Low-dimensional topology generally refers to the study of 3 or 4 dimensional topological manifolds and knot theory.

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How to distinguish between knots and links based on knot diagrams/projections

I'm interested in the distinction between knots and links in $\mathbb{R}^3$/$S^3$. In particular, is there an algorithmic way (as in not by sight/intuition) that we can examine the arcs and crossings ...
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74 views

Compute the fundamental and homology groups of $S^3 \setminus K$, where $K$ is two linked copies of $S^1$ in $\mathbb R^3$

Compute the homology groups of $S^3 \setminus K$, where $K$ is two linked copies of circles in $\mathbb R^3$. How about the homology group of $S^3 \setminus K'$ where $K'$ is just one copies ...
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1answer
155 views

Seifert manifolds and Fuchsian group

A Fuchsian group is a discrete subgroup of $PSL(2, \mathbb{R})$. Let $M$ be a Seifert manifold (maybe with boundary) and $t \in \pi_1(M)$ the class of a regular Seifert fiber. Hempel claims in his ...
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p-simplex spanned by elements in the boundary of the unit ball of Thurston norm is in the the boundary of this unit ball.

in completing my thesis I have reached a momentary impass. I am trying to solve an exercise given in the book "Foliations II" by Candel and Conlon. In particular, Exercise 10.4.1, and I can't seem to ...
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180 views

How is PL knot theory related to smooth knot theory?

I really want to like knot theory but the PL condition seems sort of ugly. I was hoping someone could give me a justification for secretly thinking about smooth knots as I read through a book like ...
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68 views

Why can we consider only torus switch rather than arbitrary Dehn filling in Lickorish theorem?

I understand that any orientable $3$-manifold can be obtained by doing Dehn surgery on $S^3$ along a set of circles sitting in it; but why can we further assume the slop to be $0$, i.e. we can obtain ...
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41 views

Presentation of Fundamental Group for a Seifert Fibred Space

I am trying to understand how to make sense of the presentation for a seifert fibred space geometrically. I understand that for each exceptional fibre (with index a/b) you get a generator with torsion ...
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166 views

Symmetric product of genus 2-surface

Let $\Sigma$ be the genus 2-surface. Denote $\operatorname{Sym}^2(\Sigma)=\Sigma\times \Sigma/\mathbb{Z}/2$, where $\mathbb{Z}/2$ acts on $\Sigma\times \Sigma$ by $(x,y)\mapsto (y,x)$. In the very ...
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131 views

$\operatorname{Spin}^c(n)$ is a Lie group?

Assume that $n\geq 3$. (This implies $\pi_1(\operatorname{SO}(n))=\mathbb{Z}/2$.) Let $\rho\colon \operatorname{Spin}(n)\to \operatorname{SO}(n)$ be the 2-fold universal cover. Identify $\ker(\rho)$ ...
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150 views

Heegaard Splitting of Brieskorn homology 3-spheres

For pairwise coprime integers $(p,q,r)$, we define a Brieskorn homology 3-spheres by $\Sigma(p,q,r)=\{(z_1,z_2,z_3)\in\mathbb{C}^3 | z_1^p+z_2^q+z_3^r=0, |z_1|^2+|z_2|^2+|z_3|^2=1\}$. I want to know ...
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27 views

Space of $G$-connections; respecting a spin structure

If I want to have a space of $G$-connections on a Riemann surface, I can take the fundamental group on the surface, represent its generators on $G$ and take (up to conjugation) those representation ...
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119 views

Problem from Hempel — surfaces in Lens spaces

This isn't a homework problem, just working through Hempel's 3-Manifolds for my own benefit. One exercise is to show that the lens space $L(2k,q)$ contains a surface of Euler characteristic $2-k$. ...
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305 views

Useful topology on space of smooth structures on $\mathbb R^4$?

Mathoverflow is intimidating, so I thought I'd ask here first (second). If I don't get any useful answers here in a few days, I'll ask there. $Q_0$: Is there any use for a topology on the (continuum ...
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80 views

handle moves: proof

In several 4-manifold textbooks, when handle moves (creation, cancellation, sliding) are discussed, they are explained using very helpful drawings. However, I would like to know if there is a ...
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66 views

intersection form

I have problem understanding the proof of this theorem on page 23 of Kirby's Topology of 4-manifolds: Two closed oriented 4-manifolds are homotopy equivalent iff they have isomorphic intersection ...
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77 views

Classification of Bieberbach groups

Does anybody know if there exists a list of the four dimensional Bieberbach groups presented by generators and relations on the web?. I know there exists the book Crystallographic Groups of ...
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227 views

Fundamental Group of Seifert-Fibred Space, as constructed in Hatcher

In Hatcher's notes on 3-Manifolds (available here), he constructs Seifert-fibred spaces in the following way: Let $S$ be some surface, possibly with boundary (let's say with boundary for now). Let ...
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24 views

Euler Integral of a self-overlapping tube with a cusp singularity

I am studying in depth the following paper on Euler calculus applied to target enumeration: https://www.math.upenn.edu/~ghrist/preprints/eulerenumerationpart1.pdf Within this paper there is an ...
2
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45 views

Incompressible tori in 3-manifolds obtained by Dehn surgery on knots

Let $K \subset S^3$ be a knot. Given $r \in \mathbb{Q} \cup \{ \infty\}$, denote by $S^3_{r}(K)$ the 3-manifold obtained by Dehn surgery on $K$ with coefficient $r$. Is it true that: $S^3_r(K)$ ...
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88 views

A(nother ignorant) question on phantom maps

My last question (Is such a map always null-homotopic?) is quite similar. If you do not care about my motivation for these questions, you can skip to the last line. I asked if some assumptions were ...
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39 views

Reeb orbit and open books

Weinstein conjecture is about existence of a closed orbit of the Reeb vector field on every contact manifold. On the other hand, we know every contact 3-manifold admits a compatible open book, which ...
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30 views

Calculation in From Seiberg Witten to pseudo-holomorphic curve

I am reading the Taubes's paper: From From Seiberg Witten to pseudo-holomorphic curve. I don't know how to get the result (2.17) \begin{eqnarray*} ...
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114 views

Why is surgery along a framed link well defined?

Let $L=L_1 \cup L_2 \cup \cdots \cup L_n $ be a framed link in $ S^3 $. I want to perform the surgery along $L$ to get a new manifold $M$. By definition, to perform this surgery, I must perform the ...
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32 views

Coloring knot diagram obtained from colored one by applying crossing change to one crossing

Suppose $K_1$ is a knot diagram colored by a dihedral quandle $R_n$ of order $n$, By applying crossing change (exchanging over and under arcs) to one crossing in $K_1$, we obtain a new diagram let us ...
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81 views

How do you specify a link to a blind combinatorialist?

Regular projections of links look like graphs in the plane. So I'm wondering if it would be possible to specify a link up to isotopy with purely combinatorial data about this graph. If so, what kind ...
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116 views

Intersection form on manifolds with boundary

It is a "basic fact" that the intersection form of a closed oriented 4k-dimensional manifold is unimodular. (Could anyone point me to a reference to a proof of this fact?) What can be said about the ...
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26 views

Covering maps between Seifert fibered manifolds

Let $M$ and $\widetilde{M}$ be two Seifert fibered three manifolds. Suppose that there exists a covering projection $p: \widetilde{M} \to M$ preserving the Seifert structure. What is the relation ...
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20 views

theorem relating the genus of a surface to the Euler characteristic

One of the most basic facts of the theory of surfaces is $$ \chi = 2-2g $$ where $$ \chi \triangleq V - E + F $$ for orientables surfaces. Does this result have a name? I am also after a proof or a ...
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37 views

Gluing 3 dimensional tetrahedra with orientation reversing edge

I am not sure how to proceed on exercise 3.2.3 in Thurston's book "Three Dimensional Geometry and Topology". The wording is as follows: "In a gluing of three dimensional simplices, each edge enters ...
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29 views

Alexander polynomial of sums

A standard argument of knot theory reveals that the Alexander polynomial of the sum of two knots $K= K_1 \# K_2$ is equal to the product of the Alexander polynomial of the two summands $K_1$ and ...
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36 views

Does pushing point along a loop on a surface induce a homotopy from identity to a homeomorphism of the surface?

Suppose $S$ is a closed surface (assume $\chi(S)\leq 0$ if necessary). Let $p$ be a fixed point on the surface $S$, and $\beta$ be an oriented loop based at $p$. Intuitively, I can put finger on $p$ ...
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33 views

What is the underlying geometry of the space in this advertisement

There is this really intriguing new ad by a large Japanase car manufacturer: Here. The universe in the ad looks to be an orbifold with a cone-axis of order 6, but this is not the math I am comfortable ...
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Visualization of the fact that the integers defining lens spaces must be coprime

This is related to this question I asked: Visualization of Lens Spaces and is also related to this question by @Earthliŋ: Why are the integers appearing in lens spaces coprime? I understand the ...
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60 views

Convention of a continued fraction presentation of a lens space

I want to clarify the following two conventions on a surgery description of a lens space. Let $p$ and $q$ are relatively prime integers. Express $$ ...
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19 views

Introduction to Euler structures

I am looking for a basic text on Euler structures, in particular smooth Euler structures, and the relation to combinatorial Euler structures; It is known that given a combinatorial Euler structure on ...
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27 views

existence of a 1-form

Suppose $L$ is a fibered link in $S^3$ and consider the fibration $f:S^3-L\to S^1$. Is it possible to write down the 1-form $df$ in the form $df=md\mu+ld\lambda$ near each component of $L$, for which ...
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29 views

Surface groups as 3-manifold groups

From studiosus' answer to A 3-manifold with fundamental group isomorphic to a surface group. a closed 3-manifold cannot have a fundamental group isomorphic to that of a closed surface of genus $\geq ...
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48 views

Lens Space Orientation Reversing Homeomorphism

I am thinking of an example where the connected sum of two three Manifolds depends on the chosen orientation. Hempel gives in his book "3-Manifolds" an example, namely lens spaces. He shows that two ...
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67 views

Classification of compact 3-delta-complexes made of a single simplex

With a single 3-simplex (by identifying its faces in couples) it is possible to make 39 compact delta-complexes that can be grouped in 8 classes of complexes having the same homology groups (see ...
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Looking for a basic reference on propagators (in Topology)

I am looking for a basic (preferably self-contained) reference where I can read about propagators (as they appear in Topology), and in particular Morse propagators. Thanks!
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double decker set in a surface-knot

Surface-knot is an embedded surface in $\Bbb{R}^4$. Project the surface in $\Bbb{R}^3$ gives the surface diagram with set of singularity points consists of double points, triple points and branch ...
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123 views

Splittings of 4 manifolds

I am wondering why a copy of $CP^2$ may be split off from $CP^2\mathbin\#9\overline{CP^2}$ to leave $\overline M_{E_8}\mathbin\#\overline{CP^2}$(«The wild world of 4-manifolds» by Alexandru Scorpan, ...
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108 views

Set of generators of the commutator subgroup of a surface group

Good morning, I am having a hard time trying to describe the commutator subgroup of a surface group. Namely, if $S$ is a compact orientable surface and $G$ its fundamental subgroup, let's recall that ...
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67 views

What do we mean by $CP^2$ with reverse orientation?

$CP^2$ and $\bar{CP^2}$ are not diffeomorphic since they have non-isomorphic intersection forms. so why do we call the latter $CP^2$ with reverse orientation? it seems like we are not just reversing a ...
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62 views

History of ' low-dimensional geometry '

I want to have a brief history about the low-dimensional manifolds and geometric structures on manifolds specially on low-dimensional manifolds .where I can read about thus ?
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117 views

Trivial eigenvalues

Many nonlinear manifold learning methods used for dimensional reduction (isomap, diffusion maps, local preserving projections, etc) solve the symmetric eigenvalue problem and then use the eigenvectors ...
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Relations between Kleinian groups and quotient manifolds

In some specific situation there are some nice relations between a Kleinian group and its quotient manifold. For example, if $G$ is a once-punctured-torus group (i.e. a free subgroup of ...
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on branched covers

Consider a branched cover $f:M\to N$ with branch set $A\subset M$ and $B\subset N$. In Rolfsen's book Knots and Links, it is assumed as part of the definition of a branched cover that the dimension ...