Linear algebra is concerned with vector spaces of all dimensions and linear transformations between them, including systems of linear equations, bases, dimensions, subspaces, matrices, determinants, traces, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization, Jordan forms, etc. For questions specifically ...

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Domain of compostions of linear mappings

Let $T$ be a linear transformation from $\Bbb R^3$ into $\Bbb R^2$ and $S$ be a linear transformation from $\Bbb R^2$ into $\Bbb R^3$. Is the mapping $ST$ a linear transformation from $\Bbb R^3$ into ...
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Maps that preserve tensor rank

Suppose we have some tensor product of vector spaces. By tensor rank, I mean the minimal number of simple tensors required to write down an element of this tensor product of spaces. Is there much ...
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Dont ask - What is the relation between $f$ and $f(x)$?

$f = a.g + b.h$, space $V$ $f(x) = a.g(x) + b.h(x)$ $f$, $g$ and $h$ are scalar valued functions. $x$ is a vector in $\Bbb R^1$ and $f$ is a vector in $V$. So $[f(x)]$ is a vector. is $[f(x)] (f) ...
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33 views

How do you solve this circular system of equations in $\mathbb{Z}_2$?

I'm trying to solve a system of equations in $\mathbb{Z}_2$ that look like this: \begin{align} x_1 + x_2 = p_1 \\ x_2 + x_3 = p_2 \\ x_3 + x_4 = p_3 \\ ... \\ x_n + x_1 = p_n \\ \end{align} I know ...
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2answers
10 views

How to find matrix of orthogonal projection from gram-schmidt orthogonalization

I'm having a little difficulty understanding Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. I have a problem to apply Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization to the system of vectors $(1,1,1)^T, (1,2,1)^T$ then write the ...
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1answer
8 views

Showing something involving integrals is an inner product

I have this problem: Let $C([0,1])$ be the real vector space of continuous functions on the interval [0,1]. Show that $<. , .>: C([0,1]) \times C([0,1]) \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ ...
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1answer
10 views

What the limit of a matrix over time shows about the future

$x_k$ is the fraction of people who prefer cake to pie at year $k$. The remaining fraction $y_k=1-x_k$ prefer pie. At year $k+1$, $\frac{1}{5}$ of those who prefer cake change their mind. Also at year ...
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2answers
29 views

Matrix with eigenvalue that should equal 1.

I have the matrix: $$A = \begin{bmatrix}4 & -2 & 3\\0 & -1 & 3\\-1 & 2 & -2 \end{bmatrix}$$ and I need to find out if $\lambda = 1$ is an eigenvalue. So I solved the equation ...
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16 views

A thought about transition matricies in vector spaces

I am trying to work out the relationship between transformation matricies of a vector space with different bases. I came up with an equation which does not look right, but I would like your opinion. ...
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4answers
39 views

A real $2 \times 2 $ matrix $M$ such that $M^2 = \tiny \begin{pmatrix} -1&0 \\ 0&-1-\epsilon \\ \end{pmatrix}$ , then :

A real $2 \times 2 $ matrix $M$ such that $$M^2 = \begin{pmatrix} -1&0 \\ 0&-1-\epsilon \\ \end{pmatrix}$$ (a) exists for all $\epsilon > 0$. (b) does not exist for any ...
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How can I translate this problem into Matrix/Linear Algebra notation?

I have a matrix H of size s×d with holdings of s stocks across d days. H shows how many shares of each stock is in my portfolio on each day. The number of shares can change from day to day due to ...
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8 views

Congruence Property of Monotone Operators

Let $A$ be an $m\times n$ matrix and $b\in\mathbb R^m$. I want to prove that if $T:\mathbb R^n\rightrightarrows\mathbb R^m$ is strictly monotone and $\text{rank}\;A=n$, then $S:=A^TT(Ax+b)$ is also ...
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1answer
16 views

Finding orthonormal basis using orthogonal basis

I am very confused how to go about finding an orthonormal basis using a orthogonal basis. My book says to just normalize the vectors but it doesnt further explain. When i look at answers for ...
2
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1answer
23 views

How can I prove that any matrix A can be expressed as the sum of two Hermitian matrices , B and C, in the form A = B + iC?

The question is in the title really. Whether or not A must also be Hermitian is not clear to me. Sorry, I am not very good with proofs of this nature.
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1answer
20 views

Proving multilinearity of determinant [on hold]

As the title says, how we can prove multilinearity property of determinants: $$ \begin{vmatrix} p+q+r & x+y+z & u+v+w \\ a_{21} & a_{22} & a_{23} \\ a_{31} & a_{32} & a_{33}\\ ...
2
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1answer
33 views

Characteristic polynomial of a matrix polynomial

Thanks for any help or comments. Suppose $A\in M_n(F)$ is an $n\times n$ matrix such that $F$ is a finite field. Also suppose that characteristic polyomial of $A$ is irreducible and is equal to its ...
2
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1answer
29 views

If $A$ is positive definite then so is $A^k$

Prove that if $A$ is positive definite, then so are $A^2,A^3,\ldots$ and $A^{-1},A^{-2},\ldots$ I know how to show the inverse of positive definite is positive definite but I don't know how to expand ...
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3answers
28 views

Proving $AD_1A^{-1}=D_2$

I want to prove that if $A$ is a permutation matrix, and $D_1$ is diagonal, than $AD_1A^{-1}=D_2$ where $D_2$ is also a diagonal matrix. I have worked out that $A^{-1}=A^T$ and I can see that the ...
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1answer
13 views

linear transformation question (vector) [on hold]

Not sure how to answer this question, please help!
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1answer
22 views

Different Inverse Approach

As it is known, we use inverse (Gauss Elm, Jordan...) or pseudo-inverse methods (LU, SVD, Chol, QR...) to solve linear equation namely $ A*x=b$ when $A$ is $[m,n]$ and $b$ is $[1,n]$ matrix. These all ...
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26 views

centralizers of $X= (M_2(F_p),+)$ in $H=GL_2(F_p)$

I need to find the centralizers of $X= (M_2(F_p),+)$ in $H=GL_2(F_p)$ in order to find the action of $H$ on $X$ which will help me find the orbits of $X$ I Know that the centralizers of $M_2(F_p)$ ...
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13 views

norm of symmetric positive definite matrix

How to prove this? I tried by using the fact that positive definite matrix is diagonalizable by orthogonal matrix and it preserve two norm. But I think this way dosen`t work.
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2answers
22 views

Find a and b such that the matrix is diagonalizable

Find a and b such that the matrix $$ \left( \begin{array}{ccc} 1 & a \\ 0 & b \\ \end{array} \right) $$ is diagonalizable. I know that $$ D = S^{-1} A S $$ where S is a matrix made of the ...
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1answer
24 views

Condition of distinct eigenvectors?

I am looking at this wikipedia page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_decomposition#Eigendecomposition ...
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2answers
42 views

Vector spaces whose elements are functions

I'm trying to understand what a vector of functions is, from trying to understand how to solve linear homogeneous differential equations. It seems that functions can be manipulated as vectors as ...
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1answer
7 views

error in approximation a monotonic function in L^1

I am trying to solve this problem, but I am getting an incorrect solution. Here is the problem and my approach: Find the best $L^1$ linear approximation of $e^x$ on [0,1] i.e. minimize ...
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0answers
26 views

Linear transforms of functions [on hold]

if y is a vector; y = a.sin(x) + b.cos(x), a and b scalar then how is it that for any value of x, y is always a scalar value? Does this mean sin(x) is a vector, and sin(45) is not?
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2answers
26 views

Find value of k for distinct eigenvalues

Consider the matrix $$ A = \left( \begin{array}{ccc} 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \\ k & 3 & 0 \end{array} \right) $$ where k is an arbitrary constant. For which values of k does A ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Use determinants to calculate the area bounded by 3 vectors

I have seen the proof of why the area of the parallelogram created by 2 vectors $u = \left(\begin{matrix} u_1\\ u_2 \end{matrix}\right)$ and $v = \left(\begin{matrix}v_1 \\ v_2 \end{matrix}\right)$ ...
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1answer
30 views

Does this linear system of 5 unknowns and 2 equations have multiple solutions? [on hold]

\begin{cases} x+ 2y - z + w - t = 0 \\ x - y + z + 3w - 2t = 0 \end{cases} Add 1st to the 2nd: $$2x + y + 4w - 3t = 0 \\ y = -2x - 4w + 3t = 0$$ Substitute y in the 1st: $$x - 4x - 8w + 6t - z ...
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1answer
45 views

about derivative of a matrix and trace

I have checked it up the following derivation of a formula:" The question that I have is why the author uses the trace in the third part; supposedly it uses a formula derived from the properties of ...
4
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2answers
52 views

Suppose $\langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle_1$ and $\langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle_2$ are inner products on $V$ such that…

Suppose $\langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle_1$ and $\langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle_2$ are inner products on $V$ such that $\langle v,w\rangle_1=0$ if and only if $\langle v,w\rangle_2=0$. Prove that there is a ...
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2answers
36 views

Prove that there is an inner product on $\mathbb{R}^2$ such that the associated norm is given by…

Suppose $p>0$. Prove that there is an inner product on $\mathbb{R}^2$ such that the associated norm is given by $\|(x,y)\|=(x^p+y^p)^\frac{1}{p}$ for all $(x,y)\in\mathbb{R}^2$ if and only if ...
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1answer
18 views

Schauder basis and Eigenbases

There are several question in this site comparing different basis functions including Schauder basis and others, but I could not connect the difference between the Schauder basis and Eigenbasis ...
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0answers
16 views

A 2D smoothing convolution filter

I'm trying to find the right form of a 2D filter that will do the following to a matrix after linear convolution: Let A = [ ? ? ?] [ ? ? ?] [ ? ? ?] and B = ...
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0answers
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Inverse properties of $L_1$ normed matrices

Let's take the adjacence matrix $A$ of a graph $G$. We call $\bar{A}$ the row $L_1$ normalized matrix obtained from $A$. Let's take some $\alpha \epsilon [0,1)$. $(I-\alpha\bar{A})$ is strongly ...
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2answers
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Understanding matrix property

I am reading about matrix property from here. On page 2 of pdf (equation 2.2), it says if $A$ is a matrix and $U$ a row-echelon form of $A$ then $$|A| = (-1)^r \alpha |U| ...
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1answer
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WLOG doubt: why can we assume that two disjoint linear subspaces of dimension $n$ in $\mathbb{P}^{2n+1}$ are given by the following equations…

Let $H_1,H_2$ be two linear disjoint subspaces of dimension $n$ in $\mathbb{P}^{2n+1}$. Let $(x_0:\cdots:x_n:y_0:\cdots:y_n)$ be homogeneous coordinates in $\mathbb{P}^{2n+1}$. My question is: ...
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0answers
17 views

explicitly splitting the hamilton quaternions over local fields

For simplicity, lets first consider the hamilton quaternions $$ H = \left(\frac{-1,-1}{\mathbb{Q}}\right)$$ This is the central division algebra over $\mathbb{Q}$ with $\mathbb{Q}$-basis given by ...
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1answer
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Sum of orthogonal matrices

Consider the subspace $\mathbb{R}^m$ with usual inner product.Let $S_1$ and $S_2$ subspaces of $R^m$, $P_1\in M_m(\mathbb{R})$ the orthogonal projection matrix on $S_1$ and $P_2\in M_m(\mathbb{R})$ ...
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Linear Algebra - Straight line determined by two distinct points [on hold]

Let A and B be two distinct points em $R^3$. Prove the straight line r(A,v): $P = A + v*t$, $t \in R$, where $v = B-A$, is the only straight line which contains A and B.
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Unknown functions yield a given determinant

I am trying to develop a nomogram which simultaneously shows the exact Fisher equation $(1+u) = (1+v)(1+w)$ and its linear approximation $u \approx v + w$. This amounts to finding twelve smooth ...
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3answers
34 views

Proof of linear independence of non-empty subsets

The question states: Show that if $S = \{v_1, v_2, \ldots , v_r\}$ is a linearly independent set of vectors, then so is every non-empty subset of $S$. I understand that if $r>n$, $S$ is ...
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norm of matrix 1 [on hold]

SHOW ∥A∥1=∥AT∥∞? i dont solve.....
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3answers
102 views

How can we memorize the formula for the determinant of a $4\times4$ matrix?

This is the formula for the determinant of a $4\times4$ matrix. . 0,0 | 1,0 | 2,0 | 3,0 0,1 | 1,1 | 2,1 | 3,1 0,2 | 1,2 | 2,2 | 3,2 0,3 | 1,3 | 2,3 | 3,3 . ...
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1answer
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How to count algebraic multiplicities to show $\nexists$ an eigenbasis for $A$?

If $A=\begin{bmatrix}1&1&0\\0&1&1\\0&0&1\end{bmatrix},f_A(\lambda)=(1-\lambda)^3 \,\text{and } E_1=\text{ker ...
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3answers
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For which values of a do the following vectors form a linearly independent set in R^3

I've seen this same question, but asking for linearly dependent, not linearly independent. $$ V_1= \left(a,\, \frac{-1}{2}, \,\frac{-1}{2}\right),\;\; V_2= \left(\frac{-1}{2},\, a, ...
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Solution space of Linear homogeneous differential equation

The solution space of a L.H.D.E of order n is a vector space spanned by n base vectors, right? So any solution is then a vector of the solution space -> a linear combination of the base vectors. But ...
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Fill in the missing entries of matrix $Q$ to make it orthogonal [on hold]

I am given the following matrix $Q$: $Q=$ where $p1,p2,...,p8$ are unknowns. I need to make $Q$ into an orthogonal matrix. It occurs to me that $v1 =\{1,1,1,1\}$ and $v2=\{2,1,0,-3\}$, but I'm ...
3
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What does affine invariance mean in the context of the Newton's method?

The textbook Numerical Solution of Boundary Value Problems for Ordinary Differential Equations (by Ascher, Mattheij, and Russell) states on page 329: [W]e observe that Newton's method is affine ...