Questions about real numbers not expressible as the quotient of two integers. For questions on determining whether a number is irrational, use the (rationality-testing) tag instead.

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14
votes
4answers
697 views

Process to show that $\sqrt 2+\sqrt[3] 3$ is irrational

How can I prove that the sum $\sqrt 2+\sqrt[3] 3$ is an irrational number ??
4
votes
2answers
166 views

Can one prove existence of incommensurables without the Pythagorean theorem?

Euclid's proof that the side and the diagonal of a square have no common measure, probably going back to Pythagoreans, reduces it to proving the irrationality of $\sqrt{2}$. This reduction uses the ...
2
votes
2answers
329 views

Example of a proof using the axiom of commensurability

I'm teaching our intro to proofs course (well, one of them) and one of the classic illustrations of an overturned "axiom" is the Greek axiom of commensurability, which stated in geometric terms the ...
3
votes
4answers
120 views

If $q^n$ is irrational for all $n>1$, then $q$ is irrational.

Theorem. Let $q \in \mathbb{R}$ an arbitrary given number. If $q^n$ is irrational for all $n>1$ integer, then $q$ is irrational. My Questions. What is a the name of this statement and what is the ...
-1
votes
1answer
79 views

How is circle closed?

I have this thought that circle in 'real' is not a closed figure. We all know that 'pi' is irrational.And integers are nodes in a 'monstrous' line of real numbers. Irrational numbers are non-...
6
votes
4answers
235 views

Is $\ln\sqrt{2}$ irrational?

I know that the natural log of any positive algebraic number is transcendental, as a consequence of the Lindemann-Weierstrass theorem, but what about the natural log of the square root of two (which ...
3
votes
1answer
103 views

Rational values of $\sin(\log(x))$

Apart from the trivial solution $\sin(\log(1))=0$, is $$\sin(\log(x))$$ ever rational if $x$ is rational?
0
votes
2answers
140 views

How do you multiply infinite quantities?

Out of curiosity I was watching this video from njwildberger on youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4DNlEq0ZrTo Where he says that you can't define associativity between irrational numbers ...
2
votes
1answer
27 views

Existence of a sequence of integers $\lbrace a_k\rbrace_{k\geq 1}$ so that the first $k$ digits of $a_k\alpha$ are $0$ where $\alpha$ is irrational.

Let $\alpha$ be an irrational number. Is there a sequence $\lbrace a_k\rbrace_{k\geq 1}$ of integers so that the first $k$ digits of the fractional part of $a_k·\alpha$ are $0$? (in base $2$, for ...
6
votes
5answers
2k views

For an irrational number $a$ the fractional part of $na$ for $n\in\mathbb N$ is dense in $[0,1]$ [duplicate]

How to prove that the $\{$ fractional part of $n\alpha\mid n \in \mathbb{N}$ $\}$ is dense in $[0,1]$ for an irrational number $\alpha$. NOTICE that $n$ is in $\mathbb{N}$ Also notice that this is ...
0
votes
2answers
100 views

$1$ is not congruent because of Fermat's Last Theorem?

I would like someone to explain something I did not understand. I was reading a page called "nuking the mosquito" where they give very complex proofs for very simple results. The proof I want to talk ...
3
votes
3answers
446 views

Irrational number “test”?

Suppose we have a finite quantity $a$, which we would like to prove to be irrational, supposing that it is indeed irrational. Then, would it be enough to show that $$a=\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{u_n}{v_n}...
2
votes
2answers
208 views

Are numbers like $\left ( -2 \right )^{\sqrt{2}}$ real or complex?

I know that numbers with rational power can be converted to radicals and based on the degree of the radical we can say that whether they are real or complex. But what about numbers like $\left ( -2 \...
0
votes
2answers
1k views

Lambert's Original Proof that $\pi$ is irrational.

I am trying to find Lambert's original proof that $\pi$ is irrational. Wikipedia has a little description but it is quite lacking. Can someone direct me to Lambert's original proof or post his proof ...
10
votes
14answers
2k views

Irrational numbers in reality

I have a square stone slab 1 metre by 1 metre, by the Pythagorean identity the diagonal from one corner to another is given by $\sqrt 2$. However $\sqrt 2$ is an irrational number, could someone ...
0
votes
1answer
119 views

Archimedes' Approximation of Square Roots

Supposing a square root $\sqrt{X}$, let $x$ be the approximation of $\sqrt{X}$, then we get these 2 formulas to estimate $\sqrt{X}$: $x_{n+1}=\frac{x_n+\frac{X}{x_n}}{2}$ and $x_{n+2}=\frac{x_{n}x_{...
0
votes
2answers
75 views

Help With a proof (Irrational Number)

Prove the following statement by proving its contrapositive: if $r$ is irrational, then $r^\frac{1}{5}$ is irrational. Its contrapositive will be: If $r^\frac{1}{5}$ is not irrational, then $r$ is ...
4
votes
1answer
506 views

Proof that $\sqrt[m]{a} + \sqrt[n]{b}$ is irrational

Is there a way to prove that $\sqrt[m]{a} + \sqrt[n]{b}$ ($\sqrt[m]{a}$ and $\sqrt[n]{b}$ are irrational); $a, b, m, n \in \mathbb{N}$; $m, n \neq 2$; is irrational without using the theorem mentioned ...
2
votes
2answers
155 views

$x+y\sqrt{2}$ infimum ($x,y\in \mathbb{Z}$)

I've looked for help with this question but I have not found anything, I hope this is not a duplicate. Define the set $A=\{\mid x+y\sqrt{2}\mid \ : x,y\in \mathbb{Z}\ \mbox{and} \mid x+y\sqrt{2}\mid\...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

The minimum number of digits after the floating-point, which uniquely identify every irrational square root

Let the following: $B:$ a natural number larger than $1$ $S:$ a set of irrational numbers in the range $(0,1)$ represented in base $B$ $L:$ the minimal prefix length which uniquely identifies every ...
-3
votes
1answer
90 views

How do we prove sqrt2 is irrational? [duplicate]

What kind of number is sqrt2, rational or irrational? And what are the analytic and non analytic ways of proving it?
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Deciding whether a number is rational (2 examples)

1) Prove that number irrational $\sqrt{7-\sqrt{2}}$ I created a polynomial $x=\sqrt{7-\sqrt{2}}$ so $P(x)=x^4-14x^2+47$ and since $47$ is prime we check $P(x)$ for $ {1,-1,47,-47}$ and since all of ...
4
votes
2answers
165 views

The set $E= \{x\in [0,1]: \sum_{j=1}^\infty t^j|x−q_j|^{-r} <\infty\}$ does not contain all irrational numbers in $[0,1]$

Let $q_1,q_2,q_3,...$ be an enumeration of $\mathbb{Q}\cap[0,1]$ and let $r,t \in (0,1).$ Consider the set $$E= \{x\in [0,1]: \sum_{j=1}^\infty t^j|x−q_j|^{-r} <\infty\} $$ (a) Show that $E\neq [...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

The sum of two irrational square roots

This is very similar to this question, but I was wondering if there was a simpler proof. In particular, a proof that would prove that $\sqrt{x}+\sqrt{y}$ is an irrational number if both $\sqrt{x}$ ...
1
vote
2answers
194 views

Definition of Rational/ Irrational Numbers reguarding denominators

The definition of a Irrational number is "Irrational numbers don't include integers OR fractions. However, irrational numbers can have a decimal value that continues forever WITHOUT a pattern." So ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Dimension of R over Q without cardinality argument. [duplicate]

I am looking for the easiest (elementary) proof that $\mathbb R$ is infinite dimensional as a $\mathbb Q$-vector space, without using cardinality. It should be understandable at highschool level. So ...
3
votes
2answers
143 views

Are there any non-trivial counterexamples to the non-closure of the irrational numbers over addition?

It is trivial to show that the set of irrational numbers is not closed under addition. Just choose an irrational number $p$ and add it to its additive inverse $-p$ to get $0\in\mathbb{Q}$. However, I ...
7
votes
3answers
276 views

Using decimals of $\pi$ to store data

I read recently about an idea to, instead of storing actual data, converting the data to a string of digits and then store the index of where this pattern occurs in some number, for example $\pi$. The ...
0
votes
2answers
65 views

How to find irrational approximates

Say I have a rational number, $n$, that approximates an irrational number of the form: $$n \approx {a+\sqrt b \over c}$$ in terms of being irrational. What is a good way of finding the unknown ...
1
vote
2answers
57 views

Does the absence of horizontal lines shows that there are no $n,m\in \mathbb{N}$ such that $n^2=2m^2$?

When I was learning about the proof of the irracionality of $\sqrt{2}$, I remember of trying to visualize it by ploting the graphs of $f(n)=n^2$ and $g(m)=2m^2$, but at the time I got confused and ...
2
votes
2answers
199 views

Conjecture: if $a+b$ and $ab$ are rational, $a$ and $b$ are rational

I can't find a rigorous proof but I have a feeling it's true. Informal argument: Suppose $a+b$ and $ab$ are rational, $a$ and $b$ are irrational (since just one can't be irrational). Then $a$ and $b$...
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Show that $\arctan(n)$ is irrational for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$

Question : Show that $\arctan(n)$ is irrational for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$. Hint: My solution doesn't use continued fraction. I am interested in other possible proofs for this question.
9
votes
4answers
1k views

Is the fact that there are more irrational numbers than rational numbers useful?

Although it is known that the cardinality of the set of irrational numbers is greater than the cardinality of the set of rational numbers, is there any usefulness/applications of this fact outside of ...
0
votes
2answers
106 views

Prove that if $n \geq 2$, then $\sqrt[n]{n}$ is irrational. Hint, show that if $n \geq 2$, then $2^{n} > n$.

Prove that if $n \geq 2$, then $\sqrt[n]{n}$ is irrational. Hint, show that if $n \geq 2$, then $2^{n} > n$. So, my thought process was that I could show that $2^{n} > n$ using induction, but I'...
2
votes
1answer
159 views

Does the limit of a sequence with floor function exist?

Question : Let $a_n=n\alpha-\lfloor n\alpha\rfloor\ (n=1,2,\cdots)$ where $\alpha$ is an irrational number. Then, does the limit $n\to\infty$ of $(a_n)^n$ exist? I know that $\lim_{n\to\infty}(a_n)^...
1
vote
1answer
122 views

How to prove that $\cos(n)$ is irrational?

We know that $\cos(1)$ is real and transcendental (1). Then by using the fact that for every $n \in \mathbb{N}$ there exists a polynomial $P_n$ of degree $n$ with integer coefficients such that $\cos(...
3
votes
1answer
108 views

Irrationality measure.

I would like someone to give me a definition of what irrationality measure is, I have stumbled over several definitions which may be equivalent but as I lack understanding I cant see this correlation. ...
15
votes
1answer
339 views

Can we prove that the solutions of $\int_0^y \sin(\sin(x)) dx =1$ are irrational?

Can we prove that the solutions of $$\int_0^y \sin(\sin(x)) dx =1$$ are irrational? Wolfram Alpha gives two approximate sets of solutions as $\{4.58+2\pi k|k\in\mathbb{Z}\}$ and $\{1.69+2\pi k|k\in\...
4
votes
3answers
219 views

Real numbers that are not the roots of any polynomial equation with algebraic coefficients

An algebraic number is a number which is a root of some non-zero polynomial equation with rational coefficients. A transcendental number is a number which is not a root of any non-zero polynomial ...
1
vote
3answers
59 views

negative powers $(x^{-2} = 1/x^2)$

I need clarification for negative power of a number. I understand $x$ to the power of $2$ is equal to $x\cdot x$ But how $x$ to the power of $-2$ is equal to $\dfrac{1}{x^2}$ ?
1
vote
0answers
56 views

“Building blocks” for computable functions

In an (otherwise very enlightening) answer to another question of mine the question came up What functions are allowed as building blocks for computable functions? I was astonished that there ...
4
votes
4answers
727 views

Why there are irrational numbers?

I do not quite get it. Why can't we represent all real numbers as a sum of rational numbers? Why do we need irrational numbers? For example, $\pi=3.14159265358\cdots=3+10^{-1}+4*10^{-2}+10^{-3}+5*...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

is $(\mathbb{Q} \times (\mathbb{R}\setminus\mathbb{Q}))\cup((\mathbb{R}\setminus\mathbb{Q})\times\mathbb{Q})$ connected? path connected?

let $$X=(\mathbb{Q} \times (\mathbb{R}\setminus\mathbb{Q}) ) \cup ((\mathbb{R}\setminus\mathbb{Q})\times\mathbb{Q}) $$ and let $$\tau=\tau (\text{euclid})$$ what are the connected components of $$(X,\...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Solving surds without compairing

Question: Let $a + \sqrt{2b} = 3 - 2\sqrt{2}$ .Find the value of $a - \sqrt{2b}$ What I did: I compared the whole numbers and the irrational numbers in both sides and calculated the answer $3 + 2\...
4
votes
2answers
460 views

A dense set on $[0,1)$

Let $x\in \mathbb{R}$ an irrational number. Define $X=\{nx-\lfloor nx\rfloor: n\in \mathbb{N}\}$. Prove that $X$ is dense on $[0,1)$. Can anyone give some hint to solve this problem? I tried ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Need help to simplify irrational equation

I have faced a problem simplifying this equation. . I tried to solve it this way: , but I just can't get the correct answer. This equation is from high school course, so it must have quite a simple ...
0
votes
3answers
49 views

A pretty much simple number theory problem

Let $x$ be an irrational number, and $n$ be a positive integer. Will there ever be a set of $(n,x)$ which satisfies $x(n-x) \in \mathbb{Z}$ ? If so, could you suggest those numbers? And, if not, ...
0
votes
1answer
99 views

Square root of an odd composite being irrational

Is there an odd composite number $n$ such that $\sqrt{n}$ is irrational?
7
votes
6answers
904 views

Is $i$ irrational?

On the one hand, $i(=\sqrt{-1})$ cannot be expressed as a ratio of integers, so, by definition, $i$ is not rational $\iff i$ is irrational. However, the set of irrational numbers, $\mathbb{J}=\mathbb{...
5
votes
2answers
199 views

A question about decimal representation of irrational numbers.

Is this true that any finite word of the alphabet $\mathcal{A_9}=\{0,1,2, \ldots,8,9\}$ appears somewhere in the decimal representation of $\sqrt{2}$ ? Thanks !