For questions about $L^p$ spaces, that is, given a measure space $(X,\mathcal F,\mu)$, the vector space of equivalence class of measurable functions with $p$-th power of the absolute value integrable. Question can be about properties of elements of these spaces, or when the ambient space on a ...

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30
votes
2answers
9k views

Limit of $L^p$ norm

Could someone help me prove that given a finite measure space $(X, \mathcal{M}, \sigma)$ and a measurable function $f:X\to\mathbb{R}$ in $L^\infty$ and some $L^q$, ...
34
votes
2answers
10k views

$L^p$ and $L^q$ space inclusion

Let $(X, \mathcal B, m)$ be a measure space. For $1 \leq p < q \leq \infty$, under what condition is it true that $L^q(X, \mathcal B, m) \subset L^p(X, \mathcal B, m)$ and what is a counterexample ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

“Scaled $L^p$ norm” and geometric mean

The $L^p$ norm in $\mathbb{R}^n$ is \begin{align} \|x\|_p = \left(\sum_{j=1}^{n} |x_j|^p\right)^{1/p}. \end{align} Playing around with WolframAlpha, I noticed that, if we define the "scaled" $L^p$ ...
6
votes
1answer
5k views

The $ l^{\infty} $-norm is equal to the limit of the $ l^{p} $-norms. [duplicate]

If we are in a sequence space, then the $ l^{p} $-norm of the sequence $ \mathbf{x} = (x_{i})_{i \in \mathbb{N}} $ is $ \displaystyle \left( \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} |x_{i}|^{p} \right)^{1/p} $. The $ ...
13
votes
1answer
2k views

Strong and weak convergence in $\ell^1$

Let $\ell^1$ be the space of absolutely summable real or complex sequences. Let us say that a sequence $(x_1, x_2, \ldots)$ of vectors in $\ell^1$ converges weakly to $x \in \ell^1$ if for every ...
4
votes
3answers
657 views

When $L_p = L_q$?

As we know that $L_p \subseteq L_q$ when $0 < p < q$ for probability measure, I was wondering when $L_p = L_q$ is true and why. Is it to impose some restriction on the domain space? Thanks!
12
votes
1answer
892 views

If $1\leq p < \infty$ then show that $L^p([0,1])$ and $\ell_p$ are not topologically isomorphic

If $1\leq p < \infty$ then show that $L^p([0,1])$ and $\ell_p$ are not topologically isomorphic Maybe I would have to use the Rademachers.
12
votes
4answers
941 views

Convergence of integrals in $L^p$

Stuck with this problem from Zgymund's book. Suppose that $f_{n} \rightarrow f$ almost everywhere and that $f_{n}, f \in L^{p}$ where $1<p<\infty$. Assume that $\|f_{n}\|_{p} \leq M < ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

$\ell_p$ is Hilbert space if and only if $p=2$

Can anybody please help me to prove this.. Let p greater than or equal to 1,show that the space of all p-summable sequences is an inner product space if and only if p=2
6
votes
1answer
765 views

How do you prove that $\ell_p$ is not isomorphic to $\ell_q$?

I guess that for all $1\le p,q<\infty $, such that $p\ne q$ , the spaces $\ell_p$ and $\ell_q$ are not isomorphic, but how do you prove this?
5
votes
2answers
1k views

A typical $L^p$ function does not have a well-defined trace on the boundary

This question is from PDE by Evans, 1st edition, Chapter 5, Problem 14. It has been posted here previously, however, I cannot quite put all the information together from the responses there. Hopefully ...
3
votes
1answer
376 views

Examples of $f \in L^p$ iff $p_0 < p < p_1$, $p_0 \le p \le p_1$ or $p = p_0$

Hi how to show the following: Suppose $0 < p_0 < p_1 \leq \infty$. Find examples of functions $f$ on $(0,\infty)$ with Lebesgue measure such that $f \in L^p$ if and only if (a) $p_0 < p ...
1
vote
1answer
206 views

Prove that the closed unit ball of $L^2[a,b]$ is closed in $L^1[a,b]$

Prove that the closed unit ball of $L^2[a,b]$ is closed in $L^1[a,b]$. My friends and I have literally been pouring over this problem for days now without success. We've been using Hölder's ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Is $L^2(0,\infty;L^2(\Omega)) = L^2((0,\infty)\times \Omega)$?

If $\Omega$ is a bounded $C^1$ domain, is $L^2(0,\infty;L^2(\Omega)) = L^2((0,\infty)\times \Omega)$? Are they the same? I know this is true when instead of $(0,\infty)$ we have a bounded interval.
10
votes
1answer
637 views

Distance minimizers in $L^1$ and $L^{\infty}$

If $H$ is a Hilbert space, we have the Hilbert Projection Theorem, which tells us that given a nonempty, closed, convex subset $K \subset H$, and a point $x \in H$, there is a unique point $y \in K$ ...
4
votes
2answers
369 views

Completeness proof of $\ell^p$

Say $\{x_n\}$ is Cauchy in $\ell^p$ and $x$ is its pointwise limit. To argue that $x \in \ell^p$ would the following be correct: Let $\varepsilon > 0$ and let $N$ be s.t. $n,m > N$ ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

$f \in L^1$, but $f \not\in L^p$ for all $p > 1$

"Find an $f \in [0,1]$ such that $f \in L^1$ but $f \not\in L^p$ for any $p > 1$." I've thought about doing something like $$f(x) = \frac{1}{x}$$ where $|f|^p = \frac{1}{x^p}$ doesn't converge ...
1
vote
1answer
150 views

Integral of series with complex exponentials

Suppose that $f\in L^2(\mathbb{R}/2\pi\mathbb{Z})$ takes the form $$f(\theta)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_ne^{in\theta}.$$ The function $$F(z)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_nz^n$$ converges in $|z|<1$. How can I ...
9
votes
1answer
989 views

Why is $L^1(\mathbb{R}^n) \cap L^2(\mathbb{R}^n)$ dense in $ L^2(\mathbb{R}^n)$?

In Lieb and Loss's Analysis, I saw that they mentioned $L^1(\mathbb{R}^n) \cap L^2(\mathbb{R}^n)$ dense in $ L^2(\mathbb{R}^n)$ (dense wrt the $L^2$ norm, I think). But I didn't find its proof in the ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

Liapunov's Inequality for $L_p$ spaces

Let $1 \leq p,q < \infty$ and $0 \leq \lambda \leq 1$. If $r = \lambda p + (1 - \lambda)q$ and $f \in L_p \cap L_q $, then $$||f||_r^r \leq ||f||_p^{\lambda p} ||f||_q^{(1 - \lambda)q} \tag{*}$$ ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

Smooth functions with compact support are dense in $L^1$

Here is another homework question that I did and I'd be glad if you could tell me if it's right. We now strengthen the result of Question Two for $R$ where we have the notion of differentiability. ...
3
votes
1answer
200 views

When is a subset of $\ell^2$ compact?

I have been looking on the internet for hours now and even asking in chat without an answer. When is a set $M\subseteq\ell^2$ compact? For $L^p$, there is the Arzelà–Ascoli theorem that provides a ...
2
votes
1answer
313 views

$\ell^{\infty}(\mathbb N)$ is not a separable space

I have to prove that $\ell^{\infty}(\mathbb N)$ is not separable. My attempt Consider a SUBSET $V$ of $\ell^{\infty}(\mathbb N)$ consisting of bounded sequences that have only $0$, $1$ entries, e.g. ...
2
votes
2answers
137 views

Translation operator and continuity

I came across a text that proves that translation operator $T_a(f):=f(x-a)$ where $a\in\mathbb{R}^n$ and $f\in L^p(\mathbb{R}^n)$ is continuous. The proof follows: ...
9
votes
1answer
791 views

How to show convolution of an $L^p$ function and a Schwartz function is a Schwartz function

We have the Schwartz space $\mathcal{S}$ of $C^\infty(\mathbb{R^n})$ functions $h$ such that $(1+|x|^m)|\partial^\alpha h(x)|$ is bounded for all $m \in \mathbb{N_0}$ and all multi-indices $\alpha$. ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Does $L^p$-convergence imply pointwise convergence for $C_0^\infty$ functions?

It is stated in my professor's notes that, given a sequence $\{f_j\}$ of $C_0^\infty(\Omega)$ functions (infinitely differentiable with compact support), and a function $g\in C_0^\infty(\Omega)$, all ...
3
votes
1answer
223 views

Gauss–Ostrogradsky formula for Distributions

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^N$ be a bounded domain and $u\in W^{1,p}(\Omega)$, $v\in L^{p'}(\Omega)^N$ with $p\in (1,\infty)$. Let $\operatorname{div}(v)$ be the divergence of $v$ in the sense of ...
2
votes
1answer
118 views

How can I show that if $f\in L^p(a, b)$ then $\lim_{t\to 0^{+}}\int_{a}^b |f(x+t)-f(x)|^p\ dx=0$..

can anyone help me show that if $f\in L^p(a, b)$ then $$ \lim_{t\to 0^{+}}\int_{a}^b|f(x+t)-f(x)|^p\ dx=0.$$ Thanks, any help will be useful..
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Convolution with Gaussian, without distribution theory, part 2

I only know basic $L^p$ theory (nothing about distributions) and am trying to prove the following: Let $t>0$, $f\in L^{p}(\mathbb{R}^n,m)$, $\Gamma(t,x)=(4\pi t)^{-n/2}e^{-|x|^2/4t}$ and $$ ...
7
votes
2answers
234 views

What does the $L^p$ norm tend to as $p\to 0$?

This is something I was thinking about, so I'm going to post it as a question and post my own answer. I hope that anyone who wants will comment, correct me if I'm wrong, and add their own knowledge ...
4
votes
1answer
264 views

Proof of an inequality of $L^p$ norms

For a general measure space, we define : $\|f\|_p= \left(\int\vert f\vert^p du\right)^{1/p}$. Let $0 < a < b < c < \infty$ and prove the following: $$ \|f\|_b \leqslant \max\{\|f\|_a, ...
4
votes
3answers
665 views

Cesàro operator is bounded for $1<p<\infty$

The Cesàro operator $T\colon \ell_{p}\to\ell_{p}$ is defined by $(Tx)_{k}=\frac{1}{k}\sum_{j=1}^{k}x_{j},\: k\in\mathbb{N}$, where $x=(x_{k})_{k=1}^{\infty}$ Show that $T$ is bounded if ...
3
votes
2answers
97 views

What is $L^p$-convergence useful for?

Why do people care about $L^p$-convergence $f_n \rightarrow f$? Are there any interesting application of $L^p$-convergence? For example, if $p=\infty$, then the limit $f$ of the sequence $f_n$ of ...
3
votes
1answer
312 views

Pointwise a.e. convergence implies strong convergence?

Let $ 1 \leq p_1 < p_2 < \infty$, and suppose that $f_n$ is a sequence of functions in $L^{p_1}[a,b]$ such that $f_n \to f$ pointwise a.e. on $[a,b]$. Suppose in addition that $ ||f_n||_{p_2} ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Convolution with Gaussian, without dstributioni theory, part 3

I only know basic $L^p$ theory (nothing about distributions) and am trying to prove the following: Let $t>0$, $f\in L^{p}(\mathbb{R}^n,m)$, $\Gamma(t,x)=(4\pi t)^{-n/2}e^{-|x|^2/4t}$ and $$ ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

If $f\in L^1(\mathbb{R})$, then $\sum_{n\ge 1}f(x+n)$ Converges for a.e. $x$.

I am given that $f\in L^1(\mathbb{R})$ (i.e., $\int_{-\infty}^\infty\vert f \vert<\infty$). I would like to show that $$\sum_{n\ge0}f(x+n)\tag{$*$}$$ converges for almost every (a.e.) $x$, and I am ...
2
votes
2answers
717 views

Proving that the smooth, compactly supported functions are dense in $L^2$.

I have two problems, one of which depends on the other. (1) I want to prove, cleanly (without too much heavy-weight machinery) that, for some (see (2)) set $\Omega \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$, the space ...
2
votes
1answer
93 views

How can I give a bound on the $L^2$ norm of this function?

I came across this question in an old qualifying exam, but I am stumped on how to approach it: For $f\in L^p((1,\infty), m)$ ($m$ is the Lebesgue measure), $2<p<4$, let $$(Vf)(x) = ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Does an integral operator with a symmetric integrable kernel have to be bounded on $L^2$?

Suppose $K(x,y)$ is a symmetric kernel. Let $\phi\in L^2(\Omega)$, where $\Omega$ everywhere is a domain in $R^n$. Can $\int_{\Omega}K(x,y)\,\phi(y)\,dy$ belong to $L^2$? In other words can an ...
0
votes
1answer
246 views

If $u \in H^1(U)$, then $Du=0$ a.e. on the set $\{u=0\}$

Provide details for the following alternative proof that if $u \in H^1(U)$, then $$Du = 0 \text{ a.e. } \, \text{ on the set } \{u=0\}. $$ Let $\phi$ be a smooth, bounded and nondecreasing ...
5
votes
2answers
131 views

Convolution with Gaussian, without distribution theory, part 1

I only know basic $L^p$ theory (nothing about distributions) and am trying to prove the following: Let $t>0$, $f\in L^{p}(\mathbb{R}^n,m)$, $\Gamma(t,x)=(4\pi t)^{-n/2}e^{-|x|^2/4t}$ and $$ ...
5
votes
1answer
172 views

Subsequence convergence in $L^p$

I recall a fact that for functions $f_1,f_2,\ldots\in L^1$ such that $\|f_n-f\|_1\rightarrow 0$ as $n\rightarrow\infty$, there exists a subsequence $f_{n_i}$ that converges to $f$ almost everywhere. ...
3
votes
3answers
110 views

How to prove that $L^p [0,1]$ isn't induced by an inner product? for $p\neq 2$

I'd like to know how could i prove that $L^p [0,1]$ isn't induced by an inner product? (For $p\neq 2$, including $p=\inf$). It is clear to me that i would need to find two functions $f$, $g$ in $L^p$ ...
3
votes
1answer
97 views

Is $C^\infty_0$ dense in $C^\infty$ w.r.t. $\|\cdot\|_{L^p}$ and $\|\cdot\|_{W^{1,p}}$?

Is the space $C^\infty_0(\Omega)$ of smooth functions with compact support, dense in the set of smooth functions $C^\infty(\Omega)$ with respect to the norms $\|\cdot\|_{L^p}$ and the Sobolev-Norm ...
3
votes
1answer
86 views

$f$ is in $L^p$ iff sum is finite

Let $p\in [1,\infty)$.Prove that $f\in L^p(\mu)$ if and only if $\sum_{n=1}^\infty(2^n)^p\mu (\{x:|f(x)|\gt2^n\})\lt \infty.$ My idea, I assume measure is finite, I wrote ...
3
votes
1answer
134 views

How compute $\lim_{p\rightarrow 0} \|f\|_p$ in a probability space?

I not solve the follow limit $$\lim_{p\rightarrow 0} \bigg[\int_{\Omega} |f|^p d\mu \bigg]^{1/p} = \exp\bigg[ \int_{\Omega} \log|f|d\mu \bigg],$$ where $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, \mu)$ is a probability ...
2
votes
1answer
269 views

Inclusion of $L^p$ spaces, bounded or unbounded

Problem statement: We have show that $L^q [a,b] \subseteq L^p [a,b]$, for $1 \leq p \leq q$. Show that the inclusion is proper by showing that there exists a function $f \in L^p [a,b]$, but $f ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Does $u\in L^p(B)$ implies $u_{|\partial B_t}\in L^p(\partial B_t)$ for almost $t\in (0,1]$?

Let $B$ be the unit ball in $\mathbb{R}^N$ with center in origin and consider the space $L^p(B)$ with Lebesgue measure ($1<p<\infty$). Let $B_t\subset B$ be a concentric ball of radius $t\in ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

How can I prove Holder inequality for $0<p<1$? [closed]

$0<p<1$ $\dfrac{1}{p}+\dfrac{1}{p'}=1$ If $f \in L^{p}$ and $0<\int_{\Omega}\vert g(x) \vert^{p'}dx < \infty$ then $$\int_{\Omega}\vert f(x)g(x) \vert dx \geq (\int_{\Omega}\vert f(x) ...
1
vote
1answer
173 views

Limit of consecutive Lp norms [duplicate]

I've been wrestling with the following proof off and on for a number of days, and I'm in need of a nudge in the right direction. Let $(E,\mathcal{M},\mu)$ be a measure space with $0 < \mu(E) < ...