Linear algebra is concerned with vector spaces of all dimensions and linear transformations between them, including systems of linear equations, bases, dimensions, subspaces, matrices, determinants, traces, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization, Jordan forms, etc. For questions specifically ...

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2
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0answers
28 views

Transforming a bound on vectors from unit cube back into $\mathbf R^3$

I have two vectors $\mathbf v_1$ and $\mathbf v_2$: $$\mathbf v_1 = \begin{pmatrix}x_1\\y_1\\z_1\end{pmatrix}, \mathbf v_2 = \begin{pmatrix}x_2\\y_2\\z_2\end{pmatrix}$$ If I transform the vectors ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

The highest direction of the trace operator

Let $W$ be a real and symmetric matrix ${m \times m}$ from the set $\widetilde{W_m}$, and $T:\widetilde{W_m} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ a function defined by $T(W) = trace(W^3)$. We are interested to ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Bound on maximum angle between vectors

I have two vectors $\mathbf v_1$ and $\mathbf v_2$: $$\mathbf v_1 = \begin{pmatrix}x_1\\y_1\\z_1\end{pmatrix}, \mathbf v_2 = \begin{pmatrix}x_2\\y_2\\z_2\end{pmatrix}$$ The components of these ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Proof that a set of vectors can be extented to a basis (but differennt from basis expansion theorem)

I have a set $S={v_i}$ of N vectors in a d ($d<N$) dimensional space (call it V), I know that those vectors span the whole space, but of course they cannot be a basis. I can expand the space to a ...
3
votes
4answers
898 views

Why is the matrix product of 2 orthogonal matrices also an orthogonal matrix?

I've seen the statement "The matrix product of two orthogonal matrices is another orthogonal matrix. " on Wolfram's website but haven't seen any proof online as to why this is true. By orthogonal ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Show that if the leading principal minors of a nonsingular $n\times n$ matrix $A$ are all nonzero then the matrix $A$ has $LU$ factorization

I am stucked at this problem: Prove by induction that if the leading principal minors of an $n\times n$ nonsingular matrix $A$ are all nonzero then the matrix $A$ has $LU$ factorization. (The ...
0
votes
1answer
13 views

Product of countably many 1-dimensional spaces does not have cardinality $\aleph_0$

From Bergman's "Universal Algebra: Fundamentals and Selected Topics" page 52, constructing a directly indecomposable algebra (one which does not admit a decomposition into directly indecomposable ...
0
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0answers
30 views

Show that for every $n\times n$ matrix $A$, there exist an $n\times n$ permutation matrix $P$ such that $PA$ has $LU$ factorization

I am stucked at this problem: Prove by induction on $n$ that for every $n\times n$ matrix $A$, there exist an $n\times n$ permutation matrix $P$ (a matrix obtained by rearranging the rows (or ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

> Find the matrix A for which $[T(p(x))]_B$= for all p(x) $\in$ P2

Hey i'm quite confused with this question please link me so i can understand the theory. The question is. Let P$_2$ denote the vector space of all polynomials with real coefficients and of degree ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Parametric vector form of cartesian equation

Cartestian equation: $$-2x-y+z=6$$ I know to find the parametric vector form we can find any 3 points P, Q and R which satisfy the cartesian equation. $$ \begin{pmatrix} x_1\\ y_1\\ z_1 ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

$|f(x)-f(y)|\leq u(a,b)|x-y|^t$ for all $a\leq x,y \leq b$. For what values of $t$ is $V_t$ a subspace of $\mathbb{R}^\mathbb{R}$?

For any real number $0<t\leq 1$, let $V_t$ be the set of all functions $f\in \mathbb{R}^\mathbb{R}$ satisfying the condition that if $a<b$ in $\mathbb{R}$ then there exists a real number ...
0
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0answers
24 views

If $A: M \to M$ then $M$ is $A$-invariant subspace and $A $ is an endomorphism?

Just straightening out the terminologies here... Given If $A: M \to M$ then $M$, $M$ some subspace of a vector space, is the following statement equivalent: $M$ is a $A$-invariant subspace $A $is ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Do addition and multiplication define a structure of a field? [duplicate]

I am taking an advanced linear algebra course for my Masters but never took linear in undergrad so please realize I know little to nothing about these topics. Question: Let r exist in R and 0 not ...
-1
votes
1answer
47 views

The choice of scalar factors in the proof of the Schwarz inequality

In this proof for the Schwarz Inequality, they seemingly arbitrarily choose $r = w\cdot w$ and $s =-(v\cdot w)$. Why did they make these selections? I don't understand where these values for $r$ and ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Define multiplication as $(a,b) \boxdot (c,d)=(ac-bd(r^2+s^2), ad+bc+2rbd)$ where $a,b,c,d,r\in \mathbb{R}$ and $0\neq s\in \mathbb{R}$.

Define multiplication as $(a,b) \boxdot (c,d)=(ac-bd(r^2+s^2), ad+bc+2rbd)$ where $a,b,c,d,r\in \mathbb{R}$ and $0\neq s\in \mathbb{R}$. The multiplicative inverse is $(1,0)$. I need to show that ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

transformation matrix between two different basis

I am working on this problem:- A rectangular coordinates $(x,y,z)$ are given in terms of new coordinates $(q_1,q_2,q_3)$ by :- $x=q_1 +q_2 \cos(\theta)$ , $y=q_2 \sin(\theta)$ and $z=q_3$. where ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Proof of a Vector Space

Let $F$ be a field and let $(V, +, F)$ be a vector space over $F$. If $W_1$ and $W_2$ are subspaces of $F$, prove that $W_1 - W_2 = \{v \in V | v = w_1 - w_2 \text{ for some } w_1 \in W_1, w_2 \in W_2 ...
1
vote
1answer
24 views

If $A,B \in \mathcal{M}_n$ and $AB=BA=\mathbb{O}_n$ prove that $(A+B)^ν = Α^ν + Β^ν$.

I have one exercise in Linear Algebra and I would like to know if my solution is correct. If $A,B \in \mathcal{M}_n$ and $AB=BA=\mathbb{O}_n$ prove that $(A+B)^ν = Α^ν + Β^ν$. My first thought is ...
1
vote
2answers
30 views

Understanding first part of dual basis proof

The textbook I'm reading attempts to proof the following: given $\left\{v_1, \ldots, v_n \right\}$ a basis for a vectorspace $V$ over $K$, there exists a basis $\left\{ \phi_1, \ldots, \phi_n ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Legendre transform is everywhere finite iff $ f$ grows faster than $ 2$-norm

Let $f:\mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}\cup \{ \infty \}$ be convex. Its Legendre transform is $f^* (d):=\sup_{x\in \mathbb{R}^n}(d^Tx-f(x))$ Show $f^*(d)<\infty$ $\forall d\in \mathbb{R}^n$ iff ...
1
vote
2answers
31 views

How to solve for the matrix $X$ in the following equation $AXB + X = CD$

How to solve for the matrix $X$ in the following equation $AXB + X = CD$? $A$ and $B$ are full rank symmetric matrices, and there is no structure to $CD$. $CD$ just could be $C$.
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votes
1answer
47 views

A question on numerical range

Let $A,B \in {C^{n \times n}}$ and ${\sigma (A + B)}$ is spectrum of $(A+B)$. Suppose $M = \left\{ {\lambda \in C:\lambda \in \sigma (A + B),\left\| B \right\| \le \varepsilon } \right\}$ $F(A) = ...
2
votes
3answers
88 views

Trouble with understanding dual space $V^{*}$.

I've just began the study of linear functionals and the dual base. And this book I'm reading says the dual space $V^{*}$ may be identified with the space of row vectors. This notion seems very ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Proof of Simple Properties of Volume

Let $e_{1},\ldots,e_{n}$ be vectors in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$. Define a parallelepiped $P$ to be a translate of the set $$\left\{x\in\mathbb{R}^{n} : x=t^{1}e_{1}+\cdots+t^{n}e_{n}, 0\leq t^{i}\leq ...
2
votes
2answers
45 views

Let $V=\bigcup_{i=1}^n W_i$ where $W_i$ s are subspaces of a vector space $V$. Show that $V=W_r$ for some $1 \leq r \leq n$.

Let $V=\bigcup_{i=1}^n W_i$ where $W_i$ s are subspaces of a vector space $V$ over an infinite field $F$. Show that $V=W_r$ for some $1 \leq r \leq n$. I know the result "Let $W_1 \cup W_2$ is a ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Linear algebra: generalize from characteristic $0$ a problem about polynomial coefficients.

Let $K$ be a field, and let $F$ be a subfield of $K$. Assume that $F$ is infinite. Let $p(x)$ be a polynomial in one variable with coefficients in $K$, and suppose that $p(a) \in F$ whenever $a \in ...
4
votes
1answer
50 views

How numerical radius help us to conclude an operator is normal and partial isometry?

In Furuta's book, "Invitation to Linear Operators" there is a theorem, theorem 2 in 3.7.3, that says: If $T^k=T$ for some integer $k\ge 2$ and if $w(T)\le 1$, then $T$ is the direct sum of a unitary ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Linear transformations for fixing the line $y = 0$

The professor says that the subgroup for "stabilizing" the line $y = 0$ is $$A = \begin{bmatrix} a & c \\ 0 & d \end{bmatrix}$$ because in order to fix the first basis vector, $b = ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

If $L(v_1)=L(v_2)=L(v_3)=w_1$ then what is the $rank(L)$?

it is an elementary question. $L:V\to W$ is a linear transformation and $S=\{v_1,v_2,v_3\}$ is an ordered base of V, and $T=\{w_1,w_2\}$ an ordered base of W. If $L(v_1)=L(v_2)=L(v_3)=w_1$ what is ...
1
vote
2answers
49 views

Orthonomal bases and cross products

I want to show that if I have an orthonormal basis of $\mathbb{R}^3$, say $\{\boldsymbol{u}, \boldsymbol{v}, \boldsymbol{w}\}$, and if $\boldsymbol{u} × \boldsymbol{v} = \boldsymbol{w}$, then we have ...
5
votes
1answer
32 views

Classification of all conjugacy classes of $GL_2(\mathbb{R})$, $GL_2(\mathbb{Q})$.

Give a classification of all conjugacy classes in the following groups. $GL_2(\mathbb{R})$ $GL_2(\mathbb{Q})$ My progress so far. If the characteristic polynomial splits, the matrix ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Matrices of Ordered Bases

Let $V$ be a real finite-dimensional vector space and $T : V → V$ be a linear map. Let $E$ be a basis of V . What does it mean to say that $A$ is the matrix of $T$ with respect to $E$. Let $S : V → V$ ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

How are closed form solutions for eigenvalues constructed from sines and cosines?

For example a size N 3-point finite difference scheme has eigenvalues $\lambda_j = 2+cos(j\pi/(N+1))$. How is this determined? I know the Gershgorin circle theorem, but this is not what I am looking ...
0
votes
2answers
49 views

generalized Cauchy-Schwarz inequality

How to prove $A'B(B'B)^{-1}B'A \leq A'A$, where $A$,$B$ are $n\times k$ matrices and $B'B$ is assumed to be positive definite? I don't see why it is a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.
0
votes
2answers
28 views

Approximate solution to a matrix equation

Let $A$ and $B$ be $n \times m$ matrices. I am looking for a $m \times m$ matrix $X$ which would be an approximate solution to the equation $AX = B$ (an exact solution is very unlikely to exist). More ...
1
vote
2answers
35 views

$(a,b) \mathbin\# (c,d)=(a+c,b+d)$ and $(a,b) \mathbin\&(c,d)=(ac-bd(r^2+s^2), ad+bc+2rbd)$. Multiplicative inverse?

Let $r\in \mathbb{R}$ and let $0\neq s \in \mathbb{R}$. Define operations $\#$ and $\&$ on $\mathbb{R}$ x $\mathbb{R}$ by $(a,b) \mathbin\#(c,d)=(a+c,b+d)$ and $(a,b) ...
3
votes
2answers
53 views

Can such an “orthogonal” matrix exist?

I know that the definition of an orthogonal matrix is that $A \in \mathbb R^{n \times n}$ is orthogonal if $AA^T = A^T A=I$, no problem with that whatsoever. My question is this - Why only square ...
-2
votes
0answers
12 views

What are the (more general) conditions for consistency in a system of linear equations?

Usually, when speaking about conditions for the existence of solutions to linear equations of the form $A x = b$ (with $A \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}$ and $x , b \in \mathbb{R}^n$), one is interested ...
2
votes
2answers
34 views

Is $V = \{(x,y,z)\in \mathbb{R}^3:\ x+y >1 \}$ a subspace?

Prove whether the following subsets of $\mathbb{R}^3$ are subspaces : (a) $$V = \{(x,y,z)\ \in \mathbb{R}^3:\ x+y >1 \ \},$$ I think that this is not a subspace as the zero vector does not ...
1
vote
2answers
20 views

tangent plane for y^x at point (2,1)

I test my answer using wolfram alpha pro but it gets a different result to what I am getting. This is homework. My result is z= 2(y-1) partial derivative with respect to y is ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

How to find the minimum sum of unknown variables that is a solution to a system of two linear equations?

I'm trying find the minimum sum of $x_{1} + x_{2} + ... + x_{n}$ where these are a solution to a linear system of two equations. System of linear equations in general form: $$ a_{11}x_{1} + ...
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votes
0answers
19 views

algebra questions [on hold]

On the weekend you played Rugby League. You scored three tries, made two conversions and one field goal. How many points did you gain for your team in total? Write a general equation for this problem. ...
5
votes
3answers
83 views

Number of matrices $A \in M_n(\mathbb{F}_q)$ where $A^2 = 0$.

What is the number of matrices $A \in M_n(\mathbb{F}_q)$ for which $A^2 = 0$ (as a function of $n$ and $q$)?
1
vote
5answers
36 views

Seemingly impossible problem involving linear combination of vector components.

Express $\langle 4, -8 \rangle$ as a linear combination of $\vec{u}$ and $\vec{v}$, given $\vec{u}=\langle 1,1 \rangle$ and $\vec{v}=\langle -1,1 \rangle$. So, I set up: $\vec{i}=\langle 1,0 \rangle$ ...
2
votes
2answers
39 views

Is $V$ a simple $\text{End}_kV$-module?

Let $V$ be a finite-dimensional vector space over $k$ and $A = \text{End}_k V$. Is $V$ a simple $A$-module?
2
votes
1answer
56 views

How to solve these equations?

How to solve these equations for a, b, c and x? I have the following: $ 2a+b+c = 1$ $a = (a+b)x + 0.25(a+c) $ $a=(a+c)(1-x)$ $b=a(1-x)+c(x-0.25)$ $c=b(1-x)+a(x-0.25)$ I tried, but ended ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Quadratic form in Hilbert space associated with orthogonal projection operator

we are in Hilbert space $L^2 $ and we are given subspace of dimension $2K$ $$ V=Vect\{ g_k,\bar{g_k},1\le k\le K \}$$ $V$ is a sum of $K$ subspaces of dimension 2 $$ W_k=Vect \{g_k,\bar{g_k} \} $$ now ...
5
votes
0answers
46 views

Square root of differentiation

Let $T=d/dx$ be the differentiation operator on vector space $V=C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R})$, the space of real (complex) valued smooth maps on real line. To what extent, all subvector space ...
1
vote
2answers
15 views

What am I doing wrong in finding the orthogonal projection of a vector onto the subspace V?

Let $V∈ℝ^5$ be the subspace $V=span{(2,0,0,0,1),(0,2,0,3,0)}$ and let $w=(0,0,-4,-1,-1)$. Find the orthogonal projection of $w$ onto V,using exact values in your answer. My Approach Let the ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Finding Marginal Density functions with $Y\sim N_4(\mu,\Sigma)$

Suppose $Y$ is $N_4(\mu, \Sigma)$ where $$\mu = ( 1,2,3,-2)'$$ and $$\Sigma =\begin{bmatrix} 4& 2& -1& 2 \\ 2& 6& 3& -2 \\ -1& 3& 5& -4 \\ 2& ...