For any topic related to matrices. This includes: systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors (diagonalization, triangularization), determinant, trace, characteristic polynomial, adjugate, transpose, Jordan normal form, matrix algorithms (e.g. LU, Gauss elimination, SVD, QR), ...

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16
votes
8answers
4k views

Why is the complex number $z=a+bi$ equivalent to the matrix form $\left(\begin{smallmatrix}a &-b\\b&a\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Relation of this antisymmetric matrix $r = \left(\begin{smallmatrix}0 &1\\-1&0\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ to $i$ On Wikipedia, it says that: Matrix ...
4
votes
5answers
2k views

How to calculate gradient of $x^TAx$

I am watching the following video lecture: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G_p4QJrjdOw In there, he talks about calculating gradient of $ x^{T}Ax $ and he does that using the concept of exterior ...
3
votes
4answers
546 views

A be a $3\times 3$ matrix over $\mathbb {R}$ such that $AB =BA$ for all matrices $B$. what can we say about such matrix $A$ [duplicate]

Let $A$ be a $3\times 3$ matrix over $\mathbb {R}$ such that $AB =BA$ for all matrices $B$ over $\mathbb {R}$ then what can we say about such matrix $A$. or such matrix $A$ must be orthogonal matrix? ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Why are Vandermonde matrices invertible?

A Vandermonde-matrix is a matrix of this form: $$\begin{pmatrix} x_0^0 & \cdots & x_0^n \\ \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ x_n^0 & \cdots & x_n^n \end{pmatrix} \in ...
12
votes
6answers
3k views

Sylvester rank inequality

If $A$ and $B$ are two matrices of the same order $n$, then $$ \operatorname{rank} A + \operatorname{rank}B \leq \operatorname{rank} AB + n. $$ I don't know how to start proving this ...
7
votes
3answers
1k views

Cayley-Hamilton theorem on square matrices

Can anyone help me by giving the proof of the Cayley-Hamilton theorem? It states that every square matrix $A$ satisfies its own characteristic equation: $p_{A}(A)=0$. I could prove it when $A$ has ...
4
votes
4answers
10k views

Dimensions of symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices

Let $\textbf A$ denote the space of symmetric $(n\times n)$ matrices over the field $\mathbb K$, and $\textbf B$ the space of skew-symmetric $(n\times n)$ matrices over the field $\mathbb K$. Then ...
5
votes
4answers
282 views

Proof If $AB-I$ Invertible then $BA-I$ invertible.

I have these problems : Proof If $AB-I$ invertible then $BA-I$ invertible. Proof If $I-AB$ invertible then $I-BA$ invertible. I think I solve it correctly, But I'm not so sure, I'll be glad to ...
4
votes
5answers
435 views

How to compute the determinant of a tridiagonal matrix with constant diagonals?

How to show that the determinant of the following $(n\times n)$ matrix $$\begin{pmatrix} 5 & 2 & 0 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 0 \\ 2 & 5 & 2 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Power of a matrix

$A$ is a $n\times n$ matrix, $ A^m = 0 $ for some positive integer $m$. Show that $A^n = 0$. My attempt: For $n > m$, it's obvious since matrix multiplication is associative. For $n < ...
6
votes
1answer
447 views

System of linear equations having a real solution has also a rational solution.

I saw this question Let $A ∈ M_{m\times n}(\mathbb{Q})$ and $b ∈ \mathbb{Q}^m$. Suppose that the system of linear equations $Ax = b$ has a solution in $\mathbb{R}^n$. Does it necessarily have ...
1
vote
3answers
127 views

Deducing the exact solution of a ODE

In page 53 of Arieh Iserles's A first course in the numerical analysis of differential equations, he presents the following ODE: $(\vec{y})'=\Gamma\cdot\vec{y}$, $\vec{y}(0)=\vec{y_0}$ Using the ...
1
vote
4answers
3k views

Square root of Positive Definite Matrix

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ positive definite matrix. Show that there exists a unique positive definite matrix $B$ such that $B^2=A$. I do know the existence. But what about the uniqueness? Would you ...
54
votes
1answer
4k views

Is the following matrix invertible?

$$ \begin{bmatrix} 1235 &2344 &1234 &1990\\ 2124 & 4123& 1990& 3026 \\ 1230 &1234 &9095 &1230\\ 1262 &2312& 2324 &3907 \end{bmatrix}$$ Clearly its ...
31
votes
5answers
14k views

Importance of rank of a matrix

What is the importance of rank of a matrix ? I know that rank of a matrix is the number of linearly independent rows/columns (whichever is smaller). Why is it a problem if a matrix is rank ...
32
votes
3answers
2k views

Why, historically, do we multiply matrices as we do?

Multiplication of matrices — taking the dot product of the $i$th row of the first matrix and the $j$th column of the second to yield the $ij$th entry of the product — is not a very ...
21
votes
11answers
22k views

What is the usefulness of matrices?

I have matrices for my syllabus but I don't know where they find their use. I even asked my teacher but she also has no answer. Can anyone please tell me where they are used? And please also give me ...
11
votes
2answers
4k views

Looking for insightful explanation as to why right inverse equals left inverse for square invertible matrices

The simple proof goes: Let B be the left inverse of A, C the right inverse. C = (BA)C = B(AC) = B This proof relies on associativity yet does not give any insight as to why this surprising fact ...
21
votes
4answers
1k views

Prove that the set of $n$-by-$n$ real matrices with positive determinant is connected

Math people: In the fourth edition of Strang's "Linear Algebra and its Applications", page 230, he poses the following problem (I have changed his wording): show that if $A \in \mathbf{R}^{n \times ...
12
votes
4answers
5k views

How to calculate the matrix exponential explicitly for a matrix which isn't diagonalizable?

How can I compute an expression for $(\exp(Qt))_{i,j}$ for some fixed $i, j$ and matrix $Q$? When $Q$ is diagonalizable, we can diagonalize, but what can be done otherwise? Thanks.
13
votes
2answers
33k views

Transpose of inverse vs inverse of transpose

I can't seem to find the answer to this using Google. Is the transpose of the inverse of a square matrix the same as the inverse of the transpose of that same matrix? Thanks!
9
votes
1answer
10k views

Elegant proofs that similar matrices have the same characteristic polynomial?

It's a simple exercise to show that two similar matrices has the same eigenvalues and eigenvectors (my favorite way is noting that they represent the same linear transformation in different bases). ...
8
votes
1answer
537 views

Inequality concerning inverses of positive definite matrices

I don't find a way to prove this: given $A$, $B$, symmetric and positive definite: $$A>B \Rightarrow A^{-1} < B^{-1},$$ where $A>B$ means that $A-B$ is positive definite.
7
votes
1answer
3k views

Intersection of conics using matrix representation

I came across a very interesting section of a wikipedia article on conics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conic_section#Intersecting_two_conics I am trying to work out a couple of examples to add to ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

What is step by step logic of pinv (pseudoinverse)?

So we have a matrix $A$ size of $M \times N$ with elements $a_{i,j}$. What is a step by step algorithm that returns the Moore-Penrose inverse $A^+$ for a given $A$ (on level of ...
6
votes
4answers
473 views

how many unique patterns exist for a NxN grid

I'm trying to figure out if there is a way to determine how many unique patterns exist for a given NxN grid if you choose N points on the grid. For example, for a 2x2 grid we can get two unique ...
5
votes
2answers
5k views

Prove that the only eigenvalue of a nilpotent operator is 0?

I need to prove that if $\phi : V \rightarrow V$ is nilpotent, then its only eigenvalue is 0. I know how to prove that this for a nilpotent matrix, but I'm not sure in the case of an operator. How ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

Are there any decompositions of a symmetric matrix that allow for the inversion of any submatrix?

I am given a $J \times J$ symmetric matrix $\Sigma$. For a subset of $\{1, ..., J\}$, $v$, let $\Sigma_{v}$ denote the associated square submatrix. I am in need of an efficient scheme for inverting ...
4
votes
2answers
443 views

The relationship between eigenvalues of matrices $XY$ and $YX$

If $X \in \mathbb{C}^{m \times n}$ and $Y \in \mathbb{C}^{n \times m}$ ($m \geq n$), how to prove that $\lambda (XY) = \lambda (YX) \cup \underbrace{\left \{ 0, ..., 0 \right \}}_{m-n}$? Here, ...
3
votes
3answers
351 views

Solving inhomogenous ODE

I have an inhomogenous ODE. The main issue here is variables are matrices. It is bit of matrix calculus. A solution would be highly appreciated interms of x . I guess we can use same methods for ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

How to prove that exponential kernel is positive definite?

The exponential kernel is defined by: $$k(x,z) = e^{-\alpha\|x-z\|}$$ where $\alpha>0$, $x,z\in \Bbb{R}^d$, $\|x\|$ is the 2-norm. The kernel matrix is defined by $K_{ij} = k(x_i,x_j)$, ...
0
votes
2answers
231 views

When a 0-1-matrix with exactly two 1’s on each column and on each row is non-degenerated? [1]

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix with entries in the set $\{0,1\}$ which has exactly two ones in each column and two ones in each row. Give necessary and sufficient conditions for the rank of $A$ to ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

$AB-BA=I$ having no solutions

The question is from Artin's Algebra. If $A$ and $B$ are two square matrices with real entries, show that $AB-BA=I$ has no solutions. I have no idea on how to tackle this question. I tried block ...
12
votes
4answers
6k views

Is there a 3-dimensional “matrix” by “matrix” product?

Is it possible to multiply A[m,n,k] by B[p,q,r]? Does the regular matrix product have generalized form? I would appreciate it if you could help me to find out some tutorials online or mathematical ...
7
votes
2answers
878 views

$AB-BA$ is a nilpotent matrix if it commutes with $A$

I saw this in a MathOverflow post and am putting it here for posterity. Problem: Let $A$ and $B$ by square matrices and set $C=AB-BA$. If $AC=CA$, prove $C$ is nilpotent.
2
votes
1answer
643 views

formula for calculating determinant of the block matrix

I saw a formula on the wikipedia page about determinant that $\det\begin{bmatrix}A & B\\ C & D \end{bmatrix}$ = $\det(AD-BC)$, if $C$ and $D$ commute. Is this always true? Or is there a good ...
2
votes
3answers
569 views

Orthogonal and symmetric Matrices

What can one say about the set of all $n$-dimensional square matrices $A \in \text{GL}_n(\mathbb{C})$ that have an inverse with entries out of $\mathbb{C}$ with the properties: unitary ...
10
votes
2answers
421 views

Rank of the difference of matrices [duplicate]

Let $A$ and $B$ be to $n \times n$ matrices. My question is: Is $\operatorname{rank}(A-B) \geq \operatorname{rank}(A) - \operatorname{rank}(B)$ true in general? Or maybe under certain assumptions?
8
votes
4answers
154 views

Find out trace of a given matrix $A$ with entries from $\mathbb{Z}_{227}$

Let $A$ be a $227\times 227$ matrix with entries in $\mathbb{Z}_{227}$ such that all of its eigen values are distinct. What would be its trace? I think it is zero by adding all 227 elements but i am ...
4
votes
6answers
798 views

How to find the exact value of $ \cos(36^\circ) $?

The problem reads as follows: Noting that $t=\frac{\pi}{5}$ satisfies $3t=\pi-2t$, find the exact value of $$\cos(36^\circ)$$ it says that you may find useful the following identities: ...
3
votes
3answers
87 views

diagonalisability of matrix few properties

What are the most important things one should remember to check the diagonalisability of a matrix? Please help, I have exams on next week. Say some best and easy methods,time efficient.
2
votes
2answers
163 views
0
votes
1answer
144 views

Alpha and Omega limit sets (dynamical systems)

What are all the possible $α$- and $ω$-limit sets of points for the linear system of equations $x'=Ax$ given by the following matrices $A$: I guess I don't really know how to get started, Could I ...
0
votes
1answer
2k views

what are pivot numbers in LU decomposition? please explain me in an example

studying many pages like wikipedia, wolfram, Mathworks, Math Stack Exchange, lu-pivot, LU_Decomposition I couldn't find exactly whart are the pivot numbers in a specific example: for example what are ...
6
votes
1answer
284 views

Does the inverse of this matrix of size $n \times n$ approach the zero-matrix in the limit as $\small n \to \infty$?

Fiddling with another (older) question here I constructed an example-matrix of the type $\small M_n: m_{n:r,c} = {1 \over (1+r)^c } \quad \text{ for } r,c=0 \ldots n-1 $ . I considered the inverse ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

If Ax = Bx for all $x \in C^{n}$, then A = B.

Let $A$ and $B$ are nxn matrices and $x \in C^{n}$. If $Ax = Bx$ for all $x$ then $A = B$. To prove this I have selected $x$ from Euclidean basis B = {$e_{1},e_{2},...,e_{n}$}. Then $Ae_{i} = Be_{i}$ ...
5
votes
1answer
265 views

For given $n\times n$ matrix $A$ singular matrix, prove that $\operatorname{rank}(\operatorname{adj}A) \leq 1$

For given $n\times n$ matrix $A$ singular matrix, prove that $\operatorname{rank}(\operatorname{adj}A) \leq 1$ So from the properties of the adjugate matrix we know that $$ A \cdot ...
5
votes
4answers
2k views

determinant of rank-one update of identity matrix

I read something that suggests that if $I$ is the $n$-by-$n$ identity matrix, $v$ is an $n$-dimensional real column vector with $\|v\| = 1$ (standard Euclidean norm), and $t > 0$, then ...
5
votes
4answers
6k views

Properties of zero-diagonal symmetric matrices

I'm interested in the properties of zero-diagonal symmetric (or hermitian) matrices, also known as hollow symmetric (or hermitian) matrices. The only thing I can come up with is that it cannot be ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

$A^{T}A$ positive definite then A is invertible?

Say if $A$ is an $n \times n$ matrix, why is it that if $A^{T}A$ is positive definite, the matrix $A$ is then invertible? All I know is $A^{T}A$ gives a symmetric matrix but what does $A^{T}A$ is ...