Questions related to real and complex logarithms.

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7
votes
1answer
122 views

Is $a^{\ln b} = b^{\ln a}$?

I was struggling with a math problem, namely, a limit with a power to the log of something. While I was struggling with it, I found out that $$a^{\ln b} = b^{\ln a}$$ for all positive values that I've ...
7
votes
4answers
528 views

Doubt about the domain in logarithmic functions.

According to my book, the logarithmic function $$\log_{a}x=y$$ is defined if both $x$ and $a$ are positive and $x\neq 0$ and $a\neq 1$. So are these not correct? $$\log_{-3}9=2$$ $$\log_{-2}-8=3$$ ...
7
votes
2answers
164 views

Solving for $x$ in $3^{2x+1} = 3^x + 24$

I'm having trouble solving this equation step by step: $$3^{2x+1} = 3^x + 24$$ I've tried to take the log of both sides but then I am stuck with the right hand side being $\log(3^x + 24)$. I've ...
7
votes
6answers
345 views

Elegant way to solve $n\log_2(n) \le 10^6$

I'm studying Tomas Cormen Algorithms book and solve tasks listed after each chapter. I'm curious about task 1-1. that is right after Chapter #1. The question is: what is the best way to solve: ...
7
votes
3answers
137 views

Finding $\int_0^{\pi/4}\sqrt{1+\left( \tan x\right)^2}dx$

I would like to understand all the steps to find out this integral $$ \int_0^{\pi/4} \sqrt{1+\left( \tan x\right)^2} dx$$ Wolfram Alpha returns: $$ \frac12 \log(3+2 \sqrt2) = 0.881373587019543...$$ ...
7
votes
3answers
446 views

Apparently cannot be solved using logarithms

This equation clearly cannot be solved using logarithms. $$3 + x = 2 (1.01^x)$$ Now it can be solved using a graphing calculator or a computer and the answer is $x = -1.0202$ and $x=568.2993$. But ...
7
votes
2answers
745 views

Motivation for definition of logarithm in Feynman's Lectures on Physics

I'm not sure if the title is descriptive enough; feel free to change it if you come up with something better. I've been reading through Feynman's Lectures on Physics. In the first volume, he ...
7
votes
2answers
608 views

Is there ANY possible way to solve this equation?

So I came up with this equation and it just seems like I can't solve it AT ALL for '$a$' $$a*b^a = c$$ EDIT: By the way, I'm only taking $b^a$, not both $b$ and $a$, just in case anyone was ...
7
votes
2answers
227 views

A series with infinitely many logarithms: $\lim_{n\to\infty} \left(\frac{\ln 2}2+\frac{\ln 3}3+\cdots + \frac{\ln n}n \right)^{\frac1n}$

I have to solve the following limit: $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} \left(\frac{\ln 2}{2}+\frac{\ln 3}{3}+\cdots + \frac{\ln n}{n} \right)^{\frac{1}{n}}$$ I'm just curious if there is a simple way to ...
7
votes
2answers
85 views

Solving a logarithmic equation $\log_2 (2^x-1)+x=\log_4 (144)$

I need to solve this: $$\log_2 (2^x-1)+x=\log_4 (144)$$ I can work out that $x=\log_2 (2^x)$ and $\log_4 (144)=log_2(12)$ but I'm stuck after that.
7
votes
2answers
141 views

Why is this function a really good asymptotic for $\exp(x)\sqrt{x}$

$$f(x)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_n x^n\;\;\;\;\; a_n = \frac{1}{\Gamma(n+0.5)}$$ Why is this entire function a really good asymptotic for $\exp(x)\sqrt{x}$, where for large positive numbers, ...
7
votes
4answers
274 views

What did Johann Bernoulli wrong in his proof of $\ln z=\ln (-z)$?

Some people say, Johann Bernoulli has proven $\ln z=\ln (-z)$ in the following way $$\ln ((-z)^2 )=\ln(z^2)\;\;\;\Rightarrow\;\;\;2\ln(-z)=2\ln z\;\;\;\Rightarrow\;\;\;\ln (-z)=\ln z$$ While the ...
7
votes
2answers
359 views

Logarithms of logarithms of Graham's number, is the result ever handy?

The other day I was asked how to represent really big numbers. I half-jokingly replied to just take the logarithm repeatedly: $$\log \log \log N$$ makes almost any number $N$ handy. (Assume base ...
7
votes
2answers
396 views

Integral $\int\limits_0^1 \frac{\ln x\ln ( 1 - zx )}{1 - x} dx$

How can I evaluate following logarithmic integral: $$\int\limits_0^1 \frac{\ln x\ln ( 1 - zx )}{1 - x} dx$$
7
votes
2answers
130 views

Integral $\int_0^1\arctan(x)\arctan\left(x\sqrt3\right)\ln(x)dx$

I need to evaluate this integral: $$\int_0^1\arctan(x)\arctan\left(x\sqrt3\right)\ln(x)dx$$ Apparently, Maple and Mathematica cannot do anything with it, but I saw similar integrals to be evaluated in ...
7
votes
4answers
2k views

Prove that $\log X < X$ for all $X > 0$

I'm working through Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C++, 2nd Ed, and problem 1.7 asks us to prove that $\log X < X$ for all $X > 0$. However, unless I'm missing something, this can't ...
7
votes
1answer
97 views

$a_{n+1}=\log(1+a_n),~a_1>0$. Then find $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} n \cdot a_n$

Suppose that $a_{n+1}=\log(1+a_n),~a_1>0$. Then find $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} n \cdot a_n$. I can find $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty}a_n=0$. But I have no idea to find $\lim_{n \rightarrow ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Comparing Powers of Different Bases

How can I know if one power is bigger than the other when the bases are different? For example, considering $2^{10}$ and $10^{3}$ the former is the greater one, but how to prove this? Logarithms? ...
7
votes
1answer
109 views

How to solve $\log _{x^{2}-3}(x^{2}+6x)<\log _{x}(x+2)$?

How to solve the following inequality $$\log _{x^{2}-3}\left(x^{2}+6x\right)<\log _{x}(x+2)\ ?$$
7
votes
1answer
405 views

Are Base Ten Logarithms Relics?

Just interested in your thoughts regarding the contention that the pre-eminence of base ten logarithms is a relic from pre-calculator days. Firstly I understand that finding the (base-10) ...
7
votes
2answers
3k views

How many digits does $2^{1000}$ contain?

I tried this way, I only need to know if this is correct or if there are better ways to solve this: $2^{1000}$ does not have a factor of $5$ obviously therefore we can assume $$ 10^{m} < 2^{1000} ...
7
votes
1answer
738 views

Inverse function of $\operatorname{li}(x)$ over $x>\mu$?

How can I get the inverse function of $\operatorname{li}(x)$ over $x>\mu$? Where $$\operatorname{li}(x)=\int_{0}^{x}\frac{ds}{\ln(s)}$$ is the so-called logarithmic integral, and ...
7
votes
1answer
67 views

Evaluate $\lim_{R\to\infty}\left(\int_0^R\left|\frac{\sin x}{x}\right|dx-\frac{2}{\pi}\log R\right)$

Is there a closed form of $$\lim_{R\to\infty}\left(\int_0^R\left|\frac{\sin x}{x}\right|dx-\frac{2}{\pi}\log R\right)$$ I am pretty interested whether we can find out a closed form of this limit. We ...
7
votes
5answers
193 views

Solving equations of type $x^{1/n}=\log_{n} x$

First, I'm a new person on this site, so please correct me if I'm asking the question in a wrong way. I thought I'm not a big fan of maths, but recently I've stumbled upon one interesting fact, which ...
7
votes
1answer
181 views

ln(z) as antiderivative of 1/z

When integrating $$\frac{1}{x}$$ (where $x \in \mathbb{R} $) one gets $$ln|x|+c$$ since for $x>0$ $$(ln|x|+c)'=(ln(x)+c)'=\frac{1}{x}$$ and for $x<0$ ...
7
votes
1answer
158 views

Differentiating $y=x^x$ with the formal definition of a derivative

A friend and I were messing around with derivatives, and while we both know the procedure for finding the derivative of $y=x^x$ with logarithmic differentiation, i.e. $$y=x^x\\ ln(y)=x*ln(x)\\ ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

where do exponential and logarithmic functions intersect?

If $0<a<1$, then the graphs of $y=a^x$ and $y=\log_a(x)$ intersect at some point $(t(a),t(a))$. Does this function $t(a)$ have any nice expression? How much do we know about this function, ...
7
votes
0answers
395 views

${\mathfrak{I}} \int_{0}^{\pi/2} \frac{x^2}{x^2+\log ^2(-2\cos x)} \:\mathrm{d}x$ and $\int_{0}^{\pi/2} \frac{\log \cos x}{x^2}\:\mathrm{d}x$

I have found the following new result connecting two rational log-cosine integrals. Proposition. \begin{align} \displaystyle & {\mathfrak{I}} \int_{0}^{\pi/2} \frac{x^2}{x^2+\log ^2(-2\cos ...
6
votes
5answers
326 views

How to evaluate $\int_0^1 \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} dx$

This problem appears at the end of Trig substitution section of Calculus by Larson. I tried using trig substitution but it was a bootless attempt $$\int_0^1 \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} dx$$
6
votes
7answers
930 views

Prove that $5/2 < e < 3$?

Prove that $$\dfrac{5}{2} < e < 3$$ By the definition of $\log$ and $\exp$, $$1 = \log(e) = \int_1^e \dfrac{1}{t} dt$$ where $e = \exp(1)$. So given that $e$ is unknown, how could I ...
6
votes
5answers
954 views

How do you solve a logarithm with a non-integer base?

How would one calculate the log of a number where the base isn't an integer (in particular, an irrational number)? For example: $$0.5^x = 8 \textrm{ (where } x = -3\textrm{)}$$ $$\log_{0.5}8 = -3$$ ...
6
votes
2answers
6k views

What's the formula to solve summation of logarithms?

this is my first question here. I'm studying summation and everything I know is that: $\sum_{i=1}^n\ k$ is $\frac{n(n+1)}{2}\ $ $\sum_{i=1}^{n}\ k^2$ is $\frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}\ $ $\sum_{i=1}^{n}\ ...
6
votes
2answers
442 views

How do I solve for $x$ in $\ln(x)\ln(x) = 2 +\ln(x)$

How do I solve for $x$? $$\ln(x)\ln(x) = 2 +\ln(x)$$
6
votes
10answers
1k views

How can I find the value of $\ln( |x|)$ without using the calculator?

I want to know if there is a way to find for example $\ln(2)$, without using the calculator ? Thanks
6
votes
4answers
205 views

Proof of $\log_xy=\frac{\log_zy}{\log_zx}$

Why is $\log_xy=\frac{\log_zy}{\log_zx}$? Can we prove this using the laws of exponents?
6
votes
3answers
210 views

What operations on an equation cause it to be destroyed?

I approached my calculus professor about something he said which didn't make much sense to me - He says that in the process of calculating $\lim_{x\to\infty} f(x)^{g(x)}$, you can convert it to ...
6
votes
3answers
442 views

Solving exponential equations using logarithms

This is the equation that I am having troubles with: $$\large x^{\large\log_{10}5}+5^{\large\log_{10}x}=50$$ So the first thing I do, I logarithm the whole expression with $\log_{10}$. So I get: ...
6
votes
3answers
3k views

Is putting absolute values around the argument of a log obtained through integration incorrect?

I've always been taught that when integrating a function of the form $f'(x)/f(x)$ to put an absolute value around the argument of the resulting logarithm. For example: $$\int\frac1{x}\mathrm dx = ...
6
votes
9answers
123 views

Find the value of $\log_8 9 \times \log_9 10 \times \cdots \times \log_n(n+1) \times \log_{n+1}8$

I'm completely lost on this question. I've been Googling around to no success. Find the value of $$\log_8 9 \cdot \log_9 10 \dotsm \log_n(n+1) \cdot \log_{n+1}8$$ I'm completely stumped as to ...
6
votes
5answers
405 views

If $z_n \to z$ then $(1+z_n/n)^n \to e^z$

We are dealing with $z \in \mathbb{C}$. I know that $$ \left(1+ \frac{z}{n} \right)^n \to e^{z} $$ as $n \to \infty$. So intuitively if $z_n \to z$ then we should have $$ \left(1+ \frac{z_n}{n} ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

How popular and used were logarithm tables?

I've heard that, for a time, logarithm tables "sold more than the Bible". Can someone produce some reliable documentation about how prevalent they were ? Would a common shopkeep have one ? Would a ...
6
votes
5answers
98 views

Solve for $x$ : $\log_3(3x + 2) = \log_9(4x + 5)$

Solve for $x$ $$ \log_3(3x + 2) = \log_9(4x + 5) $$ I changed the bases of the logs $$ \frac {\log_{10}(3x + 2)} {\log_{10}(3)} = \frac {\log_{10}(4x + 5)} {\log_{10}(9)} $$ Now I'm stuck, ...
6
votes
3answers
590 views

Basic Logarithm Equation

$\log_2(x) = \log_x(2) $ Using the change of base theorem: $\dfrac{\log(x)}{\log(2)} = \dfrac{\log(2)}{\log(x)}$ Multiplied the denominators on both sides: $\log(x)\log(x) = \log(2)\log(2)$ I kind ...
6
votes
5answers
1k views

Am I allowed to apply L'Hospital's Rule inside of the natural logarithm function?

I have the following limit: $$\lim_{x\rightarrow \infty} \ln\left(\frac{2x^2+1}{x^2+1}\right)$$ If I was finding the limit of only the terms inside the natural log function, I would have the ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Using Taylor's Theorem to show that $\ln(1 + x^2) \leq x^2$

Can we show that if $\operatorname{abs}(x) \lt 1$, then $$\ln(1+x^2) \leq x^2\;,$$ using Taylor's Theorem? I am thinking of expanding it about $x=0$ but I got something like $$f(x) = -x^2 + ...
6
votes
3answers
114 views

Closed-form of $\int_0^1 x^n \operatorname{li}(x^m)\,dx$

I've conjectured, that for $n\geq0$ and $m\geq1$ integers $$ \int_0^1 x^n \operatorname{li}(x^m)\,dx \stackrel{?}{=} -\frac{1}{n+1}\ln\left(\frac{m+n+1}{m}\right), $$ where $\operatorname{li}$ is the ...
6
votes
2answers
206 views

Why does my professor say that writing $\int \frac 1x \mathrm{d}x = \ln|x| + C$ is wrong?

My professor says that writing this is convenient $$\int \frac 1x \mathrm{d}x = \ln|x| + C\tag{1}$$ but wrong, since it should be written as: $$\int \frac 1x \mathrm{d}x = \begin{cases}\ln x + C ...
6
votes
4answers
393 views

Evaluate $\int_0^\infty \frac{(\log x)^2}{1+x^2} dx$ using complex analysis

How do I compute $$\int_0^\infty \frac{(\log x)^2}{1+x^2} dx$$ What I am doing is take $$f(z)=\frac{(\log z)^2}{1+z^2}$$ and calculating $\text{Res}(f,z=i) = \dfrac{d}{dz} \dfrac{(\log ...
6
votes
4answers
163 views

Are logarithms the only continuous function on $(0, \infty)$ that has this property?

Are logarithms the only continuous function on $(0, \infty)$ that has this property? $$ f(xy) = f(x) + f(y) $$ If so, how would we show that? If not, what else would we need to show that a function ...
6
votes
4answers
113 views

Solving equation $\log_y(\log_y(x))= \log_n(x)$ for $n$

I'm just wondering, if I log a constant twice with the same base $y$, $$\log_y(\log_y(x))= \log_n(x)$$ Can it be equivalent to logging the same constant with base $n$? If yes, what is variable $n$ ...