# Tagged Questions

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### When and where the concept of valid logic formula was defined?

I was stimulated by a recent question about Gödel Completeness Theorem. All my citations are from Jean van Heijenoort (editor) From Frege to Gödel A Source Book in Mathematical Logic (1967). Gödel's ...
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### Why can't ✳1.1 be expressed symbollically in Whitehead and Russell's PM?

✳1.1. Anything implied by a true elementary proposition is true. Pp. In the follow passage, it says, "we cannot express the principle symbolically, partly because any symbolism in which p is ...
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### Should the notion of continuity, usually ascribed to Cauchy, be ascribed to Leibniz?

In his text, Deleuze and the History of Mathematics, Simon Duffy writes: Leibniz also thought the following to be a requirement to continuity: "When the difference between two instances in a ...
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### What does “meaning” mean in Whitehead and Russell's PM?

In Principia Mathematica's Introduction, there is a definition for "incomplete" symbol: By an "incomplete" symbol we mean a symbol which is not supposed to have any meaning in isolation, but is ...
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### What is the necessary condition for the process of “proceeding to the limit” in Whitehead and Russell's PM?

I read this from Introduction of the 1st edition of Principia Mathematica by Whitehead and Russell: Since the orders of functions are only defined step by step, there can be no process of ...
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### Math Mindeset: Historical Learning vs Generality of Concepts

I started math four months ago with modules like measure theory and topology. It was unavoidable to notice how many concepts are more general than what I thought before. For example the ...
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### What is the difference between asserting “$\phi(a)$” and asserting “$\phi(a)$ is true” in Whitehead and Russell's PM?

The first edition of Principia Mathematica clearly distinguishes "Socrates is a man" and "'Socrates is a man' is true." Judging from the context, the distinction is neither a primitive idea nor a ...
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### How does Schröder explain the apparent oddity of ❋5.11.12.13.14 in 1st ed of Whitehead and Russell's PM?

The footnote refers to Schröder's work. I'd appreciate if someone can explain Schroder's insights and spare me some hard reading.
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### How to prove ❋4.86 in 1st ed of Whitehead and Russell's PM?

This one has a great degree of self-evidence. Paradoxically, I find it difficult to deduce it from primitive propositions. The book only hinted ❋4.21 and ❋4.22.
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### Is there a link between level of abstraction and use of numbers?

One of my friend who stopped studying maths in high school told me once You study maths, can you help me fill my tax forms? In her mind, advancing in maths studies implied manipulating an ...
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### Does Whitehead and Russells' PM distinguish Proof from Demonstration?

I'm currently at Chapter 4, vol. 1 and 1st ed. I have to ask this question because the most important thing about this book is in its minute details. Thanks. Take *3.3 for example. Acording to this ...
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### What is $M_x$ in Frege's Basic Law IIb?

Gottlob Frege's magnum opus, "The Basic Laws of Arithmetic" (Die Grundgesetze der Arithmetic in German) constitutes one of most impressive and meticulous attempts at developing a rigorous foundation ...
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### General questions about theorems and laws

I have doubts about the construction of mathematical elements. There are proofs, that are proven using other theorems (corollaries) and/or axioms or definitions, such as Fermat's Last Theorem, the ...
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### Dogmas and Mathematics

What are the dogmas that restrict or promote the development of mathematics? I know that a dogma is a set of beliefs that is accepted by the members of a group without being questioned or doubted. ...
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### looking for good book on the history of formalism

In 1868 Beltrami published a paper ""Saggio di interpretazione della geometria non-euclidea" that seems to have led to the formalist philosophy of mathematics. But what was written exactly what were ...
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### Is there a geometrical proof of the impossibility of squaring the circle?

The impossibility of certain constructions in Euclidean geometry, such as squaring the circle with straight-edge and compass is usually shown by using algebraic methods. I am wondering if there are ...
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### Who are the greatest mathematicians of the last years? Don't give a ranking, comment on recent achievements that led to new areas in mathematics. [closed]

Let me begin by saying that I agree that the question should be addressed carefully, I intend this as a pedagogical exercise. Every musician has its favorite musicians of all time, even if he agrees ...
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### How much are mathematics driven by applications?

At some point this provocative question came to my mind: Are mathematics mostly driven by applications? I am taking into account some of the comments made to my original question so I want to ...
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### Is mathematical history written by the victors?

The question is the title of a recent piece in the Notices of the American Mathematical Society, by twelve authors (of which I am one). The contention is that traditional history of mathematics is ...
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### Why demonstrations are important in mathematics? [closed]

Good evening, I'm studying math and would like to know how important are mathematical proofs in the world and particularly in a school of mathematics Thanks for your help
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### What are examples of unexpected algebraic numbers of high degree occured in some math problems?

Recently I asked a question about a possible transcendence of the number ...
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### Gray's “Plato's Ghost” - a curious mistake

I am currently reading Jeremy Gray's "Plato's Ghost", and I run into the following passage (Chapter 5, page 332). The point is, it seems to me that it contains two very elementary mistakes that feel ...
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### What have been some of the most revolutionary philosophical shifts in perspective in mathematics?

Often times, great revolutions in mathematics come from shifts in philosophical perspective. The shift from extrinsic to intrinsic geometry yields manifolds (and much else). The shift in focus from ...
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### Did large cardinals exist before 1963?

I'm curious to know the history of the interaction between large cardinals and traveling to (creating) universes through forcing. The question arose because I understand that Peano Arithmatists ...
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### why does soundness seem to be less important than consistency for the structuralist?

If I am not wrong, many mathematicians (I believe this is not only restricted to structuralists) agree that an inconsistent formal system does not have any model. By model I mean some kind of set ...
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### what is the definition of Mathematics ?

we all study mathematics , and all of us learn mathematical methods to solve problems , we learn how to prove , how to think mathematically but the question is, what is mathematics ? how can we ...
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### The facts about $\varphi$ [closed]

A lot of people believe there is something special about the number $\varphi= \frac {1+ \sqrt5}{2}$. However, I can only think of cultural explanations for looking at each property of $\varphi$ as ...
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### Why $\sqrt{\frac {\sum(x-\mu)^2} {N}}$ instead of $\frac {\sum{\Bigl|x-\mu\Bigr|}} {N}$? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Motivation behind standard deviation? In statistics very often you see something of the sort: $$\textrm{quantity}=\sqrt{\frac {\sum(x-\mu)^2} {N}}$$ to measure things ...
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### How do mathematicians think about the existence of numbers?

Question: How do mathematicians think about the existence of numbers? And how did Newton, Euler, and other famous mathematicians thought about this concept? I know that existence of numbers is a ...
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### Did Structuralism influence the formulation of Category Theory?

Having only the a very cursory knowledge of Structuralism ( it's a movement generally held to have originated in linguistics, then moving on to philosophy & literature), there does appear to be ...
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### What did Gauss think about infinity?

I have someone who is begging for a conversation with me about infinity. He thinks that Cantor got it wrong, and suggested to me that Gauss did not really believe in infinity, and would not have ...
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### Mac Lane and Eilenberg's motivations for category theory

I'm looking to understand the conceptual process that brought Eilenberg and Mac Lane in developing the basic concepts of category theory. I quote Mac Lane's book "Category theory for working ...
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### Is there any difference between a math invention and a math discovery? [closed]

From wikipekia: The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – ...
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### Reference request: is mathematics discovered or created?

I have to write a short monograph as an assignment for a course on the philosophy of science. Being a math student, of course I want to opt for something math-related. After some initial ideas which ...