For any topic related to matrices. This includes: systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors (diagonalization, triangularization), determinant, trace, characteristic polynomial, adjugate, transpose, Jordan normal form, matrix algorithms (e.g. LU, Gauss elimination, SVD, QR), ...

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2
votes
1answer
50 views

Smith Normal Form and quotient $\mathbb{Z}^{3}/M \mathbb{Z}^{3}$

I am learning modules and the Smith Normal Form, but I got stuck in the following: I found the Smith Normal Form of $$M = \begin{pmatrix} 21 & 0 & 1 \\ 8& 4 & 1\\ 3& 8 & 1 ...
1
vote
1answer
133 views

Finding determinant of a 4x4 matrix

I am trying to find the determinant of this matrix but was told by my teacher that we wouldn't need to find the determinant of more than $3\times 3$ matrices so I am guessing there is a way of solving ...
2
votes
0answers
54 views

Inequality with eigenvalues

Let matrix $ X $ is Hermitian and denote $ \lambda_1(X) \ge \lambda_2(X) \ge \ldots \ge \lambda_n(X) $ eigenvalues of matrix $ X $. Prove that $ \lambda_i(A + B) \le \lambda_i(A) + \lambda_1(B) $ I ...
1
vote
2answers
95 views

Linear Algebra-invariant subspaces

Suppose $V$ is a real vector space and $T\in \mathcal L (V)$ has no (real) eigenvalues. Prove that every subspace of $V$ invariant under $T$ has even dimension.
0
votes
1answer
40 views

What does $\sigma$ mean in this context?

This is a problem taken straight from my Numerical Methods course : Prove that : $\sigma (A^{-1})$ = { $\frac{1} {\lambda_1} ,\frac{1} {\lambda_1}, ... ,\frac{1} {\lambda_n} $ } . However, nothing ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Differentiating a matrix

Let $$f(x) = \left[\begin{array}{ccccc} 6 &-5 &-2 &1 &7\cr -7 &0 &-2 &2 &-3\cr -3 &0 &0 &-9 &-8\cr x &6 &-3 &-3 &1\cr -3 &0 ...
5
votes
1answer
77 views

Let $trcA=0$.why $A=M+N$ where $M$ and $N$ are nilpotent matrices?

Let $A \in {M_n}$ and $trcA=0$.why $A=M+N$ where $M$ and $N$ are nilpotent matrices?
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Finding a kernel and an image of $T^2$

Let $T$ be a linear transformation $T: \mathbb{R}^4 \to \mathbb{R}^4$ that is defined by: $$T\begin{pmatrix}x\\y\\z\\u\end{pmatrix}=\begin{pmatrix}0\\z\\y\\x\end{pmatrix}$$ Find the kernel and image ...
3
votes
2answers
49 views

If $A$ can be written as a sum of nilpotent matrices why $trcA=0$?

Let $A \in {M_n}$. If $A$ can be written as a sum of two nilpotent matrices, why $trcA=0$?
3
votes
2answers
98 views

Let $A,B \in {M_2}$ and $C=AB-BA$. Why is ${C^2} = \lambda I$ true?

Let $A,B \in {M_2}$ and $C=AB-BA$. Why does ${C^2} = \lambda I$?
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Determinant with one parameter, how to deal with this?

Let $t\in \mathbb R$ be a parameter, and $$|A(t)|= \begin{vmatrix} a_{11}+t &a_{12}+t &\cdots &a_{1n}+t\\ a_{21}+t &a_{22}+t &\cdots &a_{2n}+t\\ \vdots &\vdots ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

Optimal Matching Distance

I'm stuck on problem II.5.9 from Bhatia's Matrix Analysis. The problem is as follows: Let $\{\lambda_1,\dots,\lambda_n\},\{\mu_1,\dots,\mu_n\}$ by two $n$-tuples of complex numbers. Let $$ ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

find Direction vector

i got this problem ( very trivial I guess) $39x -51y =15$ $-52x + 68 = -20$ I've done the Gauss reduction and got this, Matrix: \begin{pmatrix} 1 & \frac{-17}{13} & \frac{5}{13} \\ 0 ...
4
votes
0answers
99 views

What is the explicit formula (solution) to this recursively defined binary matrix?

My question concerns the following binary matrix (call it matrix $A$). Or rather the entire family of such matrices, for some number of columns $n$ and rows $2^n$. The ellipses indicate that the ...
1
vote
2answers
56 views

Prove boundedness of the matrix series

Suppose $A$ is a square matrix, such that all eigenvalues of $A$ has norm strictly less than $1$, can I say $\sum_{i=k_0}^kA^{k-i}$ is bounded for all large enough $k_0$ and $k$? From some other ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Product of a vector, a matrix and a vector

Given are two n-dimensional column vectors a and c, and an nxn-matrix B. Transpose is indicated by ', for example a' is the transpose of a, c' is the transpose of c, and B' is the transpose of B. ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Principal Component analysis by eigenvalue decomposition.

I do know how to perform PCA by using SVD but I am unaware about how to use eigenvalue decomposition of X(transpose)*X matrix. I found a paper online which explains the approach to perform PCA by ...
2
votes
3answers
76 views

Clockwise rotation of $3\times3$ matrix?

I've recently been studying matrices and have encountered a rather intriguing question which has quite frankly stumped me. Find the $3\times3$ matrix which represents a rotation clockwise through ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Basis of orthogonal complement subspace [duplicate]

Let $A$ be the matrix $$ \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 & -1&-1 \\ 1 & 2 & -2 & 1 \\ \end{pmatrix} ,$$ let $W$ = ker $A$ and let $W^\bot$ be the ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Unique linear combination in matrix with skew-symmetric condition

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix with real entries such that the numbers in each column sum to $0$, and $a_{ij}\in\{0,1\}$ for all $i\neq j$, and $a_{ij}=0\leftrightarrow a_{ji}=1$ for all $i\neq j$. ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Spans of Orthogonal complements

Let $A$ be the matrix $$ \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 & -1&-1 \\ 1 & 2 & -2 & 1 \\ \end{pmatrix} ,$$ let $W$ = ker $A$ and let $W^\bot$ be the ...
3
votes
1answer
25 views

Unique linear combination in matrix with column sum $0$?

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix with real entries such that the numbers in each column sum to $0$, and all diagonal entries are non-zero. So, $A$ is non-invertible, and some linear combination of ...
2
votes
1answer
93 views

Is there an easier way to find the inverse of a 3x3 matrix?

I know the normal process is to do row operations to transform the matrix to get the identity matrix and then apply the same row operations in the identity matrix to get the inverse. But this process ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Finding eigenvectors through triangularization

I have an exam tomorrow and am working through notes. We derived the following stochastic matrix: $$P=\left[ \begin{matrix} 0.8 & 0.5 & 0 & 0\\ 0.2 & 0.5 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 ...
0
votes
2answers
56 views

Finding complex eigenvalues

For the matrix \begin{pmatrix}1/2 & 1 & 3/4\\2/3 & 0 & 0\\0 & 1/3 & 0\end{pmatrix} Find the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors. I did this with an online calculator and ...
1
vote
2answers
226 views

How can I prove using induction that the Hadamard matrices are orthogonal?

I can't figure out how to prove using induction that the dot product of 2 rows in a Hadamard matrix is 0. I've always thought of it as just a property of the type of matrix.
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Find orthogonal Q given eigenvalue and eigenvector?

Given some upper Hessenberg matrix $H \in R^{n \text{x} n}$, i know how to find an orthogonal matrix which is a product of Givens rotations such that $P^THP$ is also upper Hessenberg, but I'm not sure ...
2
votes
1answer
247 views

Matrix inversion via Levi-Civita symbols

Using Cramer's formula for the inverse of a matrix $M_{ij}$, is it possible to express the entries $(M^{-1})_{ij}$ in terms of the entries $M_{ij}$ using the Levi-Civita symbol and Kronecker deltas? ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Vector times symmetric matrix

For most of you here, this is probably quite basic. As for a symmetric matrix $A$ the first row equals the first column, multiplying the matrix with a column vector $b$ equals multiplying the ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

What is the connection between $V(\vec x) = \frac{1}{2}(x_1^2+x_1x_2+x_2^2)$ and $V(\vec x) = \frac {1}{2} x^TPx $?

For example, $V(\vec x) = \frac{1}{2}(x_1^2+x_1x_2+x_2^2)$ has an equivalent representation $V(\vec x) = \frac {1}{2} x^TPx $ where $P$ is some matrix Can someone make this connection clearer for me ...
1
vote
2answers
34 views

Linear Applied Algebra | Verify the vectors

Question: My response: Math has never been a strength, particularly proofs, so I would appreciate any and every help. I am just not sure if I am following a proper procedure for the above ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Applied Linear Algebra | Linear Dependent Matrix

Question: My response: Am I solving the above question correctly? Or am I on the wrong path? Thank you for your help.
-1
votes
2answers
46 views

Applied Linear Algebra |

Question: Determine whether or not any column in the matrix is a linear combination of other columns. Provide a general method for answering the same question for any n x n matrix A. My response: ...
1
vote
1answer
189 views

Need help with a Crank Nicholson Method example problem.

I have an exam coming up and the professor released the sample test containing a Crank Nicolson question. I was out of town for those two lectures, so I missed the information. Even though I have ...
0
votes
1answer
69 views

Applied Linear Algebra | Prove the intersection of two subspaces

Question: Determine whether or not any column in the matrix is a linear combination of other columns. Provide a general method for answering the same question for any n x n matrix A. My response: ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Relationship between eigenvectors of two matrices

Suppose I have matrix $A \in R^{2n \text{x} 2n} $ given by $X^{-1} diag(W - iY, W + iY) X$ and matrix $B \in C^{n \text{x} n}$ and $B = W + iY$. Let $v$ be an eigenvector of $A$. How can I relate ...
0
votes
2answers
48 views

Calculate matrix $X$ in expression $X + B = (A-B)X$

I have to calculate matrix $X$ in expression $X + B = (A-B)X$. $$ A=\left[ \begin{array} k1 & -2 & 3\\ 2 & 4 &0\\ -1 & 2 & 1\\ \end{array} ...
5
votes
1answer
55 views

Show that $Y$ is invertible

Let X be a $40\times40$ matrix such that $X^3 = 2I$. I want to show that $Y= X^2 -2X + 2I$ is invertible as well. I tried working with the equations to see if I can get Y as a product of matrices ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

Find spectrum for matrix $A$ [duplicate]

Let $A = \left[ \begin{array}{*{20}{c}} 0&b&0&0&0&0\\ c&0&b&0&0&0\\ 0&c&0&b&0&0\\ 0&0&c&0&b&0\\ ...
0
votes
1answer
93 views

Show convergence of Power method

Given a symmetric positive definite matrix $A_0 \in R^{n \text{x} n}$ with Cholesky decomposition $A_0 = LL^T$. How can I show that $A_k$ converges to $diag(\lambda_1, ..., \lambda_n)$ where $A_k$ is ...
1
vote
4answers
60 views

Basis of a $2\times2$ matrix

How would I find the basis for an arbitrary matrix W such that: $$ W =\left\{ \begin{pmatrix} a & b \\ c & a +b +c\end{pmatrix} \ \big| \ \ a ,b ,c \in \mathbb{R} \right\} $$
1
vote
0answers
49 views

Skew-symmetric non-degenerate bilinear form

If we do symplectic linear algebra on a finite-dimensional vector space $V$, then what does $$\omega(v,w) \neq 0$$ or $$\omega(v,w) = 0$$ actually tell us about the vectors $v,w$? ($\omega$ is the ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Equating eigenvalues of Hermitian matrix and correlating symmetric/antisymmetric matricies

I have a matrix $AH$ which is created by adding $AS$ and $i*AA$, which are the symmetric and antisymmetric components of the real matrix $A$ So $AS=(A+A')/2$ $AA=(A-A')/2$ $AH=AS+i*AA$ AH has ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

matrix sampling and its rank preservation

Assuming matrix $X\in R^{m\times n}$ is row orthogonal of rank $m$. Then, if I construct a new matrix $Y\in R^{m\times t}$, whose columns are directly sampled from $X$ with or without replacement ...
2
votes
4answers
100 views

Logic behind finding a $ (2 \times 2) $-matrix $ A $ such that $ A^{2} = - \mathsf{I} $.

I know the following matrix "$A$" results in the negative identity matrix when you take $A*A$ (same for $B*B$, where $B=-A$): $$A=\begin{pmatrix}0 & -1\cr 1 & 0\end{pmatrix}$$ However, I am ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

Reflection matrix in $ \mathbb{R}^{3} $.

I need help in understanding how they got the transformation matrix $ Q_{L} $ from Theorem 2 and $ P_{M} $ at the bottom of the page. They skipped some steps and I find it confusing. Any help would ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Can independence of a system and a vector be establish if there is only cross-indepedence?

Say that I have the following linear system: $$[A a'] \begin{bmatrix} x \\ x' \\ \end{bmatrix} =Ax + a'x' $$ I want to know when this system is zero if and only if ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

Maximal ideals of the ring of matrices

Let K be a field. We consider $K^n$ as a left module of $M_{n, n}(K)$, the ring of matrices of size $n$ over $K$. 1) For any $M_{n, n}(K)$ module homomorphism $ 0 ≠ \phi: M_{n, n}(K) \to K^n$, show ...
0
votes
1answer
144 views

Linear operators proof, projection and reflection matrices

I am trying to understand two parts from the picture below in my textbook, but I dont understand how they arrived at it. I am trying to understand the proof below and how they got $P_L(\vec{v}) = ...
-2
votes
3answers
55 views

Determine 9 variables by 3 equations with approximation

I have an equation in the form of Q*d=z, where Q is 3by3 matrix of variables, and d and z are vectors of 3 known numbers. What would be the best way to compute all 9 elements of matrix Q, provided ...