For questions about Lie algebras, an algebraic structure whose main use is in studying geometric objects such as Lie groups and differentiable manifolds.

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Why do Ad(K) orbits in the $-1$ eigenspace of a Cartan decomposition intersect the Weyl chamber once?

Let $G$ be a semisimple Lie group and let $\frak p\oplus t$ be a Cartan decomposition of $\frak g$ and $K$ the connected subgroup with Lie algebra $\frak t$. Choose a maximal abelian subalgebra ...
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75 views

Differential operators on the polynomial ring

Let $A$ be a commutative algebra over complex numbers. If $a\in A$ we define $m_a$ to be a linear map which sends each $x$ to $ax$. The zero map $A\to A$ is said to be a differential operator of an ...
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52 views

Is the exponential map of GL(n,C) holomorphic?

Let $GL(n, \mathbb{C})$ be the complex general linear (Lie) group consisting of all invertible complex $n\times n$ matrices, and $gl(n,\mathbb{C})\cong C^{n^2}$ be its Lie algebra. The exponential map ...
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41 views

Exponential of a power of the differential operator

In relation to this question: Exponential of a polynomial of the differential operator Is there an expression for $\exp(aD^n)f(x)$ similar to $\exp(aD)f(x)=f(x+a)$?
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26 views

On the construction of the Verma module

My question is about the construction of Verma module of a lie algebra $L$, there is one step in the construction which I do not quite understand. Let $L=N_-\oplus H\oplus N_+$ be the triangular ...
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59 views

How to calculate the Maurer-Cartan form in the adjoint representation?

While I am reading a paper, I come across a difficulty. Here, we have a Lie group and we know its Lie algebra defined as $[G_a,G_b]=f_{ab}^{\phantom{ab}c}G_c$ with $G_a\in\mathfrak g$. Under the ...
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78 views

How to visualise the Killing form of a Lie algebra

Given a Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$, we can define its Killing form $$K(x,y) = \mathrm{Tr}(ad_x\circ ad_y)$$for $x, y\in \mathfrak g$. Whilst I understand that the Cartan decomposition $$\mathfrak g ...
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36 views

Root Space Decomp

I am reading Humphrey's intro to Lie algebra, self-teaching, and have a few questions regarding root space decomp. 1) If I understand this correctly, the toral sub algebra of L represents all ...
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36 views

Angles between adjacent roots in a reduced root system.

Let $R$ be a reduced root system. ($R$ is a finite set spanning $V$, $\alpha \in R \rightarrow -k\alpha \in R$ iff $k=1$, $s_{\alpha}(R)=R$, $s_{\alpha}(\beta)-\beta=k\alpha$ whit $k$ integer). ...
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62 views

Regular elements of a module is open and dense

Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be an algebraic Lie algebra and $V$ be a $\mathfrak{g}$-module, then for each $v\in V$, define $\mathfrak{g}^v = \{x\in\mathfrak{g}:xv = 0\}$. Let $V_{reg}$ be the set of all $v$ ...
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40 views

invariant polynomial on a lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$

This question (maybe an easy one) arose when I was reading Humphrey's book "an introduction to Lie algebra and its representations". Suppose $\mathfrak{g}$ is a complex semisimple lie algebra, $V$ ...
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67 views

Question on $\mathfrak{sl}(2,\mathbb R)$

I am confused about some facts on $SL(2,\mathbb R)$. The Lie algebra of $SL(2,\mathbb R)$ is $\mathfrak{sl}(2,\mathbb R)$. However, the map $$ \exp:\mathfrak{sl}(2,\mathbb R)\ \rightarrow ...
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Linearly independent skew symmetric complex matrices having the least eigenvalues

Question: Let $A$, $B$ be two $5 \times 5$ (or $7 \times 7$) skew-symmetric complex matrices (i.e. $A^t = -A$), and suppose that $$ \forall t,s \in \mathbb{C}, \quad M(t,s):=(tA+sB)^*(tA+sB) \text{ ...
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Does “Spherical Symmetry” as defined in General Relativity imply a Foliation of Spheres?

In Carroll's "spacetime and geometry" he defines a spherical symmetrical spacetime as a spacetime $(M,g)$ for which there exists a Lie algebra homomorphism between the Lie algebra of a subset of the ...
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42 views

Where does the name “toral” come from?

Where does the name "toral" come from in "toral subalgebra"? I know a little (very little) Lie groups theory, so I guess it could be related to a Lie group whose Lie algebra is the toral one. Is ...
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83 views

Gradient of a real-valued function on SO(3)

I have struggling with a problem of evaluating the gradient of a cost function on the Lie group of rotations: SO(3). The cost is the following: \begin{equation} ...
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46 views

set of positive roots made negative by a Weyl group element

If $w$ is a Weyl group element of a simple lie algebra and the reduced expression for $w$ is $s_{i_1}s_{i_2}...s_{i_k}$ what are the positive roots (in terms of reflections from reduced expressions of ...
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Representations of Nilpotent Lie Algebras

Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be a rational, nilpotent Lie algebra. Then its adjoint representation will consist of elements which are nilpotent matrices over rationals. But this representation generally is not ...
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46 views

A construction of $\mathfrak{e}_8$ in Fulton and Harris

In section $22.4$ of "Representation Theory: A First Course" by Fulton and Harris, the exceptional Lie algebra $\mathfrak{e}_8$ is constructed using a method of Freudenthal. For background, I will ...
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41 views

Inner automorphisms of Lie groups

I have a few questions about $Aut(G)$, when $G$ is a Lie group. It was proven by Hochschild that if $G/G_0$ is finitely generated, then $Aut(G)$ is a Lie group with at most countably many components. ...
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35 views

Is there a good list of accidental Lie algebra isomorphisms?

The Wikipedia page Exceptional isomorphisms contains some lie algebra isomorphisms. Is there a list more complete than that, especially including real algebras in low dimensions?
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Space of operators on function

Consider the following space of operators on function of $n$-variables $A= Span \{x_ix_j\ , x_i \frac{\partial}{\partial x_j} , \frac{\partial^2}{\partial x_i \partial x_j} , i,j=1,2,\cdots,n\}$. ...
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What is the Lie algebra of $G=\mathbb{R}$

The question is updated as following. 1. Let $(\Phi,L^2(R))$ be left regular representation of $\mathbb R$ given by $$ \Phi(g)f(x)=f(x-g). $$ It is unitary representation of $\mathbb R$. 2. For ...
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Skew polynomial algebra and deformation

Let $R$ be an associative unital $k$-algebra. If $\alpha \in End_k(R)$ and $\delta$ is a $\alpha$-derivation, then one can define the skew polynomial algebra $R[x; \alpha,\delta]$ by letting $ax = x ...
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41 views

A question in the proof that the weight of a finite dimensional module is W-invariant

Recently I'm reading Humphrey's book "Introduction to Lie algebra and representation theory", section 21 on the finite dimensional module of a semisimple lie algebra, and I have a question here which ...
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125 views

Invariant bilinear forms on Lie algebras

Consider a (compact) Lie group $H$ that acts on its Lie algebra $\mathfrak h$ in the usual way, $x\mapsto gxg^{-1}$ for any $x\in\mathfrak h$ and $g\in H$. Suppose we are given a real symmetric ...
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50 views

Fulton-Harris Lemma 3.35

In the proof of Lemma 3.35 in Fulton--Harris, Representation Theory, it is claimed that the identification $H(\phi^2(x),y)=H(x, \phi^2(y))$ implies that $\lambda$ is a positive real ($\phi^2$ is known ...
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46 views

Nilpotency of Lie algebra from structure constants

Consider a given set of structure constants $c_{ij}^k$ defining a (finite dimensional) Lie algebra $\mathfrak{L}$, i.e. $$[e_i,e_j] = \sum_{k=1}^N c_{i,j}^k \, e_k \qquad i,j=1,\ldots,N$$ with $N$ ...
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32 views

intuition behind basis of a root system

I am reading Lie Algebra book by James E.Humphreys. I can understand the fruitfulness of the notion of basis of a root system. But what is the intuition behind this definition, In particular the ...
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Maximal noncompact forms in classical Lie algebra?

In this short note on Lie algebra, discussing about classical Lie algebra A,B,C,D class, in page 4 after Eq.(7), on the part of B,D class of O(2n,F) and O(2n+1,F) group (or algebra?), there is a ...
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56 views

Quaternion, Dihedral groups and A-D-E classification

$\bullet$ What is the role of Quaternion group $H$ and dihedral groups $D_n$ in A-D-E classification? $\bullet$ Is Quaternion group $H$ in $A$ (special linear Lie algebra of traceless operators) or ...
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Proof of Jordan Theorem on Lie Algebra

$ L$ is semisimple Lie algebra in ${\rm gl}\ V$ where $V$ is a complex vector space. Then we have two Jordan forms $$ x=d+n,\ {\rm ad}_x = {\rm ad}_d + {\rm ad}_n\ (x\in L) $$ (cf. Theorem 9.15 in ...
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Coxeter numbers for semisimple and reductive algebraic groups

I'd like to know how to define the coxeter number for semisimple and reductive algebraic groups. I know that for a simple algebraic group $G$, we can fix a maximal torus $T\subset G$, which acts on ...
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Status of a question from Freeman Dyson's 1972 article

In a famous article, Freeman Dyson mentions an interesting relationship between the $\tau$ functions of number theory and the dimensions of finite-dimensional simple Lie algebras (section 2). He ...
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121 views

Vector fields on smooth manifolds and Lie algebras

I'm currently studying differential geometry on smooth manifolds using differential forms and I'm trying to apply it to what I have learned earlier about Lie groups, but something doesn't seem to ...
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86 views

Open questions in theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras

I am just about to finish an introductory book 'Lie groups, Lie algberas & Representations' by Brian Hall and am curious to know what are the current directions of research in this area. I learn ...
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62 views

How can I show that $\mathfrak{sl}_n(\mathbb{C})$ is a simple Lie algebra?

The question is in the title: how can I show $\mathfrak{sl}_n(\mathbb{C})$ is simple? In every book I scoured, they say $\mathfrak{sl}_n(\mathbb{C})$ is simple but they do not provide a proof! Is ...
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69 views

Complete reducibility of tensor product

Let $L$ be a Lie algebra (over a algebraically closed field, not sure if it is relevant). If $V$ and $W$ are two completely reducible $L$-modules, can anyone give a hint on how to show that $V\otimes ...
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61 views

Dynkin diagram construction

My question is how to construct the Dynkin diagrams of a semi-simple Lie group $G$, which is the product of simple Lie groups. Is it the combinaison of Dynkin diagrams of these simple Lie groups? For ...
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Example showing that the product of ideals must be the span of the commutators

I'm trying to find an example showing why, in a Lie algebra, we can't just define the product of two ideals $I$ and $J$ to be the elements of the form $[x,y]$ where $x \in I, \; y \in J$. I imagine ...
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89 views

Relationship between hyperalgebra (algebra of distributions) of an affine group scheme to its cohomology

Let G be an affine group scheme, and Dist(G) its hyperalgebra. I am wondering what is the relationship between Dist(G) and G interms of Cohomology? Is there a cohomology theory for Dist(G), if so ...
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71 views

Establishing the rank of a semisimple Lie algebra.

I am trying to understand a method for computing the rank of the $n$-dimensional real Lie algebra, $\mathfrak{g}$, of a compact, path-connected Lie group, $G$, which can be viewed in ...
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Relationship between invariants of a simple algebraic group

Let $G$ be a simple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field $k$. I believe all of the following invariants are well-defined. Besides the coxeter number, I haven't read about the others, ...
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explicit realization of irreducible representations of simple lie algebras

I know explicit realization of irreducible representations of simple lie algebra $sl_n$ when the highest weight of that representation is a fundamental weight.Is there any explicit realization of any ...
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$\mathfrak{sl}(3,F)$ is simple

Prove that $\mathfrak{sl}(3,F)$ is simple, unless $\operatorname{char}F=3$. [Use the standard basis $h_1,h_2,e_{ij}(i\neq j)$. If $I\ne 0$ is an ideal, then $I$ is the direct sum of eigenspaces for ...
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Does the Lie Bracket automatically exist?

Let $g$ be a Matrix Lie Group. The Lie Algebra of $g := Lie(g)$ is defined as $ Lie(g) = \{ \dot{\gamma}(0) | \gamma:(-\epsilon, \epsilon) \rightarrow g, \gamma \in C^1, \gamma(0) = \mathbb{I} \} $ ...
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27 views

When is $\left\{ [x,y] \mid x, y \in \mathfrak{g} \right\}$ a subspace of $\mathfrak{g}$?

Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be a lie algebra. When is $\left\{ \left[x,y\right] \mid x, y \in \mathfrak{g} \right\}$ a subspace of $\mathfrak{g}$? Is this common at all? Thanks! -Dan
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Root-subspaces are $\mathfrak{g}$-invariant

I need some help with technicalities concernig root-subspaces of nilpotent Lie algebras of operators. Let $\mathfrak{g} \subseteq \mathfrak{gl}(V)$ be nilpotent Lie algebra, $\alpha \ \colon \ ...
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33 views

Classification of 6-D Nilmanifolds

I am reading the G.Cavalcanti and M.Gualtieri's Generalized Complex Structures on Nilmanifolds. In the introduction it is said that there are 34 nilpotent lie algebra isomorphism classes. There are ...
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Prove that $[L,Rad(L)] \subseteq N$ for finite-dimensional Lie algebra $L$

I need to prove the following fact: if $L$ is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over field of characteristic $0$, $Rad(L)$ is its radical, and $N$ is the maximal nilpotent ideal in $L$, then ...