For questions about $L^p$ spaces, that is, given a measure space $(X,\mathcal F,\mu)$, the vector space of equivalence class of measurable functions with $p$-th power of the absolute value integrable. Question can be about properties of elements of these spaces, or when the ambient space on a ...

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19
votes
0answers
679 views

How many points of intersection between an ellipse and an $L_p$-circle?

Consider an ellipse $E$ in the plane, centered at the origin. (In my case, the minor axis points into the nonnegative quadrant.) Let S be an "$L_p$-circle": $S = \{(x,y) : |x|^p + |y|^p = 1\}$, ...
10
votes
0answers
485 views

Question regarding the Kolmogorov-Riesz theorem on relatively compact subsets of $L^p(\Omega)$.

Usually, the Kolmogorov-Riesz theorem is quoted for $L^p(\mathbb R^n)$, but I am looking for versions considering spaces over subsets in $\mathbb R^n$. The following is from the book "Sobolev spaces" ...
6
votes
0answers
117 views

Solving a functional equation in $L_2(\mathbb{R})$

Let $e\left(x\right)=e^{2\pi ix}$ and let $F$ be an arbitrary complex-valued function in $L^2 (\mathbb R)$. I am trying to solve the following functional equation (or rather family of equations): ...
5
votes
0answers
33 views

Prove: $L^p(X)$ is not contained in $L^q(X)$ iff $X$ contains sets of arbitrarily small positive measure.

Let $(X,M, μ)$ be a measure space and $0 < p < q ≤ ∞$. Prove: $L^p(X)$ is not contained in $L^q(X)$ iff $X$ contains sets of arbitrarily small positive measure. My work: I proved the ...
5
votes
0answers
66 views

Alternate proof of a result on dual spaces: what is wrong with it?

I am familiar with Rudin's book's proof of the fact that, in $\sigma$-finite measure spaces and for $p\in[1,+\infty)$, the dual space of $L^p$ is $L^q$ where $p,q$ are conjugate, i.e. ...
5
votes
0answers
961 views

Proof of separability of Lp spaces

The following is a proof in Brezis book. It shows the separability of $L^{p}$ spaces: I have a few questions regarding the proof. Questions: It says 'it is easy to construct a function $f_{2} ...
5
votes
0answers
87 views

Does the Gagliardo–Nirenberg interpolation inequality hold on compact closed manifolds?

The Gagliardo–Nirenberg interpolation inequality on a bounded domain is of the form $$|D^j u|_{L^p} \leq C_1|D^m u|_{L^r}^\alpha|u|_{L^q}^{1-\alpha} + C_2|u|_{L^s}$$ where are there restrictions on ...
5
votes
0answers
132 views

Gradient on Sobolev spaces

Suppose I have a function $\Phi \in L_p(\Omega)$ and $\nabla\Phi \in W^{-\alpha}_p(\Omega)$, $1<p<\infty$ and where $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ is a bounded domain. Can I conclude that $\Phi\in ...
5
votes
0answers
81 views

Question about a (relatively simple looking) differential operator and its eigenvalues

A colleague and I are interested in a specific differential operator on the reals. The differential operator L is of the form $L=-(1+x^{2})\frac{d^{2}}{dx^{2}}+c_{1}x\frac{d}{dx}+c_{2}x^{2}$ for ...
5
votes
0answers
185 views

Is there an orthonormal basis for $L_2[0,1]$ consisting of convex functions?

Is there an orthonormal basis $\{\phi_{\alpha}\}$ for the space $L_2[0,1]$ of square-integrable functions from $[0,1]$ to $\mathbb{R}$ such that every $\phi_{\alpha}$ is convex? Edit: A helpful ...
4
votes
0answers
53 views

Why $\|f-g\|=0$ if and only if $f=g$?

I'm learning Fourier Transformation lately, and in the Course Reader page 23, it defines $\|f\|=\left(\int_0^1 \left|f(t)\right|^2 dt\right)^{1/2}$. And then $\|f-g\|=0$ if and only if $f=g$. My ...
4
votes
0answers
151 views

When does $|f*g|_{p}=|f|_{1}|g|_{p}$?

From Rudin, Real and Complex Analysis, 1st edition, Chapter 7, Problem 4 Suppose $1\le p\le \infty$, $f\in L^{1}(\mathbb{R}^{1})$, $g\in L^{p}(\mathbb{R}^{1})$. Show that the the integral defining ...
4
votes
0answers
127 views

A question about functions in $L^p(E)$

I've been working on a problem. I found a couple of related questions on the site, but I was having a little bit of trouble clarifying everything. The goal is to show that given $f\notin L^p(E)$, ...
3
votes
0answers
43 views

Doob's inequalities for not necessarily right-continuous martingales

In Revuz and Yor, they denote $\mathbb{H}^2$ the space of $L^2$-bounded martingales, and $H^2$ the space of continuous $L^2$-bounded martingales. They state "... by Doob's inequality ... ...
3
votes
0answers
41 views

Properties of $L^{\infty}$

I'm trying to get a better grasp on the idea of $L^{\infty}$. What are the implications if we are given that $f \in L^{\infty}$? Also, how do we write $\|f\|_{\infty}$ in terms of the inf of a set of ...
3
votes
0answers
133 views

Dense subset of $L^p[a,b]$

It is true that $C_{0}^{\infty}[a,b]$, (the space of all smooth functions f with the property that f and all its derivatives vanish at a and b) is dense in $L^p[a,b]$ with $1\leq p< \infty$ ? ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

lp and c0 little question

i want to explain that the inclusion $\bigcup_{p < \infty} l^p \subset c_0$ is true. that comes very quickly from the definition of $l^p$. The problem is, that Im sure that this inclusion is ...
3
votes
0answers
84 views

Dual of $l^p$ Direct sum

I am asked to show that the $l^p$-direct sum of a sequence of Banach Spaces $X_n$ is isometrically isomorphic to the $l^q$ direct sum of $X_n^*$ where $X_n^*$ is the dual of $X_n$ for each $n$ ...
3
votes
0answers
118 views

Do these limits commute?

Given a sequence of functions $f_{n,m}:\mathbb{R}^{n} \to \mathbb{R}$, suppose that $$\displaystyle\lim_{m} f_{n,m}(x)$$ exists almost everywhere (for any fixed n) and also suppose that ...
3
votes
0answers
47 views

Can we expect, $h\ast \mu \in L^{2}(\mathbb R, (1+|x|^{2})^{s})$ for $h\in \mathcal{S}(\mathbb R), \mu\in M(\mathbb R)$ and $s>1/2$?

We put, $M(\mathbb R)=$ The space of complex bounded Borel measure on $\mathbb R$ [With each complex Borel measure $\mu$ on $\mathbb R$ there is associated a set function $|\mu|,$ the total variation ...
3
votes
0answers
71 views

$\|\phi_{\lambda}- \phi_{\lambda} \ast f \|_{L^{2}(\mathbb R)}\to 0$ as $\lambda \to \infty$? ($\phi_{\lambda}(x)=\lambda^{-1} \phi(x/\lambda).$)

For $f\in L^{1}(\mathbb R),$ we define its Fourier transform as follows: $\hat{f}(t)=\int_{\mathbb R} f(x) e^{-ix\cdot t} dx ,(t\in \mathbb R).$ Suppose that $f\in L^{1}(\mathbb R)$ with ...
3
votes
0answers
95 views

Is $L^p$ separable?

Whether a $L^p(X,\mu)$ space is separable? I understand that the answer depends on $p$ and $X$. It seems to me that it is separable when $1\leq p < \infty, X=\mathbb{R}^n$ or $X=\mathbb{N}$. ...
3
votes
0answers
44 views

Difference between almost everywhere convergence of whole Fourier series and a subseries of $L^2$ functions

Let $f \in L^2(\mathbb{R})$ and $F_{N}f$ denote the $N$-th partial sum of its Fourier series. Then $||F_{N}f -f||_{L^{2}} \rightarrow 0$ as $N \rightarrow \infty$. But this implies there exists a ...
3
votes
0answers
61 views

Relationship between complex and real Lp spaces.

The theory of integration of real functions is (as far as I know) usually extended to the complex case as follows: Let $X$ be a set. Given a function $f:X\to\mathbb C$, define ...
3
votes
0answers
89 views

Mapping $G$ into its group algebra as left multiplication. Continuous?

I am reading an appendix on Group algebras which contains the following Proposition which I am trying to prove: Proposition: Let $G$ be a locally compact group, with $\zeta\in L^{p}(G)$ fixed. ...
3
votes
0answers
205 views

The norm of an operator

Let $\rho(x)$ be a weight function in a unit sphere, such that \begin{equation} \begin{array}{l} \displaystyle 1. \rho(x)\ge 0,\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}\rho(x)=1\\ \displaystyle 2. \rho(x)\in ...
2
votes
0answers
46 views

Weak convergence and trace operator

Suppose that $u_j\rightharpoonup u$ in $W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ (notice the weak convergence), with $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^3$ regular enough. Let $v_j=Tu_j$, and $v=Tu$, where $T:W^{1,p}(\Omega)\to ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Factorization of $L^{p}$ spaces

Is the following theorem true and if so does it have a name? Theorem: Let $p$, $q$, $r\in\left(0, \infty\right]$ with $\frac{1}{q}=\frac{1}{p}+\frac{1}{r}$. Every $L^{q}$-function is the product of a ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

convergence in $L^p$ implies convergence in measure

I am trying to show that if $f_n$ converges to $f$ in $L^p(X,\mu)$ then $f_n\to f$ in $L^p$ in measure, where $1\le p \le \infty$. Here is my attempt for $p>1$ - Let $\varepsilon>0$ and define ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

Prove $\mathcal{L}_p[0,1]$ is separable using Lusin and Stone-Weierstrass theorems.

1. Prove that the set of $p$-integrable functions on $[0,1]$ with the Lebesgue measure $\lambda$ is separable using Lusin's Theorem and the Stone Weierstrass Theorem. 2. Prove that ...
2
votes
0answers
116 views

Characterization of $L^p$ function for $p>1$

Let $\Omega$ be a bounded open set in $\mathbb{R}^n$, $1<p<\infty, 1/p +1/q=1,f \in L^1(\Omega)$. Is it true that if there exists $C>0$ such that $sup \{\int fg: g$ is a step function, $ ...
2
votes
0answers
36 views

Proving inequality that bounds the sum of norms with the norms of sums (plus additional terms)

I am struggling with showing the following for finite $\delta>0$ and any $g\in\mathcal{G}_1\times...\times\mathcal{G}_k$: ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Constructing a function using the Fourier transform

Pick an integer $n\ge 5$ and let $f\in C_{C}^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^{N})$. We want to use the Fourier transform to formally construct a function $u\in L^{\infty}(R^{n})$ that solves ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Discuss the duality relation between $L^p(X)$ and $L^q(X), 1/p + 1/q = 1, $ for $1 ≤ p < ∞.$

Let $(X,M, μ)$ be the measure space where $X = \{a, b\}, M= P(X),$ and $μ(\{a\}) = 1, μ(\{b\}) = ∞.$ Discuss the duality relation between $L^p(X)$ and $L^q(X), 1/p + 1/q = 1, $ for $1 ≤ p < ∞.$ ...
2
votes
0answers
54 views

Boundedness of linear operators in $L^p$

I was wondering if the following conditions are equivalent for a linear operator $T$ between $L^p$ spaces: i) T maps $L^p$ to $L^p$, that is, if $f \in L^p$ then $Tf \in L^p$. ii) There exists ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

Completeness of $ L^{p} $ spaces and “rapidly Cauchy” sequences

http://math.harvard.edu/~ctm/home/text/books/royden-fitzpatrick/royden-fitzpatrick.pdf In the book of Royden, the completeness of $ L^{p} $ spaces has been done using what he calls "rapidly ...
2
votes
0answers
84 views

Approximation of Conditional Expectation with Respect to “Y” Using Simple Approximation of “Y”

Background. (TL:DR you can skip to Question. below.) This is a followup question to one of my previous questions (linked here) on this website. In short, the other question was about how to express ...
2
votes
0answers
37 views

Approximation of $L^2$ function by smooth functions on a manifold

Let $M$ be a $C^2$ compact Riemannian manifold with boundary. Suppose $f \in L^2(M)$ is such that $0 \leq f \leq 1$. Is it possible to find $f_n \in C^\infty(M)$ such that $0 \leq f_n \leq 1$ for ...
2
votes
0answers
44 views

Particular $L^p$ space

I am confusing some definitions. Suppose we have a Cauchy sequence $(f_n) \subset L^2(\Omega,C^0([0,1],\mathbb{R}))$, where $\Omega$ is a measurable space with measure $\mu$ and ...
2
votes
0answers
57 views

Convergence of Fourier series in $L^\infty$

So if $f\in L^1(\mathbb{T})$ and $S_Nf\rightarrow f$ in $L^\infty(\mathbb{T})$ ($S_Nf$ is the partial sum of the fourier series of $f$), then $f$ is continuous. How do we show that this is true? In ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

Wiener Algebra, absolute convergence of fourier series

So how do you prove if $f, g\in L^2(\mathbb{T})$, then $f*g\in \mathbb{A}(\mathbb{T})$. $\mathbb{T}$ denote $[0,1)$ and $\mathbb{A}(\mathbb{T})$ denote the Wiener algebra such that if $f\in ...
2
votes
0answers
102 views

Prove that $l^{\infty}(\mathbb{Z^+})$ is not separable.

Let $l^{\infty}(\mathbb{Z^+})$ be the set of all bounded complex functions on $\mathbb{Z^+}$. Then prove that $l^{\infty}(\mathbb{Z^+})$ is not separable. My attempt: Suppose $E\subset ...
2
votes
0answers
76 views

When does an integral operator belong to the Schatten - von Neumann class in terms of its kernel?

It is well known that an integral operator $X: L^2(\mu)\to L^2(\nu)$ with kernel $k(x, y)$ belongs to the Schatten-von Neumann class $\mathfrak S_2$ if and only if $\int |k(x, y)|^2\, d\mu(x)\, ...
2
votes
0answers
63 views

Convergence of Step Function Defined by Averages

For a function $f \in L^2[0,T]$, and a uniform partition $P = \{0=t_0, t_1, \ldots, t_n = T\}$ of the domain, we can define a step function approximation as the average value over each interval in the ...
2
votes
0answers
78 views

Pointwise (in time) convergence in $H^{-1}$ implies pointwise weak convergence in $L^q$, why?

Let $u_n \to u$ in $C^0([0,T];H^{-1}(\Omega))$ and suppose $\lVert u_n \rVert_{L^\infty(0,T;L^\infty(\Omega))} \leq C$ for all $n$. It follows that for almost all $t$, $u_n(t)$ is bounded in ...
2
votes
0answers
58 views

Prove that $f\in L^p[0,1]$ for all $p\in[1,2)$:

Given that $f:[0,1]\to[0,\infty)$ in $L^1$ such that $\int_E f$ $dm\leq\sqrt{m(E)}$ for every $E\subseteq[0,1]$ measurable, prove that $f\in L^p[0,1]$ for all $p\in[1,2)$. This is a qualifying ...
2
votes
0answers
86 views

Hardy Littlewood maximal function and integral comparison.

Define the Hardy Littlewood maximal function $$g^*(y)=\sup \left\{\frac{1}{|B|}\int_B|g(x)|dx:B\text{ is any open ball containing y}\right\}.$$ For given $x_i,r_i,a_i$, first I have shown that ...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

Sequence which does not admit weakly convergent subsequences

Let $f_h:[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$ be defined as $f_h(x)=h$ if $0\le x\le 1$ and $f_h(x)=0$ otherwise. Prove that it does not exist a subsequence $(f_{h_k})_k$ weakly convergent in $L^1(0,1)$. Attempt of ...
2
votes
0answers
82 views

Proof verification-density of smooth compactly supported functions

I am trying to show that $C_{c}^{\infty}(\mathbb{R})$ (smooth compactly supported functions) is dense in $C_{c}(\mathbb{R})$ (in the $L^{p}$ sense). Can anyone check if my proof is correct? Let $f ...
2
votes
0answers
76 views

Does absolute continuity of measures imply a relation between the $L_p$ spaces?

Say $(X,\mathcal{B},\mu)$ is some measure space, and let $\sigma$ be some other measure on $(X,\mathcal{B})$ such that $\sigma\ll\mu$. What can one say about the relation between $L_p(\mu)$ and ...