# Tagged Questions

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### What does “calculus” mean?

"calculus" and "formal system" From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propositional_calculus#Terminology a calculus is a formal system that consists of a set of syntactic expressions ...
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### Are axioms assumed to be true in a formal system?

In a logical system, there is assignment of truth values to the sentences in the language, and axioms are assigned the true value. A logical system is a formal system. In a formal system, there is ...
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### Are there formal systems that are not logical systems?

From WIkipedia A logical system or, for short, logic, is a formal system together with a form of semantics, usually in the form of model-theoretic interpretation, which assigns truth values to ...
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### What do “completely described” and “complete formalisation” mean?

From Wikipedia In mathematics, an axiomatic system is any set of axioms from which some or all axioms can be used in conjunction to logically derive theorems. A mathematical theory consists of ...
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### Precisely, what is a primitive recursive definition?

If I understand correctly, the language of primitive recursive arithmetic has a distinguished function symbol $S$, together with a function symbol for each primitive recursive definition (hereafter ...
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### If $T$ proves any incorrect $\forall$-rudimentary sentence, then $T$ is inconsistent

A theory $T$ in the language of arithmetic is called $\omega$-inconsistent if for some formula $F(x)$, $\exists x F(x)$ is a theorem of $T$, but so is $\neg F(n)$ for each natural number $n$. ...
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### Prove the admissibility of $\Gamma, A \vdash_N B$, from $\Gamma \vdash_N B$

(This is an assignment) To prove: $$\frac{\Gamma \vdash_N B}{\Gamma, A \vdash_N B}$$ ($\Gamma, A = \Gamma \cup \{A\}$) I have what I think is a proof for this. I would like and be grateful for ...
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### Certain sequents as inference rules

Fix a signature $\sigma.$ Then a coherent formula is a first-order formula built using only $\{\wedge,\vee,\top,\bot,\exists\}.$ See the link for more information. Furthermore, by a "special" ...
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### Textbook on Basics of Formal Systems

Whilst trying to learn more about logic I came across Smullyan's Theory of Formal Systems on Google Books. What I liked about the book was how clearly it managed to describe (on pages 3-5 in chapter ...
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### Some different versions of completeness of a formal system, of a logic and of a theory

I have seen people talking about Gödel's complete theorems and Gödel's incomplete theorems on math.SE. I am curious what they are really about, so I try to understand the meaning of completeness ...
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### Aftermath of the incompletness theorem proof

This is somewhat of a minor point about the incompletness theorem, but I'm always a little unsure: So one proves that there is a formula which is unprovable in the theory of consideration. Okay, at ...
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### Satisfiability problem for FOL[<,R]

Let FOL[<,R] be the fragment of first-order logic enriched with two relational symbols < and R and the first-order axioms that say: < is a strict partial order and R is an irreflexive and ...
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### Definition and meaning of “Proof Schema”, “Class Sign”

I'm a newbie in advanced mathematics, and I'm trying to understand Godel's theorem. I came across these two words which I couldn't understand clearly. "Proof Schema" and "Class-Sign" Can anybody ...
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### Differences between the formal grammar, formation rules and automaton for a formal language

Added: A formal grammar is a set of formation rules for strings in a formal language. Formation rules are rules for describing which strings of symbols formed from the alphabet of a formal language ...
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### How it is possible that sound system is inconsistent

We have some sound deduction system (every provable sentence is true), which has property of principle of explosion and some theory T described in that system. Lets assume that theory T is ...
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### How it is posible that $\omega$-inconsistency does not lead to inconsistency

After wikipedia: Theory is $\omega$-inconsistent if, for some property P of natural numbers, T proves P(0), P(1), P(2), and so on (that is, for every standard natural number n, T proves that P(n) ...
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### Hofstadter's TNT: b is a power of 2 - is my formula doing what it is supposed to?

If you've read Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach, you must have come across the problem of expressing 'b is a power of 2' in Typographical Number Theory. An alternative way to say this is that every ...
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### How does a recursive definition fit into a formal proof?

I understand a proof as a series of statements that are either axioms or follow from previous statements by a small set of rules of inference. I understand a recursive definition to be something like ...
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### Differential fields and rings

If one is to compute the derivative of $$y=3x+2$$ by $$\frac{\mathrm{d}(3x+2)}{\mathrm{d} x}$$ Would I be working with differential fields? Since differential fields is a first-order ...
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### Computing square roots and calculus

If one were to verify that $$\sqrt{2} < 3$$ would the underlying formalisation require a logic more expressive than first-order? Or, is FOL sufficient since real numbers can be formalised in ...
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### Expressing P = NP as a first order formula

I want to express P = NP in a completely formal way. My first try: There exists an algorithm A and a polynomial bound p such that for all input i, A(i) = true iff i is a satisfiable formula and ...
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### How to show that a set does not contain a specific string

If I have a set $S$ defined as the smallest set $S$ over an alphabet $A=\left\{ \star, \urcorner,(,), a_0,a_1, \dots \right\}$ ( $S\subseteq \cup_{k \in \mathbb{N}} A^k$) satisfying: \$\bullet \ a_0, ...
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### Informal Equivalents of Mathematica “Set” and “SetDelayed”

How would one distinguish between what is meant by Mathematica's "Set" and "SetDelayed" functions in informal mathematical notation? Is there a way to make this distinction any any reasonably standard ...
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### Formal System and Formal Logical System

I was reading the Wikipedia article for Mathematical_logic. When reaching Formal_logical_systems, I was curious about its definition and clicked into its own article Logical_system, which redirected ...
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### formal rules for avoiding bound/unbound variable problems in lambda calculus

I have been interested in learning formal math formally enough so that I could write a proof assistant using some simple parsing tools, and explain to someone else with little math knowledge how to ...