0
votes
1answer
20 views

Canonical inclusion $L^q(0,1) \to L^p(0,1)$ is compact?

Does there exist $q>p$ such that the canonical inclusion $L^q(0,1) \to L^p(0,1)$ is compact? My answer is no. Since we know that $L^\infty (0,1) \to L^p(0,1)$ is not compact, take $\{\sin(nx)\}$ ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

$\ell^p$ spaces' inclusion

$$ \ell^s\subsetneq \bigcup_{k<p}\ell^k\subsetneq \ell^p\subsetneq\bigcap_{k>p}\ell^k\subseteq \ell^q $$ for any $1\le s<p<q$. Any idea to prove these inclusions? Counterexamples for the ...
-3
votes
0answers
34 views

Subset Lp space. [on hold]

Let S closed vector space subset $L^1$($\mu$), where $\mu(X) < \infty$. Assume $f \in S \Rightarrow f \in L^p(\mu)$, for some $p>1$. Prove that $\exists p>1$ so that $S \subset L^p(\mu)$?
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Is a linear operator on $\ell^2$ defined by the inner product necessarily bounded? [duplicate]

If $a=\{a_n\}\in \ell^\infty(\mathbb{R})$ and $\langle a,x \rangle<\infty$ for all $x\in \ell^2(\mathbb{R})$, (where $\langle a, x\rangle=\displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^\infty a_kx_k$), then is $a\in ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Proof of separability of Lp spaces

The following is a proof in Brezis book. It shows the separability of $L^{p}$ spaces: I have a few questions regarding the proof. Questions: It says 'it is easy to construct a function $f_{2} ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Showing that a function is bounded in $L^1$ given a bound on its distribution function

Let $f \in L^2((0,T)\times\Omega)$ where $\Omega$ is a compact manifold. Suppose I know that for every $k > 0$, $$\mu(\{|f| > k\}) \leq Mk^{-\frac 12}$$ for some constant $M$ (which is ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Need help with application of Hardy-Littlewood inequality (Marcinkiewicz space and distribution functions)

I am going over this work here. I couldn't understand the equality where the Hardy-Littlewood inequality is used. I think $\delta$ here is a weight so we can take it to be $1$ for simplicity. Would ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Duality set for $L~p$ spaces, $1<p<\infty$.

I need to show that, given $f \in L^p$, $1<p<\infty$, the duality set $F(f)$ is equal to the point $$\|f\|_p^{2-p}|f|^{p-2}\overline{f}.$$ I have a hint: this is a consequence of convexity of ...
1
vote
3answers
39 views

Dense subsets of $(L^p(\Omega),\|\cdot\|_p)$

The following results hold. Theorem Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be an open set. Then $C^0_c(\Omega)$ is dense in $(L^p(\Omega),\|\cdot\|_p)$, if $1\le p<\infty$. Theorem Let ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

$C^0$ is a closed subspace of $L^{\infty}$

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be an open bounded set. Let $f\in C^0(\bar\Omega)$. I have to prove that $\|f\|_{\infty}=\|f\|_{L^{\infty}}$. One implication is trivial. Let's consider the other one. ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Banach valued sequence spaces $\ell^p(X)$

Let $X$ be a Banach space and $\ell^p(X)$ denote the space of sequences $x_i\in X$ for which the norm $\big(\sum_{i=1}^\infty\|x_i\|^p\big)^\frac1p$ is finite, when $X=\mathbb{R}$ we get the usual ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Given $u \in L^1$, is there approximating sequence $u_n \in L^\infty$ uniformly bounded in $L^p$?

Let $u \in L^1(U)$ where $U$ is a bounded domain. Is it possible to find a sequence $u_n \in L^\infty $ converging to $u$ in $L^1$ such that the $u_n$ are uniformly bounded for all $n$ in some $L^p$ ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

$L^\infty(\Omega)$ space

Consider Lebesgue spaces $L^p(\Omega)$, $\Omega$ is a bounded domain. Let $f \in L^p(\Omega)$ for all $p$. Is it true that $f \in L^\infty(\Omega)$?
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Weak star convergent sequence and $L^\infty(0,T;L^\infty(\Omega))$

Suppose $u_n$ is uniformly bounded in $L^\infty(0,T;L^\infty(\Omega))$ where $\Omega$ is a bounded domain. From this answer, we know that the dual space of $(L^1(0,T;L^1))^* = ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Weak-star lower semicontinuity in $L^\infty$

Let $u_n \rightharpoonup^* u$ in $L^\infty(\Omega)$. Do we get something like $$\lVert u \rVert_{L^\infty} \leq \liminf_{n \to \infty} \lVert u_n \rVert_{L^\infty}$$ i.e. a weak-star lower ...
4
votes
2answers
51 views

Reflexivity of $\ell^p$

I'm having bad difficulties in understanding how to prove that $\ell^p$ with $1<p<\infty$ are reflexive spaces. Every text I have consulted give that as a trivial result because "observing that ...
4
votes
2answers
45 views

Can we expect, $S(\mathbb R)\ast L^{p}(\mathbb R) \subset L^{p}(\mathbb R), (1<p<\infty) $?

It is well-known that $L^{1}(\mathbb R)$ is a closed with respect to convolution(product), that is, $L^{1}(\mathbb R)\ast L^{1}(\mathbb R)\subset L^{1}(\mathbb R),$ more specifically, if $f, g\in ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

Convergence of Step Function Defined by Averages

For a function $f \in L^2[0,T]$, and a uniform partition $P = \{0=t_0, t_1, \ldots, t_n = T\}$ of the domain, we can define a step function approximation as the average value over each interval in the ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Strong Convergence in L1 Implies Weak Convergence in L2?

If I have $f_n \to f$ in $L^1(D)$, where $D \subset \mathbb{R}$ is compact, is it accurate to say $f_n \rightharpoonup f$ in $L^2(D)$? The argument is as follows: consider a simple function $\phi = ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Pointwise (in time) convergence in $H^{-1}$ implies pointwise weak convergence in $L^q$, why?

Let $u_n \to u$ in $C^0([0,T];H^{-1}(\Omega))$ and suppose $\lVert u_n \rVert_{L^\infty(0,T;L^\infty(\Omega))} \leq C$ for all $n$. It follows that for almost all $t$, $u_n(t)$ is bounded in ...
5
votes
1answer
72 views

$\widehat{f\ast g}= \hat{f} \cdot \hat{g}$ for $f, \hat{f} \in L^{p}(\mathbb R)\cap C(\mathbb R) (1<p<\infty, p\neq 2), g\in \mathcal{S}(\mathbb R)$?

It is well-known that, for $f,g \in L^{1}(\mathbb R).$ Then, by Fubini's theorem, one can derive, $\widehat{f\ast g} = \hat{f} \cdot \hat{g},$ (that is, Fourier transform takes, convolution to point ...
6
votes
1answer
50 views

How to obtain the inequality $\int |f|^2\log(|f|) \leq \frac{n}{4}\log\lVert f \rVert^2_{L^p} $ from Jensen's inequality?

Let $f$ be a positive function with $\lVert f \rVert_{L^2}=1$. Let $p= 2n/(n-2)$. How to obtain $\int |f|^2\log(|f|) \leq \frac{n}{4}\log\lVert f \rVert^2_{L^p}$ from Jensen's inequality? Here all ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Formula for $L^{q}$ norm using $C_{c}^{\infty}$ functions

We put, $L^{p}=L^{p}(\mathbb R), L^{q}=L^{q}(\mathbb R);$ $\frac{1}{p}+\frac{1}{q}=1;$ ($p$ and $q$ are conjugate exponents); and $<f,g> =\int_{\mathbb R} f(x)g(x) dx.$ Fix $g\in L^{q}, ...
4
votes
2answers
44 views

p-norm of a function

Let $f\in L^1(\mu)\cap L^\infty(\mu)$. I have proved for any $1<p<\infty$, $f\in L^p(\mu)$, $w(p)=||f||_p$ is continuous w.r.t. $p$, and $\lim_{p\to \infty}||f||_p=||f||_\infty$. Is $w(p)$ ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

An application of Holder's inequality to show one norm is smaller than another

Let $p(s) = r(s) + m-1$ where $r:[0,T) \to [q,\infty)$ where $q \geq 2$ and $m > 1$ is fixed. Let $\text{Vol}(\Omega) = 1$. Then can we show that $$\lVert u \rVert_{L^{r(s)}(\Omega)} \leq ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Proving that weak limit in $L^p$ and strong limit in $H^{-1}$ are the same

Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be a bounded domain. Let $p \geq 1$ and suppose that $u_n \rightharpoonup u$ in $L^p(\Omega)$ and $u_n \to v$ in $H^{-1}(\Omega)$. How to show that $u=v$? I can do ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

If $u_n^p \rightharpoonup v$ in $L^1$, then does it follow that $u_n \rightharpoonup v^{\frac 1p}$ in $L^p$?

Let $\Omega$ be a bounded domain. Suppose that $u_n^p \rightharpoonup v$ in $L^1(\Omega)$. Does it follow that $u_n \rightharpoonup v^{\frac 1p}$ in $L^p(\Omega)$?
2
votes
2answers
32 views

Closed subspaces of $L^2(0,1)$

I would like to prove that the almost-everywhere constant functions, and the functions whose integral is 0 are closed subspaces of $L^2(0,1)$. It's readily seen that they are subspaces. I'm finding ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Differentiate a log of $L^p$ norm, don't understand this result

I'm reading this paper. In it, the authors show this lemma: And then they prove this lemma My question is: I have no idea how they get the result in Lemma 3.2. Do we not get $$\frac{d}{ds}\log ...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Prove that $L^p+L^r$ is a Banach Space [closed]

all fine? If $1 \leq p < r \leq \infty,$ prove that $L^p + L^r$ is a Banach space with norm $\|f\|=\inf\{\|g\|_p + \|h\|_r ; f = g+h\},$ and if $p<q<r$, the inclusion map $L^q \to L^p + L^r$ ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Minkowski inequality for $l_p$ norm.

I'm trying to prove the Minkowski inequality for the $l_p$ norm: $$ \| f + g\|_p \le \|f\|_p + \|g\|_p $$ where $f,g : \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ are Lebesgue measurable functions and $p ...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

a function with infinity L^p norm

Let $1\leq p<\infty$, $1/p+1/q=1$. For a function $f$ with $||f||_q=\infty$, can we write $$ ||f||_q=\sup_{g\in L^p(\Omega),||g||_p\neq 0}\frac{\int_\Omega |fg|}{||g||_p}? $$ or $$ ...
3
votes
0answers
48 views

Is $L^p$ separable?

Whether a $L^p(X,\mu)$ space is separable? I understand that the answer depends on $p$ and $X$. It seems to me that it is separable when $1\leq p < \infty, X=\mathbb{R}^n$ or $X=\mathbb{N}$. ...
2
votes
2answers
47 views

Weak convergence of partial sums

I recently came across an interesting problem on weak convergence in $\ell^2 (\Bbb N)$. Suppose that we have canonical basis $\{e_i\}$ in $\ell^2 (\Bbb N)$. We need to prove that the sequence ...
0
votes
2answers
24 views

Let $u_n \to u$ in $L^1(\Omega)$. Does $u_n^p \to u^p$ in $L^1(\Omega)$ if we know $u_n^p \in L^1(\Omega)$?

Suppose $u_n \to u$ in $L^1(\Omega)$ where $\Omega$ is a bounded domain. Suppose that $u_n^p \in L^1(\Omega)$ (actually $L^\infty(\Omega)$ for each $n$). Fix $p \in [1,\infty)$. So $u_n(x) \to u(x)$ ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

If $u_n \rightharpoonup u$ in $L^2(\Omega)$, does $u_n^+ \rightharpoonup u^+$ in $L^2(\Omega)$?

Let $\Omega$ be a bounded domain. If $u_n \rightharpoonup u$ in $L^2(\Omega)$, does $u_n^+ \rightharpoonup u^+$ in $L^2(\Omega)$ where $u_n^+ = \max(0,u_n)$. Note all convergences are weak. My ...
1
vote
2answers
35 views

Are bounded linear functionals on $L^{\infty}$ of “bounded variation?”

Let $(X,\mathscr M,\mu)$ be a measure space and let $L^{\infty}$ be the set of (equivalence classes of) essentially bounded measurable functions on it. Suppose that $\phi\in (L^{\infty})^*$; that is, ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

How about integral version of Holder's inequality?

In light of the fact that Minkowski's inequality have integral version, I thought there might be one for Holder's as well. I cannot find any through searching (there is an infinite product version in ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Unique extension of operators

Let $p,q$ be conjugate exponents with $p\in(1,\infty]$ and consider a measure space $(X,\mathscr M,\mu)$. Suppose that $S:L^p\to L^p$ and $T:L^p\to L^p$ are both bounded, linear operators. Assume that ...
10
votes
1answer
109 views

Why are $L^p$-spaces so ubiquitous?

It always baffled me why $L^p$-spaces are the spaces of choice in almost any area (sometimes with some added regularity (Sobolev/Besov/...)). I understand that the exponenent allows for convenient ...
-1
votes
1answer
62 views

Example of open operator but not closed [closed]

Assume that $T:\ell_1\to\ell_2 $ is bounded,linear and one-to-one. Prove that $T(\ell_1)$ is not closed in $\ell_2$
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Convergence in $L^p$ plus bounded gradient implies that the limit belongs to $W^{1,p}$?

I have a question with this problem I have found in the latest edition of the book Functional analysis, Sobolev Spaces author Haim Brezis pag 264 Remark 4 Let $(u_n) \subset W^{1,p} $ such that $u_n ...
2
votes
0answers
37 views

Sequence which does not admit weakly convergent subsequences

Let $f_h:[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$ be defined as $f_h(x)=h$ if $0\le x\le 1$ and $f_h(x)=0$ otherwise. Prove that it does not exist a subsequence $(f_{h_k})_k$ weakly convergent in $L^1(0,1)$. Attempt of ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

How can you compare two mathematical functions of single variable? [closed]

I have some functions and want to see how close one function is to the other. One way to check is correlation. What are the other ways of checking the "similarness", "closeness" or "nearness"?
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Reference for $f \in L^{p,\infty} \cap L^{q}$ then $f \in L^r$ for $p < r \leq q$

Okay, so I think I've shown that if $f \in L^{p,\infty} \cap L^{q}$ with $p < q$ then $f \in L^r$ for $p < r \leq q$ where $L^{p, \infty}$ denotes the weak $L^p$ space. what I did was I wrote $$ ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

If $a_n \to a$ in $L^2$ and $F:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is continuous, does $\int F(a_{n_j}) \to \int F(a)$?

Suppose $a_n \to a$ in $L^2(\Omega)$. Let $F:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be continuous with $F(0) = 0$. We have that $F(b) \in L^1(\Omega)$ if $b \in L^2(\Omega)$ and $|F'(x)| \leq C_1 + C_2|x|$. I ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Showing a composition is in $L^2$

Let $f$ be a smooth increasing function passing through the origin with $|f(x)| \leq C_1(1+|x|)$. Define $F(r) = \int_0^r f(s)\;ds$ and $F^*(t) = \sup_{r \in \mathbb{R}}tr - F(r).$ Note that ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Explanation of a passage about a smooth approximation to $L^p$ function

I'm reading J.L Vazquez "Porous Medium Equation" book. In it, he says the following: We are given a function $a:\Omega \times (0,T) \to \mathbb{R}$ such that $a \geq 0$. We find a smooth ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Dual of $L^1$ when measure is the counting measure [closed]

Let $X$ be an uncountable set, $\mu$ the counting measure on $X$ and $\mathcal{M}$ the $\sigma$- algebra of countable or co-countable sets. How can I prove that the dual of $L^1(\mu|\mathcal{M})$ is ...
4
votes
1answer
47 views

Weak* convergence in $(L^q)^*$ and convergence in $L^p$

Let $\{\phi_n\}$ be a sequence in $L^p(X)$. Assume that $\phi_n\to \phi$ weak* under the natural identification $L^p\cong (L^q)^*$. Of course, it is not true in general that $\phi_n\to \phi$ in $L^p$ ...