A Lie group is a group (in the sense of abstract algebra) that is also a differentiable manifold, such that the group operations (addition and inversion) are smooth, and so we can study them with differential calculus. They are a special type of topological group. Consider using with the ...

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64 views

The generators of $SO(n)$ are antisymmetric, which means there are no diagonal generators and therefore rank zero for the Lie algebra?

Okay, this may be a silly question but I can't figure it out myself right now. By definition $O \in SO(n)$ fulfils $O^T O=1$ and $\det(O)=1$. For the generators of the group $ T_a \in so(n)$, this ...
2
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0answers
41 views

Why doesn't the “naive” scalar product for $SO(n)$ yield something invariant?

By definition, for $SO(n)$ we have $g^T g=1$ for $g \in SO(n)$. Given some vector $v \in V$ and some representation $R: SO(N) \rightarrow \mathrm{Lin}(V)$, the defining condition above tells us ...
1
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1answer
31 views

Where does the ambiguity in choosing a basis for a Lie algebra come from?

This is a follow-up to this question. For matrix Lie algebras, we can define the Lie algebra $g$ of a group $G$ as the set $T_a \in g$ that yield an element of $G$ when put into the exponential map: ...
2
votes
1answer
520 views

Jacobian of exponential mapping in SO3/SE3

Following this post Jacobian matrix of the Rodrigues' formula (exponential map) What if I really need the Jacobian of the exponential mapping function in $\omega \neq 0$? Basically, I want to ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

Tangent space of quotient space

Let $\pi : M \rightarrow M/G$ be the canonical projection, where $M$ is a manifold and $M/G$ is a quotient manifold. Now, what can we say about $d \pi (p) : T_pM \rightarrow T_p(M/G)$? From my ...
4
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0answers
34 views

Basic application of Weyl-Character-Formula

(I did not find a solution of my problem in any forum so far. Sorry if it exists...) I am new to Lie-Algebras and representations and actually do not need the mathematical background... I need only ...
3
votes
1answer
27 views

Adjoint representation is Lie algebra homomorphism

Let $T_g:=L_g R_{g^{-1}}: G \rightarrow G$ be the standard automorphism of a Lie algebra, then $Ad_g:=DT_g(e): \mathfrak{g} \rightarrow \mathfrak{g} $is called the adjoint representation. Now, I want ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Lie group and stabilizer quotient

Let $G$ be a Lie group and $$G_x:=\{g \in G; Ad^*_g(x)=x\}$$ the stabilizer, where $Ad_g^*$ is the adjoint of the adjoint representation. Now, I was wondering why $G/G_x$ has a manifold structure. ...
2
votes
0answers
42 views

Dual space isomorphism and the dual representation

Let $V$ be a complex finite-dimensional vector space. Then there always exists an isomorphism $V \simeq V^*$, where $V^*$ is the dual space. The isomorphism can be fixed by choosing a non-degenerate ...
1
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1answer
47 views

Orbits form a manifold?

A prominent example are the coadjoint orbits $O_x = \{Ad_u^*(x);u \in G\}$ where $x \in \mathfrak{g}$ and $G$ a Lie group with Adjoint map $Ad.$ Could anybody give me an easy argument why $O_x$ is a ...
1
vote
1answer
15 views

Lifting a principal G-bundle to a principal bundle with structure group a covering of G

Let $P\to $ be a principal $G$-bundle. Suppose $U$ covers $G$. What do we mean by a lift of $P$ with respect to $U$? Can we take $P,M,G,U$ such that no lift exists?
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0answers
9 views

Stabilizer subgroup in adjoint action

Given $b \in \mathfrak{su}(n)$, how can I find the stabilizer $\text{stab}(b)$ for the adjoint action of $SU(n)$ on $\mathfrak{su}(n)$ given by $Ad_U(b) = UbU^{\dagger}$ without using coordinates? The ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Tangent space of coadjoint orbit

Let $\xi \in T_xOx$ be a tangent vector at $x \in O_x :=\{\mathrm{ Ad} _{u}^*(x); u \in G\}$ for $x \in g^*.$ ($g$ is the Lie-Algebra) Then I read that this $\xi$ can be represented as the velocity ...
0
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0answers
35 views

Exponential map only for matrix Lie algebras?

Recently, I stumbled over some proofs in Lie algebra theory and noticed that they often use the notion of an exponential map $e^{t \zeta}$ for $\zeta \in \mathfrak{g}$ such that $e^{t \zeta} \in G$ ...
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0answers
31 views

What do you get when you pull the Bruhat Decomposition back to the Lie algebra via the exponential map?

If $G$ is a connected, reductive, complex group with Borel subgroup $B < G$ and Weyl group $W$, we can write $$G = \bigsqcup_{w \in W} B w B$$ If $\mathfrak{g}$ is the Lie algebra of $G$, we have ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Stabilizer subgroup of adjoint action

Given $b \in \mathfrak{su}(n)$, how can I find the stabilizer $\text{stab}(b)$ for the adjoint action of $SU(n)$ on $\mathfrak{su}(n)$ given by $Ad_U(b) = UbU^{\dagger}$ without using coordinates? The ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Tangent vectors to coadjoint orbits

Let $O_x:=\{Ad^*_g (x); g \in G\}$ be the orbit of $x \in \mathfrak{g}^*$ and $Ad$ the adjoint map. Now take $\xi \in \mathfrak{g}$ then $g(t):=Ad^*_{e^{t \xi}}(x)$ defines a map $g: I \rightarrow ...
-2
votes
1answer
48 views

topic between algebra and geometry [closed]

I have to do an exam on Differential Geometry and my teacher wants that I prepare a choosen topic, outside lectures program, that I will talk about at the oral part of the exam. I am interested in ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Killing form - strange definition

I was just reading about Killing forms. In my opinion, the definition of these forms is quite strange. I mean why would one define $B(X,Y) = \mathrm{tr} (\mathrm{ad} (X) \circ \mathrm{ad} (Y))$? I ...
1
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1answer
24 views

Lie algebra of affine linear maps

Let $G$ be the Lie group of affine transformations, $$\{x \mapsto Ax+b,A \in GL(n), b \in \mathbb{R}^n\}.$$ We can represent these maps as matrices $$\begin{pmatrix} A & b \\ 0 & 1 ...
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votes
0answers
13 views

Extending orthogonal representation of $SU_2$ to $U_2$

Let $\phi: SU_2 \rightarrow SO_3(\mathbb{R})$ be the orthogonal representation of $SU_2$, obtained by letting $SU_2$ act on the three-dimensional vector space of trace-zero skew-hermitian matrices. ...
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votes
0answers
17 views

Lie algebra affine transformations [duplicate]

Let $G$ be the Lie group of affine transformations $$\{x \mapsto Ax+b,A \in GL(n), b \in \mathbb{R}^n\}.$$ Then we can represent these maps as matrices $\begin{pmatrix} A & b \\ 0 & 1 ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Adjoint and coadjoint orbits

I just read that for the Lie algebras $\mathfrak{gl}(N),\mathfrak{sl}(N),\mathfrak{so}(N),\mathfrak{sp}(2N)$ the adjoint and coadjoint orbits coincide. Now, the adjoint orbits are $O_{\xi} = ...
3
votes
1answer
33 views

Level set as the orbit of the action of a Lie Group?

I'm wondering the following. Given a smooth function $f:\mathbb R^n\rightarrow \mathbb R^m$ with $m<n$ and level sets $\mathcal O(y)=\{x\in\mathbb R^n| f(x)=y \}$. What are the conditions on $f$ ...
2
votes
2answers
41 views

Connected Lie group is second countable?

I know this is true from various sources, unfortunately none of them give the full proof. I already have a start: Let $G$ be connected Lie Group. Choose $K$ to be any compact neighbourhood of the ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Do we have $\mathbb{C}[SL_n] = \oplus_{\lambda, \text{ht}(\lambda)\leq n} V_{\lambda} $?

The coordinate algebra $\mathbb{C}[SL_n]=\mathbb{C}[x_{ij}: i, j \in \{1, \ldots, n\}]/(\det(x_{ij}) - 1)$ is a representation of $SL_n$: $(g'.f)(g)=f(g'^T g)$. Let $V_{\lambda} = \langle e_T : T ...
3
votes
1answer
151 views

Lie theory for physicists

As an undergraduate on physics seeking a solid education on mathematics, I have recently stumbled upon some theories that make use of the formalism of Lie groups and Lie algebras. In light of this, I ...
2
votes
2answers
185 views

Quotient spaces $SO(3)/SO(2)$ and $SO(3)/O(2)$

I have a question similar to this one, but that question is not answered. The question is to show that $SO(3)/SO(2)$ is isomorphic to the 2-sphere: $$ SO(3)/SO(2)\cong S^2 $$ How does one establish ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Proving that Lie groups are parallellizable

Let $G$ be a Lie group. There is a diffeomorphism $$G \times T_e G \to TG$$ mapping $(g, [\gamma]) \mapsto [g \cdot \gamma]$. The inverse map then gives rise to the following isomorphism of bundles: ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Why $exp(0_{T_eG})=e$, where $exp$ is the exponential map of a Lie group?

I wonder if this fact is true: I consider the exponential map of a Lie group $G$. $$exp: \mathfrak{g} \rightarrow G.$$ Is it true that $exp(0_{T_eG})=e$, where $e$ is the identity element of $G$? ...
2
votes
3answers
46 views

Group actions on manifolds - exponential map

Let $M$ be a smooth manifold. Suppose $K$ is a Lie group (with Lie algebra $\mathfrak{k}$) acting EDIT: TRANSITIVELY on $M$ from the left and $G$ is a Lie group (with Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$) ...
5
votes
1answer
67 views

Invariant subspaces of Lie group vs invariant subspaces of Lie algebra

I am starting to study infinite-dimensional representations of Lie groups and I am wondering about the following: Let $G$ be a connected Lie group with Lie algebra $\mathfrak g$ and with a ...
0
votes
3answers
124 views

How to show a matrix can't be written as exponential?

How can I show the matrix $$A = \left( \begin{array}{c c} -2 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \\ \end{array} \right)$$ can't be written as $A = exp(a)$? I've tried to write A like $$A = \left( ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Transitive group actions on Principal bundles

I have a question in regards to page 107 of Kobayashi & Nomizu's Foundations of Differential Geometry Setup: Let $\pi:P\rightarrow M$ be a principal bundle with structure group $G$ whose Lie ...
4
votes
0answers
30 views

Understanding $G_2$ inside Spin(7)?

This is a rather embarrassing question, so please let me know of any duplication and I will happily remove it. I am seeking to understand the $\mathbb Q$-split form of the algebraic group $G_2$, and ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Branching rules without previous knowledge of the projection matrix?

Given a representation $R$ of some group $G$ one can find in many books and papers (e.g. page 96ff here) the decomposition under certain subgroups: $$ R= R_1 + R_2 + \ldots$$ This is often called a ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Left-Invariant Vector Field of a Lie Group

How do I tell if a vector field on a Lie Group is left-invariant? I have the technical definition. But, I want to understand given a specific vector field what should I do to test if it is ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Determine the exponential map of the direct product of two Lie groups.

I know that the direct product of two Lie groups $G$ and $H$ is a Lie group. Knowing the exponential map of $G$ and $H$, I would like to find an expression for the exponential map of $G \times H$. ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Inner Automorphism of Lie algebras in Terms of Roots and Weights?

An automorphism is a homomorphism of a group $G$ onto itself. For Lie groups this induces a Lie algebra $g$ automorphism, i.e. a map of the Lie alegbra onto itself that preserves the Lie bracket. An ...
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0answers
66 views

Orbit of a Weight Vector?

Given some element $\phi$ of a representation $R$ of a group $G$, the orbit $G(\phi)$ of $\phi$ is defined as the set $g \phi \ \forall \ g \in G$. We can write every element of a given ...
4
votes
1answer
86 views

How to see that SL(2,C) is simply connected?

I started reading about Lie groups and right now I'm trying understand why $SL(2,\mathbb{C})$ is simply connected. I have shown that $SU(2)$, being diffeomorphic to $S^3$, is simply connected. So my ...
1
vote
1answer
394 views

Map from $SL(2,\mathbb C)/SU(2)$ to $SL(2,\mathbb C)$

I am trying to write a map $s$, such that $s: SL(2,\mathbb{C})/SU(2) \to SL(2,\mathbb C)$. Using Iwasawa decomposition, I see that any element $g$ in $SL(2,\mathbb{C})$ can be written as $g = su$, ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Anyone know a good standard reference for Lie group and Lie algebra facts?

I'm writing something and I need to refer to a mathematical fact; unfortunately I got it from Wikipedia, which does not source the specific piece of info! It relates to a choice of simple roots for ...
4
votes
2answers
44 views

Questions about fundamental representations of $SL_3/U$.

Consider the group $SL_3$. Let $U$ be the subgroup of $SL_3$ consisting of all upper triangular unipotent matrices. Then the algebra $\mathbb{C}[SL_3/U]$ is generated by $a_{11}, a_{21}, a_{31}, ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

How to understand that minors are matrix elements in fundamental representations of $SL_n$?

In the video, Lecture 3 of June 14, 49:00-53:00, it is said that "minors are matrix elements in fundamental representations of $SL_n$". What are fundamental representations of $SL_n$? How to ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Is the coset space $\frac{SO(3)\times Z_2}{H \times Z_2}$ isomorphic to $\frac{SO(3)}{H}$?

I have heard many times that the homotopy group of the coset space $\frac{SO(3)\times Z_2}{H \times Z_2}$ and of the space $\frac{SO(3)}{H}$ are identical. I.e., $\frac{SO(3) \times Z_2}{H \times Z_2} ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

Solving $\lambda U^{\dagger}V -\bar{\lambda} V^{\dagger}U = A$

Given an arbitrary $A \in \mathfrak{su}(n)$, is it always possible to solve for $U,V \in SU(n)$ and $\lambda \in \mathbb{C}$ such that $\lambda U^{\dagger}V -\bar{\lambda} V^{\dagger}U = A$? Update: ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Transitive Lie group actions and surjectivity of maps

I am reading a paper at the moment and I have come across two statements which I want to understand. Here is the setup: Suppose that $G$ is a Lie group which acts on a manifold $E$ differentiably and ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

Automorphism group of a lie algebra as a lie subgroup of $GL(\frak g)$

Let $G$ be a lie group with lie algebra $\frak{g}$. Let $Aut(\frak g)$ be the automorphism group of $\frak{g}$. Its clear to me that $Aut(\frak{g})$ $\subset GL(\frak{g})$ since any automorphism of ...
0
votes
2answers
305 views

Is there a general expression for the adjoint representation of $U(N)$ or $u(N)$?

At least for low values of $N$ like $2$ or $3$ and such I would like to know if there are explicit matrices known giving the representation of $u(N)$ or $U(N)$ in the adjoint? (..a related query: ...