
4answers
3k views

$I_m - AB$ is invertible if and only if $I_n - BA$ is invertible.

The problem is from Algebra by Artin, Chapter 1, Miscellaneous Problems, Exercise 8. I have been trying for a long time now to solve it but I am unsuccessful. Let $A,B$ be $m \times n$ and $n \...
9
votes
5answers
1k views

Fast(est) and intuitive ways to look at matrix multiplication?

Most of the time I see matrix multiplication presented and defined, as a seemingly arbitrary sequence of operations. For example, the textbook I'm currently reading for a linear algebra course defines ...
7
votes
3answers
3k views

$I-AB$ be invertible $\Leftrightarrow$ $I-BA$ is invertible [duplicate]

assume $A,B\in M_n(F)$ if $I-AB$ be invertible then how to prove $I-BA$ is invertible and how find inverse of $I-BA$ Thanks in advance
17
votes
2answers
1k views

Why does the inverse of the Hilbert matrix have integer entries?

Let $A$ be the $n\times n$ matrix given by $ A_{ij}=\frac{1}{i + j - 1}$. I need to show that $A$ is invertible and the inverse has integer entries. I was able to show that $A$ is invertible. How do I ...
9
votes
3answers
655 views

Cross product: matrix transformation identity

How can one prove the following identity of the cross product? $$(M a)\times (M b)=\det(M) (M^{\rm T})^{-1}(a\times b)$$ $a$ and $b$ are 3-vectors, and $M$ is an invertible real 3x3 matrix.
9
votes
3answers
3k views

Why are Vandermonde matrices invertible?

A Vandermonde-matrix is a matrix of this form: $$\begin{pmatrix} x_0^0 & \cdots & x_0^n \\ \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ x_n^0 & \cdots & x_n^n \end{pmatrix} \in \mathbb{R}^{(...
12
votes
4answers
1k views

Determinant of a specific circulant matrix, $A_n$

Let $$A_2 = \left[ \begin{array}{cc} 0 & 1\\ 1 & 0 \end{array}\right]$$ $$A_3 = \left[ \begin{array}{ccc} 0 & 1 & 1\\ 1 & 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 1 & 0 \end{array}\right]$$ $$...
9
votes
1answer
5k views

Evaluating eigenvalues of a product of two positive definite matrices

Let $A,B\in M_n(\mathbb{R})$ be two symmetric positive definite matrices, i.e.: $$\forall x\in\mathbb{R}^n, x\neq 0, (Ax,x)>0, (Bx,x)>0,$$ where $(\cdot,\cdot)$ is the usual scalar product in $\...
8
votes
2answers
6k views

How to prove Fibonacci sequence with matrices? [duplicate]

How do you prove that: $$ \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1\\ 1 & 0 \end{pmatrix}^n = \begin{pmatrix} F_{n+1} & F_n\\ F_{n} & F_{n-1} \end{pmatrix}$$
7
votes
2answers
1k views

$AB-BA$ is a nilpotent matrix if it commutes with $A$

I saw this in a MathOverflow post and am putting it here for posterity. Problem: Let $A$ and $B$ by square matrices and set $C=AB-BA$. If $AC=CA$, prove $C$ is nilpotent.