Numbers not expressible as a ratio of two integers. Examples: $\sqrt{2},\phi,e,\pi,\zeta(3)$. Some of them are algebraic ($\sqrt{2},\phi$) and some transcendental ($e,\pi$).

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0
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3answers
230 views

Show that there is no rational number $r=m/n$ such that $r^3=3$ [duplicate]

How do I solve this by prime factorization? I came across a similar problem on MSE just recently, but I can't find it and I thoroughly searched for it. If anyone can find it, please post it in the ...
11
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4answers
350 views

Prove the series $ \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{(n!)^2}$ converges to an irrational number

How can one prove that the series $\displaystyle \sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{(n!)^2}$ converges to an irrational number? There's no need to use Taylor expansion, integrals or any ...
3
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4answers
1k views

Non-existence of irrational numbers?

I realize the title of my question will probably cause the raising of some eyebrows, so let me explain. Not sure whether to file this under "math" or "philosophy". This also might be able to be ...
4
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4answers
826 views

Can you raise a Matrix to a non integer number? [duplicate]

So I heard you can take a matrix A to the power 2, take it to a -3th power and multiply it by an irrational number. You can also do some other non-intuitive things like taking e to the power of a ...
6
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3answers
2k views

Prove that the Tangent of 75 degrees equals 2 plus the square-root of 3

My (very simple) question to a friend was how do I prove the following using basic trig principles: $\tan75^\circ = 2 + \sqrt{3}$ He gave this proof (via a text message!) $1. \tan75^\circ$ $2. = ...
4
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4answers
617 views

On comparing fractions , fraction with smaller difference between numerator and denominator is greater than the other

A text book proposed that "when comparing fractions ,if the compared fractions's are such that numerator is smaller than denominator ,then fraction with more difference(absolute) between numerator ...
4
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2answers
305 views

Mystery about irrational numbers

I'm new here as you can see. There is a mystery about $\pi$ that I heard before and want to check if its true. They told me that if I convert the digits of $\pi$ in letters eventually I could read ...
2
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2answers
183 views

The density — or otherwise — of $\{\{2^N\,\alpha\}:N\in\mathbb{N}\}$ for ALL irrational $\alpha$.

Problem Is there an irrational $\alpha\in\mathbb{R}\backslash\mathbb{Q}$ such that the set $S= \{\,\{2^N\alpha\} :N\,\in\mathbb{N}\}$ is not dense in $[0,1]$. Here $\{x\}=x-\lfloor x\rfloor$ is the ...
6
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1answer
332 views

Do irrational number contain infinite/every patterns of sequences?

I guess the question is "does an 'infinite' number of patterns imply 'every' number of patterns?" For instance, if you could quickly calculate the decimal sequence of π, could you not (in ...
1
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1answer
56 views

rational fractions and the negative sign

Say we have the expression $$\frac{a}{b}=\frac{a+3}{b-8}$$ When we cross-multiply the terms we end up with $$a(b-8)=b(a+3)$$ If we try $a=-3$ and $b=8$ in the previous expression we get ...
3
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1answer
148 views

Extending the rationals using exponentiation

The set of integers can be constructed as an equivalence relation over the natural numbers using the the binary operation of addition, and a similar process yields the rationals from integers and ...
2
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2answers
468 views

Is there a proof that $\mathbb{R}$ is connected?

Is there a proof that the set $\mathbb{R}$ of all real numbers is connected? I've been assuming that $\mathbb{Q}$ is discrete, with a (very small) gap existing between any two elements ...
0
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2answers
162 views

Is the Copeland–Erdős constant a random number? How is it normal?

The Champernowne constant is not random. Is the Copeland–Erdős constant random? Also if Copeland–Erdős number is normal, then shouldnt the number of $5$s and even digits be low because they cannot ...
1
vote
1answer
167 views

Type of periodicity in champernowne constant.

Digits of Champernowne constant are aperiodic, else it will be rational. Fine! But it is not random because I can write a program which will give me the position of every digit. E.g. I can calculate ...
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2answers
2k views

Formula to reverse digits

Is there a formula that can be used to reverse the digits in a number, given a certain base b? E.G., $$F_{10}(32) = .23$$ $$F_{10}(123.456) = 654.321$$ If not, how can you write this out to show ...
0
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3answers
446 views

When a prime number p divides $ab$ then we have either p divides a or p divides b.Prove that $\sqrt {p} $ is not rational for any prime number p.

When a prime number $p$ divides $ ab $ then we have either $p$ divides $a$ or $p$ divides $b$. Prove that $ \sqrt p $ is not rational for any prime number $p$.
19
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3answers
589 views

Does every sequence of rationals, whose sum is irrational, have a subsequence whose sum is rational

Assume we have a sequence of rational numbers $a=(a_n)$. Assume we have a summation function $S: \mathscr {L}^1 \mapsto \mathbb R, \ \ S(a)=\sum a_n$ ($\mathscr {L}^1$ is the sequence space whose sums ...
0
votes
1answer
505 views

Surds - Finding square roots.

To find square root of surd like this : $a+\sqrt{b}+\sqrt{c}+\sqrt{d} $ We put it equal to $\sqrt{x}+\sqrt{y}+\sqrt{z}$ To find the square root of : $21-4\sqrt{5}+8\sqrt{3}-4\sqrt{15} $ can we put ...
1
vote
1answer
192 views

Proof by contradiction that irrational numbers conform to $f(x)=x^2$

I am having some difficulty with this proof for my Real Variables class. I know that $f(x)$ is a continuous function defined on $R^1$, and $f(x)=x^2$ for any rational $x$. I also have the definition ...
2
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2answers
114 views

Computationally complex irrational numbers

Are there irrational numbers for which we know that computing its nth digit would take (at least) linear/polynomial/exponential/superexponential time (wrt to length of n and with "big enough" n)?
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10answers
3k views

Critiques on proof showing $\sqrt{12}$ is irrational.

My only exposure to proofs was in a math logic class I took in University. I was wondering if my attempt at proving that $\sqrt{12}$ is irrational is OK. $$\Big(\frac{m}{n}\Big)^2 = 12$$ ...
17
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2answers
815 views

Does $\sin(x)=y$ have a solution in $\mathbb{Q}$ beside $x=y=0$

Is there a way to show, that the only solution of $$\sin(x)=y$$ is $x=y=0$ with $x,y\in \mathbb{Q}$. I am seaching a way to prove it with the things you learn in linear algebra and analysis 1+2 ...
2
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3answers
520 views

Can an irrational number have a finite number of a certain digit?

This question came up because I was wondering the following: If the digits of PI are placed in ascending order, what is the <insert-large-finite-number-here>th digit? I believe that the answer ...
13
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2answers
1k views

Is sin(x) necessarily irrational where x is rational?

My friend and I were discussing this and we couldn't figure out how to prove it one way or another. The only rational values I can figure out for $\sin(x)$ (or $\cos(x)$, etc...) come about when $x$ ...
4
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2answers
235 views

Exponentiation when the exponent is irrational

I am just curious about what inference we can draw when we calculate something like $$\text{base}^\text{exponent}$$ where base = rational or irrational number and exponent = irrational number
2
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0answers
136 views

Irrationality of $\pi$ from the spigot algorithm?

The spigot algorithm for BPP formula gives hexadecimal digits of $\pi$ one at a time. Is it possible to prove directly that this algorithm cannot be computed with bounded-memory? (From R J Lipton It ...
3
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2answers
275 views

Field containing all square roots of rational numbers

What is the smallest field which contains all square roots of positive rational numbers? I guess I mean “smallest” in terms of set inclusion, i.e. the minimal one with regard to the “$\subseteq$” ...
9
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5answers
671 views

Algorithms for “solving” $\sqrt{2}$

The very first words out of my mouth need to be this... "Solving" is the wrong term since I am speaking about irrational numbers. I just don't know which word is the correct word... So that can be ...
6
votes
2answers
6k views

Is a non-repeating and non-terminating decimal always an irrational?

We can build $\frac{1}{33}$ like this, $.030303$ $\cdots$ ($03$ repeats). $.0303$ $\cdots$ tends to $\frac{1}{33}$. So,I was wondering this: In the decimal representation, if we start writing the ...
4
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5answers
246 views

Will we get all real numbers if we add all limits?

Consider a set of all rational numbers from 0 to 1 inclusive. If we add to this set all limits of all convergent sequences of these numbers, will we obtain a set of all real numbers from 0 to 1?
3
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2answers
324 views

Difference between irrational numbers with and without a pattern.

I'm not sure how to talk about what I want to talk about, so I'll give some examples. The number $\pi$ is irrational and has no repeating pattern, but is computable by an easy rule; divide the ...
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3answers
1k views

(A twist in a classical question) Sum and product of two irrational numbers is rational?

So I know that it is possible for the sums and products of irrational numbers to be rational. But, the only instances I know of that happening is when a certain combination of additive or ...
3
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0answers
148 views

Must be rational number

Let $a$, $b$ positive rational number. Suppose that there exist two odd positive integers $p$, $q$ such that $\sqrt[p]{a}+\sqrt[q]{b}$ is rational. Prove that both $\sqrt[p]{a}$ and $\sqrt[q]{b}$ are ...
6
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1answer
270 views

Irrationality of reciprocal Fibonacci constant

I read that it was proved that reciprocal Fibonacci constant $$\sum_{n} \frac{1}{F_n} = \frac{1}{1} + \frac{1}{1} + \frac{1}{2} + \frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{5} + \frac{1}{8} + \frac{1}{13} + \frac{1}{21} ...
3
votes
2answers
217 views

Irrational root of a function

DISCLAIMER: I apologize in advance if this question is naive. Every suggestion on how to approach the following problem will be very much appreciated. I'm interested in the root of the following ...
5
votes
0answers
101 views

Irrationality proof by fast converging series?

I read here http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath455.htm that $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{d_n}$ is irrational if $d_{n+1} > d_{n}^2$ for all $n > N_0$. Can we prove $\pi$, $e$ or some other ...
7
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0answers
253 views

How does one prove that $\zeta(3)$ is irrational?

How does one prove that $\zeta(3)$ is irrational ? I would like to know how Apery did it. In particular how a recursion gives rise to irrationality !?
1
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3answers
421 views

If $a+b$ is an irrational number, is $a-b$ an irrational number, too?

Question 1: If $a+b$ is an irrational number. Is $a-b$ an irrational number, too? Question 2: If $\cos(a)-\sin(a)$ is irrational, Is $\sin(a)-\cos(a)$ irrational, too?
5
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1answer
194 views

Are these numbers $h_{r,s}$ irrational?

I came across these numbers in my work some time ago. This type of expressions do not exist in closed form (not to confuse with Vandermonde convolution), I already know that. To simplify I denote ...
1
vote
2answers
540 views

Proof $ \sqrt{1 + \sqrt[3]{2}} $ is irrational using the theorem about rational roots of a polynomial

I'm having trouble with this specific problem at the moment. The theorem states that if $n/m$ is a rational root of a polynomial with integer coefficients, the leading coefficient is divisible by m ...
5
votes
2answers
439 views

Irrational Numbers Containing Other Irrational Numbers

Does $ \sqrt{2} $ contain all the digits of $ \pi $ in order? Does it contain all the digits of $ \pi $ in order an infinite number of times? Does $ \pi $ contain all the digits of $ \sqrt{2} $ in ...
11
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2answers
2k views

Multiples of an irrational number forming a dense subset

Say you picked your favorite irrational number $q$ and looking at $S = \{nq: n\in \mathbb{Z} \}$ in $\mathbb{R}$, you chopped off everything but the decimal of $nq$, leaving you with a number in ...
6
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0answers
194 views

Direct proof that $\sqrt{2}$ is irrational? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Irrationality proofs not by contradiction I've been puzzled for some days now, and I can't come up with an answer. I'm trying to come with a direct proof that $\sqrt{2}$ ...
0
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1answer
140 views

$a_n(x):=nx-\lfloor nx \rfloor$

i have $a_n(x):=nx-\lfloor nx \rfloor$ where $x$ is real. i want to show that if $x$ is rational, then $a_n(x)$ has finitely many cluster points, if $x$ is irrational, then every real $a$ with $0\leq ...
12
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3answers
329 views

Double limit of $\cos^{2n}(m! \pi x)$ at rationals and irrationals

I stumbled upon this "relation" (is the name correct?): $$ \lim_{m \to \infty} \lim_{n \to \infty} \cos^{2n}(m! \pi x) = \begin{cases} 1,&x\text{ is rational}\\ 0,&x\text{ is ...
4
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5answers
159 views

irrationality of numbers with rational sum

Assume that $x_1, \dots, x_n$ are non-negative real numbers such that $$ x_1 + \dots + x_n \in \mathbb Q~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ \text{ and } ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~x_1 + 2x_2 + \dots + nx_n\in \mathbb Q. $$ Does ...
0
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2answers
98 views

Decimal Representaion

A rational number can be represented in the form p/q. prove that the period of the the repeating decimal should at the most q-1.
2
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2answers
1k views

The logarithm of 3 base 10 is irrational

Prove that the logarithm of 3 base 10 is irrational The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic is that every integer is a product of primes. So far I have, Suppose $\log_{10}(5)$ is rational. Then ...
23
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6answers
3k views

Why must we distinguish between rational and irrational numbers?

The difference between rational and irrational numbers is always stated as: rational numbers can be written as the ratio of two integers, and irrational numbers can't. However, why do mathematicians ...
-1
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2answers
149 views

Irrationals can be separable by finding a countable dense subset. [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is the set of irrationals separable as a subspace of the real line? Prove the irrationals are separable directly by finding a countable dense subset.