Linear algebra is concerned with vector spaces of all dimensions and linear transformations between them, including systems of linear equations, bases, dimensions, subspaces, matrices, determinants, traces, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization, Jordan forms, etc. For questions specifically ...

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Why can commuting matrices be simultaneously upper-triangularized?

Say $A_i (i\in I)$ are commuting matrices in $\mathbb{C}^{n\times n}$. Show that there exists $U$ such that $U^*A_iU$ are upper triangular for all $i\in I$.
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writing a state of a dynamical system

Is it un/common to write the state of a dynamical system in the following manner: $$ \begin{pmatrix}x_{t+1} \\ v_{t+1} \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix}A & B \\ C & D ...
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Prob. 14, Sec. 3.8 in Erwine Kreyszig's INTRODUCTORY FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS WITH APPLICATIONS: A Hermitian positive semi-definite form

Let $X$ be a complex vector space, and let the map $h \colon X \times X \to \mathbb{C}$ satisfy the following conditions: For all $x, y, z \in X$ and $\alpha \in \mathbb{C}$, (i) $h(x+y, z) = ...
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Dual Space of an Euclidian Space is also Euclidic with a specific bilinear form

Let $\gamma: V \times V \to K$ be a nondegenerate bilinear form, and let $\overline{\gamma}$ be defined by: $$\overline{\gamma}: V^* \times V^* \to K, \gamma(x, y) = ...
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17 views

A $d$-form on ${\mathbb R}^n$ that vanishes on $\binom{d+n-1}{n-1}$ general points, vanishes identically.

I'm looking for a reference for the fact that a $d$-form on ${\mathbb R}^n$ that vanishes on $p_1,..,p_{\binom{d+n-1}{n-1}}$ general points, vanishes identically. A specific construction of a set of ...
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0answers
12 views

Inversion of the Burrows Wheelers Transform

The "Burrows-Wheeler Transform" in signal processing is a transformation which is used in for instance data compression and pattern recognition. It can be described in mathematical terms as: Start ...
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3answers
66 views

A question on linear algebra

Let $V$ be a $n$-dimensional vector space and $T$ be a linear operator on $V$. Condition 1: there exists $0\neq v\in V$ such that $v, Tv,\ldots, T^{n-1}v$ are linearly independent. Condition 2: ...
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1answer
21 views

Span - linear algebra

I'm having some trouble in solving some exercises related to vector spaces, and I can't even start the solution. I need to check if the sets given span the same subset of the vector space $V$: (i) ...
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5answers
85 views

Proving that $\cos(2\pi/n)$ is algebraic

I want to prove this without using any of the properties about the field of algebraic numbers (specifically that it is one). Essentially I just want to find a polynomial for which $\cos\frac{2\pi}{n}$ ...
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2answers
27 views

Do $J$, the all-ones matrix of even order, always have eigenvectors consisting of entries $-1, 1$ only?

Do $J$, the all-ones matrix of even order, always have eigenvectors consisting of entries $-1, 1$ only? It seems so, vector having all its entries $1$ is one eigenvector for larest eigenvalue $n$ ...
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1answer
29 views

Definitions of $\mathrm{Hom}(V,W)$

I have the definition of a homomorphism as map such that $\varphi(g_1g_2)=\varphi(g_1)\varphi(g_2)$ I have the definition of $\mathrm{Hom}(V,W)$ as $$\begin{align}\mathrm{Hom}(V,W) &= ...
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25 views

A question on a matrix identity

Sorry for the not very specific title. I was hoping I could get some help with a result I do not understand. The following is from a book I am reading. What I do not understand is how from 9.9.6 one ...
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1answer
26 views

Eigenvalue for a conjugate operator.

$\newcommand{\lbrac}[1]{\left( #1 \right)}$ Let $V$ be a complex inner product space, and let $T:V\to V$ be a linear operator over $V$ and $T^*$ its adjoint. Suppose $\lambda$ is an eigenvalue of $T$. ...
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1answer
41 views

A statement regarding vector spaces…

Let $L$ be a vector space, and $U,W,V$ subspaces of $L$. Show: $$U\cap W\subseteq V \iff (U+V)\cap (W+V) =V$$ I've tried the following: Suppose that $(U+V)\cap (W+V) =V$. Since $0_L\in V$, we ...
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What exactly is antieigenvalue analysis?

I found a book in the library about antieigenvalue analysis and it is possibly the most unreadable piece of literature I have ever made an effort to understand. Unfortunately, every other resource I ...
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1answer
12 views

linear combination of matrices over finite and infinite fields

Let $F\subset K$ be the fields. Let $A_1,\ldots, A_m$ be the $n\times n$ matrices over the field $F$, and $c_1,\ldots,c_m\in K$ such that $c_1A_1+\ldots+c_mA_m$ is invertible. How to prove that for ...
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1answer
23 views

Solving 【(x^2+3x+1)^2】 by using a formula [on hold]

I know that (a+b)^2= a^2+2ab+b^2. Is there any formula to solve 【(x^2+3x+1)^2】?
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2answers
10 views

Solution set left unchanged after matrix multiplication?

If I solve $Tx=0$ where $T$ is some square matrix then if I multiply both sides by $T$ and solve for $T^2x=0$, will my x be the same? In other words if I were to multiply to both sides of the equation ...
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2answers
27 views

Orthogonal subspace of an orthogonal subspace

Let $V$ be an inner product space over $\mathbb{F}(\mathbb{C}\ or\ \mathbb{R})$, and let $W$ be a subspace of $V$. Assuming $V$ is finite-dimensional, I have proved that $(W^{\perp})^{\perp} = W$ ...
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1answer
46 views

Why is the following number always positive?

Consider two points in the Euclidean plane: $A=(A_1,A_2),B=(B_1,B_2)\in\mathbb{R}^2$, and some fixed real number $\lambda\in(0,1)$. The claim is that the following expression is always a positive ...
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1answer
25 views

The inverse of a matrix in which the sum of each row is $1$

Let $A$ be an invertible 10x10 matrix with real entries such that the sum of each row is $1$. Then choose the correct option. The sum of the entries of each row of the inverse of $A$ is $1$. The sum ...
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2answers
25 views

An invertible sparse matrix?

I'm not entirely certain about how to tackle this problem.... I hope you ladies and gents can help :) If $M\in M_{n\times n}(\mathbb{R})$ be such that every row has precisely tow non-zero entries, ...
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Show that there do not exist nonsingular matrices $P,Q ∈ M_{n×n}(F )$ satisfying $PAQ = A^T$ for all $A ∈M_{n×n}(F )$.

Let $F$ be a field and let $n$ be a positive integer. Show that there do not exist nonsingular matrices $P,Q ∈ M_{n×n}(F )$ satisfying $PAQ = A^T$ for all $A ∈M_{n×n}(F)$. (Exercise 438 from ...
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1answer
54 views

Why multiplying those 2 quaternions doesn't give the expected result?

Using a left-handed coordinate system, let Q = axisAngle({0,0,1}, 1/4*pi) * axisAngle({0,1,0}, 1/4*pi) be the quaternion representing the rotation "1/8 circle ...
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1answer
27 views

Show that any nontrivial ideal that is also a subspace of $M_{n\times n}$ over a field $F$ is maximal.

I just need to show that if $A$ is a nonzero square matrix, then I can "build" the identity matrix $I$, Then the ideal must be maximal.
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1answer
39 views

Linear Transformations in Linear Algebra

We are given: Show how to evaluate a linear transformation for a specific vector $x$ , when the transformation is defined in the form $$T(x) = y$$ We know that a linear transformation is defined as ...
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0answers
25 views

functions (on intervals) in vector spaces [on hold]

I'm studying mathematical methods for solving physics and engineering problems. I've looked in a few books and I'm curious about functions being manipulated like vectors. Question: What should I ...
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1answer
31 views

Solving System of Equations modulo a prime

Consider the equation: $$ C \equiv HMH^{-1} \pmod{p}, $$ where $C,M, H$ are, say, $2\times 2$ matrices, and $p$ is an odd prime. The elements of the matrices $C, M$ are integers. The elements ...
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37 views

Prove a matrix is non-negative. [on hold]

Let $\textbf{r}_1$ and $\textbf{r}_2$ be $n \times n$ symmetric, diagonally dominant, Metzler matrix with eigenvalue $\max(|\lambda_i|)<1$ for both $\textbf{r}_1$ and $\textbf{r}_2$. Let ...
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9 views

Comparison between interpolation and Tikhonov regularization.

Interpolation is defined as finding a value of a function between two points and one can think of Tikhonov regularization as to estimate a suitable function under certain condition. Can we think ...
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1answer
24 views

Eigenvectors times diagonal matrix, still eigenvectors?

Suppose we have a $n\times n$ real symmetric positive definite matrix $\Sigma$, and $V=(v_1,...,v_n)$ whose columns are the eigenvectors corresponding to the $n$ eigenvalues $\lambda_1\geq \lambda_2 ...
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0answers
11 views

QR and Cholesky decomposition

A while ago I asked for help to develop a polynomial regression model using least squares, where the system was solved by cholesky decomposition, you can check it here Cholesky Polynomial Regression ...
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1answer
27 views

Singular matrix with entries in a ring. [duplicate]

Given a matrix $M\in A^{n\times n}$, where $A$ is a commutative ring different from $\{0\}$, then we know that if there exists a vector $x\in A^n$ such that $Mx=0$, then $\det M$ must be a zero ...
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0answers
19 views

Isomorphism among quotient algebras [on hold]

Let we have two different quotient algebras $ A/B$ and $M/N$ such that $B$ and $N$ are nilpotent ideals of $ A$ and $M$. I want to define an isomorphism $ \phi: A/B \to M/N$.Can you help me how I ...
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1answer
37 views

Need a formula / method to get a value between 0 and 1 if a point lies in an area between two rectangles

I'm trying to figure out a way to construct a formula or method for the following process: If Point E is inside the smaller rectangle (red area), the value should be 1. If Point E is outside the ...
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0answers
23 views

Proof that $\text{span} \{v_1,…,v_k\} \cap \text{ker}(T) = \{0\}$ if $\{v_1,…,v_k\}$ are vectors in general linear position.

The problem set up is as follows: Let $\omega^{(i)} \in \mathbb{R}^n$, for $i=1,2,...,k$, $k \le n$, be i.i.d. random vectors (whose distribution is irrelevant). Also, let $A \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times ...
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0answers
28 views

Orthogonal projection af a $5\times3$ matrix onto a subspace spanned by two of its vectors.

As a part of a data analysis exercises I need to project a matrix that contains $5$ observations of $3$ variables onto a plane spanned by two of those variables. I can't really imagine this. What is ...
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1answer
61 views

Proving that every vector space has a norm.

I am trying to prove that every vector space $X$ has a norm. I have some silly questions, but it's better to ask them now instead of later. I think I'm having a bit of trouble getting intuition about ...
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2answers
19 views

Complex inner product linearity

Let $V$ be an inner product space over $\mathbb{C}$. Is the expression $$ \newcommand{\<}{\langle} \newcommand{\>}{\rangle} \<v,\lambda u\> = \bar{\lambda}\<v,u\> = ...
4
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1answer
31 views

$\overline{\mathrm{Im} (T^*T)} = \overline{\mathrm{Im} T^*}$

I need to prove that in a Hilbert space, $\overline{\mathrm{Im}(T^*T)} = \overline{\mathrm{Im}T^*}$. I have already shown that $\ker (T^*) = (\mathrm{Im} T)^\perp$ and have so far concluded that ...
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Distinct eigenvalues of matrix

While studing Quantum Physics I've came to the conclusion that it would be useful to find an equivalent (or at least a sufficient) condition for a matrix (over $\mathbb{C}$) to have distinct ...
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0answers
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Linear Operators, Kernel and Orthogonal/Unitarily Diagonalization [on hold]

Could someone please help me? Here is the question: Given the linear operator $T:C^3 \rightarrow C^3$, whose standard matrix is $$ \left[ \matrix { 1&0&0 \\ x&1&0 \\ 0&1&1 ...
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3answers
37 views

Name of Jordan Canonical Form in infinite dimensions?

I tend to think of Jordan canonical form as the generalized spectrum theorem. I read it as saying, every matrix cannot be diagonalized, but they can be "jordanized". In functional, I've seen the ...
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2answers
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Subspaces dimensions in $\mathbb{R}^7$

if $U$ and $W$ are subspaces of $\mathbb{R}^7$ and $\dim U = \dim W =4$ then in $U \cap W$ there's a vector different then $0$. I think that it's true, am I correct?
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2answers
38 views

Finding eigen values and eigen vectors of the linear transformation.

I have a doubt that can we find Eigen values and eigen vectors for the linear transformation, I only know to transform linear transformation into matrix form using standard basis or any other basis ...
2
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2answers
19 views

Coordinate vector equation

I have the following bases which are bases of $\mathbb{R}^3$ $$B = ((1,1,1), (0,1,1), (0,0,1))$$ $$C = ((1,2,3), (-1,0,1), (1,0,1))$$ I need to find if this equation is correct $$[(1,2,3)]_B = ...
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1answer
20 views

using matrix with cos/sin etc.

I need to check if the equation is linear independent so: $$ \alpha x^2 \cos x + \beta x + \gamma \sin x = 0 $$ I got 3 equations of it: $$\beta \pi/2 + \gamma = 0$$ $$\alpha \pi^2(-1) + \beta \pi = ...
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2answers
41 views

If I have a matrix M=[A,B;0,C], how do I prove that rank(A)+rank(C)<=rank(M)?

. . . . . . . A . . B . . . . . . . 0 0 0 . . . 0 . 0 . C . 0 0 0 . . . If I have a matrix $M$ as displayed in the text above ($A$ ...
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7answers
829 views

What is the idea behind a projection operator? What does it do?

I know what a projection operator is, but I am unable to explain it in words without using mathematical symbols. Can anyone help me? I don't need examples or the definition - I want to know why and ...
5
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2answers
217 views

Fourier Transform: Understanding change of basis property with ideas from linear algebra

The notion of Fourier transform was always a little bit mysterious to me and recently I was introduced to functional analysis. I am a beginner in this field but still I am almost seeing that the ...