For questions on knot theory, the study of mathematical knots

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Where I can find the proof that- for every knot there is a Conway Notation?

At the end of The Knot Book - Collin Adams there is a list of knots. He has given a Conway Notation for each of those knots, from which I have assumed that every knot has a Conway Notation. Or for ...
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1answer
37 views

Which notation unambigously describes a knot?

For a chiral knot the Dowker notations for the knot and it's mirror image are the same. So the Dowker notation does not convey the information of chirality. I am wondering is there any notation that ...
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2answers
74 views

Which two knots are isotopic but not ambient isotopic?

Which two knots are isotopic but not ambient isotopic? How can we see that they are indeed not isotopic but not ambient isotopic?
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Mistake in the definitions of the linking number.

I am looking into the definition of the linking number. I've considered these two definitions. Consider a link $L$ with components $K_1$ and $K_2$, and respectively their embeddings $\gamma_1$ and ...
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70 views

Twisted nail puzzle framed in terms of algebraic topology?

See here for a description of the puzzle: Twisted Nail Puzzle. My question is, can someone provide a description of the puzzle and its solution in context of the language of algebraic topology?
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1answer
92 views

Definition by degree and intersection number are equivalent (linking number). [repost]

I will here restate a question I asked earlier. It did not have much succes (probably by an incomplete introduction of the problem on my part). I am reading a paper by Ricca ( ...
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1answer
28 views

What was the paper about flower-shaped knots?

I read a article about the possibility to bring knots in a "polar rose" projection, where there is only one crossing of higher multiplicity. The overcrossing/ undercrossing information is thus more ...
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76 views

knot theory: two definitions of equivalence (ambient isotopy and homeomorphism)

I am looking into knot theory and have found two different definitions stating that two knots $K_1$ and $K_2$ are equivalent, namely the concept of an ambient isotopy: These two knots are ambient ...
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1answer
36 views

Alexander polynomial of unknot without Fox calculus or infinite cyclic cover

As explained in Lickorish`s book "Introduction to knot theory", one can define the Conway-normalized version of the Alexander polynomial by the determinant of certain sum of Seifert matrix plus ...
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1answer
32 views

Definition of a rim torus

We know a torus is $S^1 \times S^1 =T^2$. We know a solid torus is $D^2 \times S^1$ whose boundary is a torus $S^1 \times S^1 =T^2$. What is the definition of a rim torus?
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1answer
56 views

When does $\pi_1(\Sigma)$ inject into $\pi_1(S^3 \setminus \Sigma)$?

Here's a fun fact from knot theory: $\quad$ If $\, \Sigma$ is a minimal-genus Seifert surface for a knot $K$, then $i_*:\pi_1(S^3 \setminus \Sigma) \to \pi_1(S^3 \setminus K)$ is injective, where ...
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1answer
50 views

Is there a one to one correspondence between Jones' polynomials and knots?

I know Jones' polynomial is a knot invariant. By using knot invariant like p-coloration one can only say whether two knots are different but not whether they are the same. So it is like injective ...
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34 views

Knot invariants that discern prime and composite knots.

Is there a list of knot invariants that can tell whether or not a knot is prime? Or at least partially so? i.e. invariants that have one or more of the following properties: (a) The invariant has a ...
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1answer
48 views

Remove one ring of Borromean rings in 3-sphere: linked or unlinked?

We know Borromean rings in a 3-sphere $S^3$ can be unlinked if we remove one of the three rings. Here let us consider a slight different procedure. If we remove the neighbored solid torus $B^2 \times ...
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2answers
99 views

Why is the Hopf link the only link with knot group $\mathbb{Z} \oplus \mathbb{Z}$?

We can use the Loop Theorem to show that if $\Sigma$ is a minimal-genus Seifert surface for a link $L$, then $\pi_1(\Sigma)$ injects into the knot group $\pi_1(S^3 \setminus L)$. An orientable ...
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70 views

Equivalence (or not) of two Artin/Fox wild arcs

The repeating patterns in the wikipedia articles on wild arcs and wild knots seem to me to be not continuously deformable to each other. Is this true? For clarity, here is my diagram of the repeating ...
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38 views

Solving integrals with delta function constraints

What is the best way to solve integrals which use delta function constraints/restrictions? For example if I have the integral $\int_V ...
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1answer
77 views

Higher homology groups of infinite cyclic cover

Prove that all homology groups of the infinite cyclic cover of a knot complement are trivial except $H_1$. I've posted an answer below using Mayer-Vietoris. If you know of other arguments, please ...
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1answer
46 views

Showing that gluing two knot exteriors together contains subgroups isomorphic with the knot groups.

I'm working through Rolfsen's "Knots and Links" and section 9D exercise 10 has me stumped: Let $K_1$ and $K_2$ be knots in two separate copies of $S^3$ with respective meridians $m_1$ and $m_2$ and ...
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1answer
59 views

Definitions from topology

I'm reading some papers on the unknotting problem in Knot theory and am running into some notation I don't know (my exposure to topology is minimal, but I have seen it in Analysis courses, Algebra, ...
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2answers
89 views

Books about braid theory

I'm looking for books that talk about braid theory, in the sense of braid groups mostly, and not too advanced, if possible. With material understandable for an undergraduate. Thanks for any ...
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1answer
58 views

Background required to understand the mathematical definition of knots and their transformations

What are the concepts of math required as a prerequisite to understand Knot Theory? I'd like to be able to make a humble beginning by being able to mathematically define knots and the non-rigid ...
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68 views

What is a 3-cell? What is a 3-disk?

Checking the usual places on the Web doesn’t (right now) yield a short answer to this simple question. I’m worried that I will spend just as long trying not to confuse $n$- with $(n+1)$-cells as I did ...
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1answer
77 views

Can a trefoil knot be stretched to look like a triangle with three knots at the vertices?

Can a trefoil knot be stretched to look like a triangle with three knots at the vertices, like in the right side of the image below, or is that transformation impossible to happen? If possible, what ...
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1answer
60 views

How to prove a knot with genus larger than 1 is prime, such as Miller Institute Knot?

It is easy to show that a knot with genus 1 is a prime knot because the genus is additive under direct sum. However, I found that some prime knot, for example, $6_2$ the Miller Institute Knot have ...
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89 views

Surgery to unlink $S^1$ and $S^2$ in $S^4$ [closed]

Let us start with a $S^1$ and a $S^2$ are linked in $S^4$. Can I unlink the $S^1$ and $S^2$ by doing some surgery (with certain constraints described below, and let us say both $S^1$ and $S^2$ ...
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30 views

Linking of $S^p$ and $S^q$ in the $\mathbb{R}^d$ space

Can we have a nontrivial linking of a $S^p$ sphere and a $S^q$ sphere in the $\mathbb{R}^d$ space (or in the ${S}^d$ space)? I suppose that it can happen only if $p+q<d$. For example, we can have: ...
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19 views

colouring knot diagram and its mirror by the same colouring

Let $K$ be a knot diagram coloured by any quandle $X$. Let the colouring used be $C$. Reverse the orientation of $K$ to obtain the reverse of $K$, denoted by $-K$. Then is it possible to colour $-K$ ...
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1answer
35 views

1-surgery on the figure-eight knot: reference request

As far as I know, 1-surgery on the figure-eight knot gives ($\pm$) the Brieskorn sphere $\Sigma(2,3,7)$. However, is there a citeable source for this? Sometimes Thurston's notes are mentioned, but I ...
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24 views

Recovering knot crossing orientations from a Gauss code or Dowker notation

Some common representations of knots do not directly give the sign/orientation of each crossing. For instance, the trefoil knot has Gauss code -1, 3, -2, 1, -3, 2 and Dowker-Thistlethwaite code 4 ...
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22 views

property of quandle

Let $ Q $ be any quandle. Let $ y,k, w$ be elements of $ Q$. Is it true that if $ y*k=y*w $ then $ k=w $? I don't think so since the second axiom of the quandles states that for any two distinct ...
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Are there enough knots to cover $\mathbb{R}^3$? [closed]

Actually, several years ago I was in a short, introductory, course about knot theory, and my original question that I posed was: "can the knots be used to classify homeomorphims in $\mathbb{R}^3$?". ...
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1answer
43 views

Are knot complements prime 3-manifolds?

Well, that is basically the question. Is the complement of a knot, i.e. an smoothly embedded copy of $S^1$ in $S^3$ a prime $3$-manifold? Here I mean by prime: A connected $3$-manifold $M$ is prime ...
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unknotted $n$-dimensional knot

Let $n$ be any integer. An $n$-dimensional knot is an $n$-dimensional manifold embedded smoothly into $\mathbb{R}^{n+2}$. If it is homeomorphic to a disjoint union of $n$-spheres, then it is denoted ...
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Determining slice knots

Lately I have been thinking about slice knots. Is there any known effective procedure for determining whether a knot is a slice knot?
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40 views

Seeking guide for project.

I have to submit a project within 2 months for 4th semester(M.Sc). I wish to do it on knot theory, although I know little about it. My plan is to make it an introduction to the subject and to ...
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24 views

Skein relationship and Alexander polynomial

Given is the three link diagrams of Conway $L_{0},L_{+},L_{-}$ and the corresponding Seifert matrices $M_{0},M_{+},M_{-}$. Prove that ...
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1answer
26 views

Does the elementary knot move really preserve the orientation?

So in this picture, the first diagram changed to the third diagram by the elementary knot moves, but the orientations of the first and the third are different. I wonder if in $R^3$ the moves don't ...
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18 views

Is the Alexander Ideal of a Link always Principal?

It is known that the Alexander ideal of a knot (i.e., a link of one component) is always a principal ideal since any tame knot in $S^3$ has a square presentation (Rolfsen, D. Knots and Links, pp. ...
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1answer
27 views

Is the Ambient Isotopy relation (for embeddings) symmetric?

Definition: Let $X$ and $Y$ be topological spaces. Suppose that $Y$ is compact and Hausdorff. Let $f,g:X\to Y$ be embeddings. We say that $f$ is ambient isotopic to $g$ (denote $f\sim g$) if there is ...
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1answer
53 views

Is the closure of $[\sigma_1^2,\sigma_2^2]$ in $B_3$ equal to the Borromean rings?

Is the closure of $[\sigma_1^2,\sigma_2^2]\in B_3$ (the braid group with $3$ strings) equal to the Borromean rings? If yes, is there any simple proof?
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136 views

Generators of the braid group

Let $C$ be the plane curve in $\mathbb{C}^2$ defined as $\{x²-y^3=0 \}$. The fundamental group of $\mathbb{C}^2 \backslash C$ is the same of the trefoil knot : $\langle a_0,a_1 \; : \; a_0a_1a_0= ...
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7 views

t-minimal diagram of a surface in 4-space

Let D be a t-minimal surface diagram of a surface embedded in 4-space, i.e. D has minimal number of triple points over all possible surface diagrams. Is it true any double curve in D contains all ...
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31 views

Zeros of vector field extended from field lines

Suppose I have a finite number of 1-dimensional curves embedded in a 3-dimensional space. What can I say topologically about vector fields chosen so that these closed curves are field lines? For ...
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36 views

smoothing crossing point in knot diagram

For an oriented knot diagram, each crossing can be smoothed in two possible ways (we trace along one strand and before the crossing we move to the other strand) an oriented smoothing and an ...
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1answer
37 views

genus of knot and crossing number invariants

Genus of knot is defined to be the least genus among all Seifert surfaces of knot. Crossing number is the minimal number of crossings over all possible diagrams. Both genus of knot and crossing ...
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1answer
49 views

additivity of crossing number of composite knots

Let $K_1 \# K_2$ denotes the connected sum of tow knots $K_1$ and $K_2$. The crossing number is the minimal number of crossings among all knot diagrams, denoted by $c(K)$. It is conjectured that ...
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What is the relation between the construction of Reshetikhin-Turaev and Witten's paper?

I have read that the papers of Reshetikhin and Turaev provide a mathematically rigorous framework for the ideas contained in Witten's paper "Quantum field theory and the Jones polynomial". Can ...
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1answer
173 views

Software for drawing braid-related graphs

I am looking for a (preferably free) software that can draw braid-related graphs, such as and (Quoted from A Study of Braids By Kunio Murasugi, B. Kurpita) I have seen this question, but the ...
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1answer
28 views

How to construct a concrete isotopy from figure eight knot to its mirror image?

We know that figure eight knot is amphicheiral. But how to show that in terms of Reidemeister moves? Just several instructive hints will help a lot. I really have no idea..