# Tagged Questions

Use this tag for questions concerning history of mathematics, historical primacies of results, and evolution of terminology, symbols, and notations.

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### Logarithms and Taylor Series

Before Log Tables, how were they able to compute expressions such as $2^{2.221}$? I understand they could take a Taylor expansion of $\frac{1}{x}$, but how were they able to condense the expansion ...
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### Demonstrative geometry around the world and its significance.

This is not exactly a mathematical question. I am from Pakistan; and over here students are taught a subject 'demonstrative geometry' (as a part of mathematics) from secondary level education. ...
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### What is a space? Where does the word come from?

I was asked the question: "What is a space?". Wikipedia says it is a set with added structure, but then why don't we call a group a space, or a ring? The Princeton companion doesn't even have an entry ...
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### The word “integral” in calculus unrelated to “integral” / “integer” in algebra?

I think that the word integral in calculus is nothing to do with integer or integer numbers. But why is integral is chosen for integration? In algebra, integral means related to integers, and this is ...
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### Why do mathematicians use $\oplus$ instead of $+$?

What is the historical reason for using $\oplus$ instead of $+$ to denote operations that are generally thought of as addition? Similarly, why is $\otimes$ used instead of $\times$ (or just $\cdot$) ...
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### A post for the rejected — influential papers that had trouble getting published [closed]

Having your paper rejected feels a lot like getting dumped. But while there are plenty of good ways to alleviate the pain of romantic rejection, there seem to be few outlets to alleviate intellectual ...
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### What was the original motivation for matrix multiplication? [duplicate]

When I took linear algebra class in my freshman year, the multiplication operation for matrices was defined without any apparent motivation. Given an $m$-times-$n$ matrix $A$ and an $n$-times-$p$ ...
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### Could Euclid have proven that multiplication of real numbers distributes over addition?

In Euclid's day, the modern notion of real number did not exist; Euclid did not believe that the length of a line segment was a quantity measurable by number. But he did think it made sense to talk ...
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### Could Euclid have proven that real number multiplication is commutative?

In Euclid's day, the modern notion of real number did not exist; Euclid did not believe that the length of a line segment was a quantity measurable by number. But he did think it made sense to talk ...
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### Books and sources concerning the mathematics of Leibniz and the feud with Newton

I am trying to find books and other sources concerning the mathematical history of Leibniz, including the controversy due to the independent discoveries of calculus by both Newton and Leibniz. I can't ...
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### a maximum of 128 independent rules

Can anyone tell me what these 128 rules are in the following paragraph? Are they the rules dominating Conway's automaton or other kind of rules like the whole universe rules that could be summarized ...
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### Where does the term “Ring” come from in Algebra? [duplicate]

Group and Field make some sense to me, but I can't see why the structures that are closed under two binary operations would indicate "ring".
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### Impact factor Vs Rating of Maths journals

I have heard of a Maths journal having $A^*$, $A$, $B$ and $C$ rating, and have also heard of impact factor of $1.3$, $0.6, 0.33$, et-cetera. Can someone please clarify me on what these two actually ...
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### Is our Arabic number system based on a geometric design counting corners? [duplicate]

The following writer asserts that our system of Arabic numerals is a geometric design where the number of corners corresponds to the number represented: My question is: Is our Arabic number system ...
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### Why is the Gamma function off by 1 from the factorial? [duplicate]

Why didn't they define it as $$\tilde \Gamma(x) = \int_0^\infty t^x e^{-t} \, dt ?$$ Then the definition would have two less characters than the standard definition of $\Gamma(x)$, and we would have ...
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### Does “data” in Cauchy data come before or after the coinage of data in computer science

Is the usage of data as in Cauchy data (i.e. initial conditions) borrowed or came before the usage of data in computer science and do both usages mean roughly the same thing (data ~ information)?
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### Proofs that relied on paradoxical sentences

Graham Priest's Logic of Paradox is a modification of classical logic where the principle of explosion does not hold, so that there are inconsistent theories which are not automatically trivial. ...
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### Difference between the formula of Roger Cotes and Euler

What was the difference between the formula that Roger cotes derived and that euler got? I mean to say that Euler got the following formula : $$e^{ix} = \cos x+i \sin x$$ And Cotes got the following ...
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### What is the smallest unknown natural number?

There are several unknown numbers in mathematics, such as optimal constants in some inequalities. Often it is enough to some estimates for these numbers from above and below, but finding the exact ...
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### Strange old multiplication table found in Oklahoma school

Today I read an article about chalk boards from 1917 discovered in an Oklahoma school. One of the chalkboards included the following curious image: (Oklahoma City Public Schools) The article ...