For questions about $L^p$ spaces, that is, given a measure space $(X,\mathcal F,\mu)$, the vector space of equivalence class of measurable functions with $p$-th power of the absolute value integrable. Question can be about properties of elements of these spaces, or when the ambient space on a ...

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11
votes
1answer
3k views

Limit of $L^p$ norm

Could someone help me prove that given a measure space $(X, \mathcal{M}, \sigma)$ and a measurable function $f:X\to\mathbb{R}$ in $L^{\infty}$ and some $L^{q}$, ...
20
votes
2answers
5k views

$L^p$ and $L^q$ space inclusion

Let $(X, \mathcal B, m)$ be a measure space. For $1 \leq p < q \leq \infty$, under what condition is it true that $L^q(X, \mathcal B, m) \subset L^p(X, \mathcal B, m)$ and what is a counterexample ...
11
votes
1answer
1k views

Strong and weak convergence in $\ell^1$

Let $\ell^1$ be the space of absolutely summable real or complex sequences. Let us say that a sequence $(x_1, x_2, \ldots)$ of vectors in $\ell^1$ converges weakly to $x \in \ell^1$ if for every ...
4
votes
3answers
512 views

When $L_p = L_q$?

As we know that $L_p \subseteq L_q$ when $0 < p < q$ for probability measure, I was wondering when $L_p = L_q$ is true and why. Is it to impose some restriction on the domain space? Thanks!
10
votes
2answers
831 views

“Scaled $L^p$ norm” and geometric mean

The $L^p$ norm in $\mathbb{R}^n$ is \begin{align} \|x\|_p = \left(\sum_{j=1}^{n} |x_j|^p\right)^{1/p}. \end{align} Playing around with WolframAlpha, I noticed that, if we define the "scaled" $L^p$ ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

The $ l^{\infty} $-norm is equal to the limit of the $ l^{p} $-norms.

If we are in a sequence space, then the $ l^{p} $-norm of the sequence $ \mathbf{x} = (x_{i})_{i \in \mathbb{N}} $ is $ \displaystyle \left( \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} |x_{i}|^{p} \right)^{1/p} $. The $ ...
12
votes
1answer
673 views

If $1\leq p < \infty$ then show that $L^p([0,1])$ and $\ell_p$ are not topologically isomorphic

If $1\leq p < \infty$ then show that $L^p([0,1])$ and $\ell_p$ are not topologically isomorphic Maybe I would have to use the Rademachers.
9
votes
4answers
802 views

Convergence of integrals in $L^p$

Stuck with this problem from Zgymund's book. Suppose that $f_{n} \rightarrow f$ almost everywhere and that $f_{n}, f \in L^{p}$ where $1<p<\infty$. Assume that $\|f_{n}\|_{p} \leq M < ...
6
votes
1answer
530 views

How do you prove that $\ell_p$ is not isomorphic to $\ell_q$?

I guess that for all $1\le p,q<\infty $, such that $p\ne q$ , the spaces $\ell_p$ and $\ell_q$ are not isomorphic, but how do you prove this?
1
vote
1answer
628 views

$\ell_p$ is Hilbert space if and only if $p=2$

Can anybody please help me to prove this.. Let p greater than or equal to 1,show that the space of all p-summable sequences is an inner product space if and only if p=2
1
vote
1answer
153 views

Prove that the closed unit ball of $L^2[a,b]$ is closed in $L^1[a,b]$

Prove that the closed unit ball of $L^2[a,b]$ is closed in $L^1[a,b]$. My friends and I have literally been pouring over this problem for days now without success. We've been using Hölder's ...
6
votes
1answer
450 views

Why is $L^1(\mathbb{R}^n) \cap L^2(\mathbb{R}^n)$ dense in $ L^2(\mathbb{R}^n)$?

In Lieb and Loss's Analysis, I saw that they mentioned $L^1(\mathbb{R}^n) \cap L^2(\mathbb{R}^n)$ dense in $ L^2(\mathbb{R}^n)$ (dense wrt the $L^2$ norm, I think). But I didn't find its proof in the ...
3
votes
2answers
197 views

Completeness proof of $\ell^p$

Say $\{x_n\}$ is Cauchy in $\ell^p$ and $x$ is its pointwise limit. To argue that $x \in \ell^p$ would the following be correct: Let $\varepsilon > 0$ and let $N$ be s.t. $n,m > N$ ...
2
votes
1answer
261 views

Examples of $f \in L^p$ iff $p_0 < p < p_1$, $p_0 \le p \le p_1$ or $p = p_0$

Hi how to show the following: Suppose $0 < p_0 < p_1 \leq \infty$. Find examples of functions $f$ on $(0,\infty)$ with Lebesgue measure such that $f \in L^p$ if and only if (a) $p_0 < p ...
3
votes
1answer
130 views

When is a subset of $\ell^2$ compact?

I have been looking on the internet for hours now and even asking in chat without an answer. When is a set $M\subseteq\ell^2$ compact? For $L^p$, there is the Arzelà–Ascoli theorem that provides a ...
1
vote
1answer
128 views

Integral of series with complex exponentials

Suppose that $f\in L^2(\mathbb{R}/2\pi\mathbb{Z})$ takes the form $$f(\theta)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_ne^{in\theta}.$$ The function $$F(z)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_nz^n$$ converges in $|z|<1$. How can I ...
8
votes
1answer
332 views

Distance minimizers in $L^1$ and $L^{\infty}$

If $H$ is a Hilbert space, we have the Hilbert Projection Theorem, which tells us that given a nonempty, closed, convex subset $K \subset H$, and a point $x \in H$, there is a unique point $y \in K$ ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

Gauss–Ostrogradsky formula for Distributions

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^N$ be a bounded domain and $u\in W^{1,p}(\Omega)$, $v\in L^{p'}(\Omega)^N$ with $p\in (1,\infty)$. Let $\operatorname{div}(v)$ be the divergence of $v$ in the sense of ...
7
votes
2answers
140 views

What does the $L^p$ norm tend to as $p\to 0$?

This is something I was thinking about, so I'm going to post it as a question and post my own answer. I hope that anyone who wants will comment, correct me if I'm wrong, and add their own knowledge ...
4
votes
1answer
208 views

Proof of an inequality of $L^p$ norms

For a general measure space, we define : $\|f\|_p= \left(\int\vert f\vert^p du\right)^{1/p}$. Let $0 < a < b < c < \infty$ and prove the following: $$ \|f\|_b \leqslant \max\{\|f\|_a, ...
3
votes
1answer
200 views

Pointwise a.e. convergence implies strong convergence?

Let $ 1 \leq p_1 < p_2 < \infty$, and suppose that $f_n$ is a sequence of functions in $L^{p_1}[a,b]$ such that $f_n \to f$ pointwise a.e. on $[a,b]$. Suppose in addition that $ ||f_n||_{p_2} ...
3
votes
3answers
505 views

Cesàro operator is bounded for $1<p<\infty$

The Cesàro operator $T\colon \ell_{p}\to\ell_{p}$ is defined by $(Tx)_{k}=\frac{1}{k}\sum_{j=1}^{k}x_{j},\: k\in\mathbb{N}$, where $x=(x_{k})_{k=1}^{\infty}$ Show that $T$ is bounded if ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

How can I give a bound on the $L^2$ norm of this function?

I came across this question in an old qualifying exam, but I am stumped on how to approach it: For $f\in L^p((1,\infty), m)$ ($m$ is the Lebesgue measure), $2<p<4$, let $$(Vf)(x) = ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Smooth functions with compact support are dense in $L^1$

Here is another homework question that I did and I'd be glad if you could tell me if it's right. We now strengthen the result of Question Two for $R$ where we have the notion of differentiability. ...
2
votes
2answers
167 views

Proving that the smooth, compactly supported functions are dense in $L^2$.

I have two problems, one of which depends on the other. (1) I want to prove, cleanly (without too much heavy-weight machinery) that, for some (see (2)) set $\Omega \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$, the space ...
1
vote
1answer
114 views

Limit of consecutive Lp norms [duplicate]

I've been wrestling with the following proof off and on for a number of days, and I'm in need of a nudge in the right direction. Let $(E,\mathcal{M},\mu)$ be a measure space with $0 < \mu(E) < ...
1
vote
1answer
179 views

Prove that $f(x)$ is integrable on $\mathbb{R}$.

Suppose $f(x)$,$xf(x)$ $\in$ $L_2(\mathbb{R})$. Prove that $f(x)\in$ $L_1(\mathbb{R})$.
1
vote
1answer
85 views

$\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}\int_0^1f_nhdm=\int_0^1fhdm$, prove $f\in L^p(m)$ , where $1\le p<\infty$.

On $[0,1]$, suppose $\|f_n\|_p\le 1$, $\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}\int_0^1f_nh\, dm=\int_0^1fh\, dm$, for any $h\in L^\infty(\mu)$, I need to prove $f\in L^p(\mu)$ , where $1\le p<\infty$. I ...
0
votes
1answer
91 views

Show that $L^1$ is strictly contained in $(L^\infty)^*$

How does one show that $L^1$ is strictly contained in $(L^\infty)^*$? Here, $(L^\infty)^*$ is the space of linear continuous functionals on $L^\infty$.
7
votes
1answer
361 views

Isometry between $L_\infty$ and $\ell_\infty$

It is known that there exist some isomorphism between $L_\infty$ and $\ell_\infty$, which is not explicit at all. Could someone tell me whether there exist an isometric isomorphism between ...
4
votes
1answer
231 views

$L^2$ norm inequality

I need some help with this homework question. I was asked to provide an example of a $n$-dimensional subspace $W$ of $L^2[0,1]$ such that all functions in that subspace with $L^2$ norm equal to $1$ ...
3
votes
1answer
381 views

Liapunov's Inequality for $L_p$ spaces

Let $1 \leq p,q < \infty$ and $0 \leq \lambda \leq 1$. If $r = \lambda p + (1 - \lambda)q$ and $f \in L_p \cap L_q $, then $$||f||_r^r \leq ||f||_p^{\lambda p} ||f||_q^{(1 - \lambda)q} \tag{*}$$ ...
3
votes
1answer
553 views

$\ell_{p}$ space is not Hilbert for any norm if $p\neq 2$

My question is motivated by this one: $\ell_p$ is Hilbert space if and only if $p=2$ Maybe it is a simple thing or im just confused but, suppose we are given any norm in $\ell_{p}$ for $p\neq 2$. ...
6
votes
1answer
224 views

pythagoras theorem for $L_p$ spaces

Let's consider $L_2(\mathbb{R}^n)$. Let $Y$ be a non empty closed subspace of $L_2(\mathbb{R}^n)$. Let $x\notin Y$. Let $y^*$ be the best approximation of $x$ on $Y$, i.e., $\|x-y^*\|_2=\inf_{y\in ...
3
votes
2answers
161 views

In $\ell^1$ but not in $\ell^2$?

Can a sequence $f:\mathbb{Z}\to\mathbb{C}$ be in $\ell^1$ but not $\ell^2$? (any one counter example will suffice)
1
vote
1answer
269 views

Is a $L^p$ function almost surely bounded a.e.?

I just have a quick question related to $L^p$ spaces. Any help is greatly appreciated. Is it true that if a function $f$ belongs to $L^p$ space, absolute value of $f$ raise to the power of $p$ is ...
3
votes
1answer
64 views

Show that for any $f\in L^1$ and $g \in L^p(\mathbb R)$, $\lVert f ∗ g\rVert_p \leqslant \lVert f\rVert_1\lVert g\rVert_p$.

I write the exact statement of the problem: Show that for any $g \in L^1$ and $f ∈ L^p(\mathbb{R})$, p $\in (1, \infty)$, the integral for f ∗g converges absolutely almost everywhere and that $∥f ∗ ...
3
votes
1answer
91 views

Measure spaces are proper subsets

I want to prove that $L^2$ is of the first category in $L^1$, thus I have to prove that $L^2$ is the countable union of nowhere dense subsets. The hint I get is: Take $g_n(x)=n$ for $0\leq ...
3
votes
1answer
344 views

Problem 4 chapter 2: functional analysis (Rudin)

$L^1$, $L^2$: usual Lebesgue spaces on the unit interval. Show that $L^2$ is of the first category (meager) in $L^1$, in three ways: (a) Show that $F_n:=\{f:\int|f|^2 \leq n\}$ is closed in ...
3
votes
2answers
196 views

Question from Folland, criteron for a function to belong to $L^p$

This question is from Folland 6.38, Show that $f \in L^p $ iff $\sum_{k=-\infty}^ {\infty} 2^{pk} \mu \{{x: |f(x)|>2^{k}}\} \lt \infty$ If $f \in L^p $, I applied the Chebyshev's inequality But ...
3
votes
1answer
107 views

Negative integral on intervals implies negative function?

Let $f \in L^1([0,1])$ be such that for all $t \geq s$, $\displaystyle \int_s^t f(u)du \leq 0$. Is it true that $f\leq 0$ almost everywhere?
3
votes
1answer
289 views

$L^p$ function that has no compact support

I understand an $L^p$ function have in them as a dense subset the set of functions with compact support. But do there exist $L^p$ functions that do not have compact support. What are some examples ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

$\ell^{\infty}(\mathbb N)$ is not a separable space

I have to prove that $\ell^{\infty}(\mathbb N)$ is not separable. My attempt Consider a SUBSET $V$ of $\ell^{\infty}(\mathbb N)$ consisting of bounded sequences that have only $0$, $1$ entries, e.g. ...
2
votes
1answer
195 views

$L^p$ integrable but not $L^q$ integrable

Does there exist a continuous function on $[0, \infty)$ such that it is in $L^p(0,\infty)$ for some $p\in [1,2]$ but is not in $L^q(0,\infty)$ for any $q\in (2, 2/(2-p))$? Thanks!
2
votes
1answer
81 views

A question on Orlicz norms

I was reading Empirical Processes from "Weak Convergence and Empirical processes" by Van Der Waart and Jon Wellner. There I was studying Orlicz norms of random variables which are defined as follows: ...
1
vote
1answer
407 views

Does $L^p$-convergence imply pointwise convergence for $C_0^\infty$ functions?

It is stated in my professor's notes that, given a sequence $\{f_j\}$ of $C_0^\infty(\Omega)$ functions (infinitely differentiable with compact support), and a function $g\in C_0^\infty(\Omega)$, all ...
1
vote
1answer
151 views

Inclusion of $L^p$ spaces, bounded or unbounded

Problem statement: We have show that $L^q [a,b] \subseteq L^p [a,b]$, for $1 \leq p \leq q$. Show that the inclusion is proper by showing that there exists a function $f \in L^p [a,b]$, but $f ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Does $u\in L^p(B)$ implies $u_{|\partial B_t}\in L^p(\partial B_t)$ for almost $t\in (0,1]$?

Let $B$ be the unit ball in $\mathbb{R}^N$ with center in origin and consider the space $L^p(B)$ with Lebesgue measure ($1<p<\infty$). Let $B_t\subset B$ be a concentric ball of radius $t\in ...
1
vote
2answers
121 views

Are the norms $\|\cdot\|_1$ and $\|\cdot\|$ equivalent?

Let $\|x\|_1=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}|x_n|$ is a norm for $\ell^1$, suppose $x=\{x_n\}\in\ell^1$ and $\|x\|=\sup|\sum_{k=1}^{n}x_k|$. Are the norms $\|\cdot\|_1$ and $\|\cdot\|$ equivalent?
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Can I conclude that $F\in\ell^1$?

Let $\ell^\infty$ be the Banach space of real bounded sequences with its usual norm and $S\subset\ell^\infty$ be the space of convergent sequences. Define $f:S\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ by ...