A Lie group is a group (in the sense of abstract algebra) that is also a differentiable manifold, such that the group operations (addition and inversion) are smooth, and so we can study them with differential calculus. They are a special type of topological group. Consider using with the ...

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206 views

Orbits of $SL(3, \mathbb{C})/B$

Let $B= \Bigg\{\begin{bmatrix} * & *&* \\ 0 & *&*\\ 0&0&* \end{bmatrix} \Bigg\}< SL(3,\mathbb C)$. What is $SL(3,\mathbb C)/B$? Do we use these facts: Borel fixed ...
4
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1answer
181 views

How to write down the pull back of a differential form by exponential map?

The exponential map $e_{m}: M(n,\mathbb{R})\rightarrow M(n,\mathbb{R})$ is defined by $$e_m(\alpha)=me^\alpha,\quad e^\alpha=1+\alpha+\frac{\alpha^2}{2}+\frac{\alpha^3}{3!}+\cdots$$ Now fix $q\in ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

Is Heisenberg group Euclidean?

I'm reading an article speaking about Heisenberg group $\mathbb H^n$ and some of its properties. Now, I have some questions to ask, hoping to be clear enought. Reading the introduction I've ...
3
votes
1answer
79 views

The Plate Trick and $SO(3)$

This is a followup of sorts to Plate trick demonstrating SO(3) not simply connected. . Suppose I do the ``plate trick'' to demonstrate the existence of an order-2 element in $\pi_1(SO(3))$. That is, ...
3
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1answer
218 views

How does Maurer-Cartan form work

I have seen similar post asking for interpretation of the Maurer-Cartan form, but I am still struggling to understand it, so let me try to work a specific example and pose a specific question. Let ...
3
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0answers
123 views

Why are Lie Groups so “rigid”?

This is probably a naive question, but here goes. To motivate my question, I'll consider a unit circle in $\mathbb C$ or $\mathbb R^2$. This is a compact Lie group equipped with the usual exponential ...
3
votes
1answer
358 views

Complete reducibility of sl(3,F) as an sl(2,F)-module

I was reading the Weyl's theorem on the complete reducibility of a finite dimensional representation of semi-simple Lie algerba and wanted to apply the theorem to the following problem which was ...
2
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1answer
171 views

Weyl group, permutation group

Let $U(n)$ be the unitary group and $T$ its maximal torus (group of diagonal matrix) and $N(T)$ the normalizer of $T$ in $G$. Why $N(T)/T$ is the permutation group $S_{n}$?
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What are elements in $SU(1, 1)$?

I am reading some papers in physics. I don't know some notations in those papers. For example, $SU(1, 1)$, $U(1)$. I think these are Lie groups which consist of matrices. But I don't know what kind of ...
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0answers
51 views

Exact sequences of $1 \to A \to SU(N) \to B \to 1$, special unitary group

Inspired by the nice post, I am particularly looking into the exact sequences of SU(N), but I will like to loosen the conditions of the previous post, Q1. $$1 \to A \to SU(N) \to B \to 1$$ where ...
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1answer
219 views

Are there any good ways to see the universal cover of $GL^{+}(2,\mathbb{R})$?

Are there any good ways to see the universal cover of $GL^{+}(2,\mathbb{R})$? Here $GL^{+}(2,\mathbb{R})$ stands for the identity component of $GL(2,\mathbb{R})$, i.e. positive determinant matrices. I ...
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0answers
36 views

Question about a notation.

I have a question about the notation in the paper. On page 8, the 3-rd line from bottom, it is said that $h_J(t)$ is the corresponding diagonal matrix in $GL_4$. I think that $J$ is some set such that ...
11
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1answer
437 views

Proof that Lie group with finite centre is compact if and only if its Killing form is negative definite

I am gathering material for an exposition on Lie theory and I am after proofs that a Lie group with finite centre is compact if and only if its Killing form is negative definite. I know of one, ...
6
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1answer
89 views

Looking for a non trivial homomorphism I

Is there a non trivial homomorphism $f: SU(2) \to O(2)$? Is there a concrete description of $Hom(SU(2), O(2))$?
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1answer
91 views

If a connected Lie group is divisible, is its exponential map surjective?

A group $G$ is divisible if for all $g \in G$ and $k \in \mathbb{Z}_+$ there is an element $h \in G$ such that $h^k = g$; we call such an $h$ a $k$th root of $g$. In an answer to a recent question ...
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3answers
252 views

Prove where exp: Skew($3\times 3$) $\rightarrow SO(3)$ is local homeomorphism

The matrix exponential on skew-symmetric $3\times3$ matrices onto $SO(3)$ is not local homeomorphism everywhere. I have been instructed that one problem is with the spheres of radius $2n\pi$ ...
6
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2answers
425 views

Universal Covering Group of $SO(1,3)^{\uparrow}$

I'm trying to prove that $SL(2,\mathbb{C})$ is the universal covering group for the proper orthochronous Lorentz group $SO(1,3)^{\uparrow}$. The standard way goes as follows. (1) Exhibit a real ...
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1answer
106 views

Exponential of a polynomial of the differential operator

Given that $$\exp(aD)f(x)=f(x+a)$$ where $\exp(D)$ is the exponential of the differential operator $D$, is there a similar closed-form, general expression for $\exp(g(D))f(x)$, where $g(D)$ is a ...
5
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1answer
329 views

Whether matrix exponential from skew-symmetric 3x3 matrices to SO(3) is local homeomorphism?

$SO(3)$ denotes 3x3 rotation matrices. This is Lie group, with corresponding Lie algebra being $\mathrm{Skew}_3$, the space of 3x3 skew-symmetric matrices. The link between them is the matrix ...
5
votes
1answer
374 views

Matrix Exponential does not map open balls to open balls?

Consider the following theorem from Hall's Lie Groups, Lie Algebras and Representations: Theorem 2.27: For $0 < \varepsilon < \textrm{ln} 2$, let $U_\varepsilon = \{X \in M_n(\Bbb{C}) | ...
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votes
1answer
145 views

Almost all subgroups of a Lie group are free

I am currently reading this paper by Epstein. I need help with understanding the proof. Specifically, I have the following two questions. Let $w\colon G\to H$ be an analytic mapping between ...
4
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2answers
210 views

List of connected Lie subgroups of $\mathrm{SL}(2,\mathbb{C})$.

I am not familiar with the theory of Lie groups, so I am having a hard time finding all the connected closed real Lie subgroups of $\mathrm{SL}(2, \mathbb{C})$ up to conjugation. One can find the ...
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2answers
268 views

free subgroups of $SL(2,\mathbb{R})$

In the example section of the wikipedia article on the the Ping Pong lemma, you can see how to construct a free subgroup of $SL(2,\mathbb{R})$ with two generators $$ a_1 = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 2 ...
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1answer
115 views

Some questions about $S^n$

I have some questions about the $n$-sphere: I know that for $n=0,1,3$, $S^n$ forms a Lie group and I also know why it's true, but why is it not the case for other $n$? I have the same question for ...
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0answers
440 views

Weyl Character formula applied to Sp$(4,\mathbb{C})\cap$ U$(4)$.

I posted a question a short while ago on this but got no response. I have worked on this more and so now have a more specific question. To start with we work with the $\mathbb{Q}$ version of ...
4
votes
1answer
389 views

How to obtain a Lie group from a Lie algebra

Please pardon me, if the question is too simple. How can we obtain a Lie group form a given Lie algebra (say in 3 dimension) in practise? Can someone illustrate it in 3 dimension? Is there a ...
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votes
3answers
330 views

Differential of the inversion of Lie group [duplicate]

Let $G$ be a Lie group and $\iota \colon G\to G$ denote the inversion. If $e$ is the identity of $G$, prove that: $$\text d \iota _e = -\text {id} _{T_e G}.$$ I understand that the differential at $e$ ...
3
votes
5answers
280 views

Itzykson-Zuber integral over orthogonal groups

I would like to know is there a closed form expression for the following Itzykson-Zuber integral for the orthogonal case. $I=\int_{\mathcal{O}(p)} ...
3
votes
1answer
851 views

Jacobian of exponential mapping in SO3/SE3

Following this post Jacobian matrix of the Rodrigues' formula (exponential map) What if I really need the Jacobian of the exponential mapping function in $\omega \neq 0$? Basically, I want to ...
3
votes
1answer
162 views

Subgroups of $SO(4)$ with free transitive action on $S^3$

By considering $S^3$ as the group manifold of $SU(2)$, the ordinary action of $SO(4)$ on the three sphere can be written as the $SU(2)\times SU(2)/\mathbb{Z}_2$ given by the group action of ...
3
votes
1answer
157 views

Spinor Mapping is Surjective

I'm (still) trying to prove that $SL(2,\mathbb{C})$ is the universal covering group the the proper orthochronous Lorentz group $L$. I have completed the following steps. (1) Prove that the vector ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

The complex structure of a complex torus

A complex torus $X$ of complex dimension $1$ is just a quotient of $\mathbb{C}$ by a lattice $\Lambda=\mathbb{Z}\oplus \tau\mathbb{Z}$ where $\tau=a+ib$ is a complex number with $b>0$. The complex ...
2
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1answer
76 views

Are the physics and math definitions of a complex representation equivalent?

I was astonished to read at Wikipedia that The term complex representation has slightly different meanings in mathematics and physics. In mathematics, a complex representation is a group ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

An short exact sequence of $\mathfrak{g}$ of which head and tail are in category $\mathcal{O}$.

Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be a finite-dimensional, semisimple Lie algebra over $\mathbb{C}$. Let $$ 0\rightarrow X \rightarrow Y \rightarrow Z \rightarrow 0 $$ be a short exact sequence of ...
2
votes
2answers
117 views

SO(n) is parallelizable

Prove that $SO(n)$ is parallelizable. How would I go about showing this? My supervisor could not help me with this problem, and I am stumped.
2
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2answers
165 views

Unitary group and unit circle

Let $U(n)$ denote the group of complex unitary matrices, let $S^1$ be the unit circle in the complex plane. Then the map $$f:U(n)\to S^1,\quad f(A)=det(A)$$ is a group homomorphism and a submersion. ...
2
votes
1answer
463 views

A general element of U(2)

The group U(2) is the group of all $2\times 2$ matrices such that $U^\dagger U=I$. Evidently it has $4$ real parameters, and can be represented as: $$ U(2) = \{\begin{bmatrix}a&b\\ 0&d ...
2
votes
1answer
241 views

How to prove the space of orbits is a Hausdorff space

Let $M$ be a connected smooth n-dimensional manifold and $G$ a lie group acting smoothly on $M$. for $x\in M$, the orbit $G\cdot x=\{g(x)\mid g\in G\} $ is a sub-manifold of $M$ and if the action is ...
2
votes
1answer
107 views

$SL(3,\mathbb{C})$ acting on Complex Polynomials of $3$ variables of degree $2$

So I'm given the following definition: $h(g)p(z)=p(g^{-1}z)$ where g is an element of $SL(3,\mathbb{C})$, $p$ is in the vector space of homogenous complex polynomials of $3$ variables and $z$ is in ...
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2answers
176 views

Are there algebraic subgroups of Lie groups which happen to be Lie groups on their own but not Lie subgroups?

Let $G$ and $H$ be Lie groups and $i:H\to G$ an injective group homomorphism, not necessarily continuous. Once $i$ is continuous, it follows easily that $i$ is differentiable and even an immersion. ...
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1answer
44 views

Group of isometries is closed in $GL_{n+1}$

I solved the following exercise. Could someone please check my work? Prove that $\operatorname{Isom_n}{\mathbb R^n}$ is a matrix group. Is it compact? My work: We recall that ...
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vote
2answers
268 views

Help with a proof that SO(n) is path-connected.

I've found lots of different proofs that SO(n) is path connected, but I'm trying to understand one I found on Stillwell's book "Naive Lie Theory". It's fairly informal and talks about paths in a very ...
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0answers
49 views

How do non-semisimple modules over $\mathbb C\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb C)$ look like?

[Separated from another question] Can you give an example of a non-semisimple module over $\mathbb C\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb C)$? (Preferably one without direct summands, i.e. an indecomposable module) ...
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1answer
272 views

Dimension of Lie algebra according to root system

I was wondering how is it possible to find the dimension of a semi-simple lie algebra $L$ if its corresponding root system is (lets make it simple) of type $B_2$. We can find the number of roots and ...
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vote
1answer
85 views

Lie algebra 3 Dimensional with 2 Dimensional derived lie algebra #2

I read the book of Karin Erdmann and Mark Wildon: "An introduction to Lie algebras". In page 22 they say that: If $\dim (L) = 3$, $\dim (L') = 2$ then (a) $L'$ abelian and (b) $\operatorname{ad} x ...
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1answer
137 views

Weyl character formula and finding the trace.

Let $v$ be a positive integer. I have a representation $\rho_v$ of $USp(4) = \{g\in M_2(\mathbb{H})\,|\,g^{T}\bar{g}\}$, where $\mathbb{H}$ is Hamiltons quaternions. The representation $\rho_v$ has ...
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0answers
38 views

Where to the degrees of freeedom go when a complex representation becomes a real representation of a subalgebra?

As an example consider the complex $16$-dimensional representation of $\mathfrak{so}(10)$. When $\mathfrak{so}(10)$ is reduced to the subalgebra $\mathfrak{so}(9)$, the complex $16$-dimensional ...
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1answer
40 views

$SL(n,\mathbb R)$ diffeomorphic to $SO(n) \times \mathbb R^{n(n+1)/2-1}$?

Question : How to show $SL(n,\mathbb R)$ diffeomorphic to $ SO(n) \times \mathbb R^{n(n+1)/2-1}$? Also, how to show $SL(n,\mathbb C)$ diffeomorphic to $ SU(n) \times \mathbb R^{n^2-1}$? I have ...
8
votes
1answer
222 views

Can $(\Bbb{R}^2,+)$ be given the structure of a matrix Lie group?

I have an assignment problem that is coming from Brian Hall's book Lie Groups, Lie Algebras and Representations: An Elementary Introduction. Suppose $G \subseteq GL(n_1;\Bbb{C})$ and $H ...
5
votes
1answer
75 views

Characterization of Semidirect Products: Too strong assumptions?

In John Lee's book Introduction to Smooth Manifolds, there is the following Theorem. Theorem 7.35 (Characterization of Semidirect Products). Suppose $G$ is a Lie group, and $N,H\subseteq G$ are ...