2
votes
0answers
69 views

Question about $e^{e^{e^e}}$

Is there a proof that the power tower of length $4$ of $e$ is irrational? Is it known whether or not $$e^{e^{e^e}}$$ is transcendental?
11
votes
1answer
283 views

Linear independence of the numbers $\{1,\pi,{\pi}^2\}$

Does someone know a proof that $\{1,\pi,{\pi}^2\}$ is linearly independent over $\mathbb{Q}$ ? The proof should not use that $\pi$ is transcendental. $\{1,e,e^2,e^3\}$ is linearly independent over ...
26
votes
2answers
474 views

Linear independence of the numbers $\{1,e,e^2,e^3\}$

Does someone know a proof that $\{1,e,e^2,e^3\}$ is linearly independent over $\mathbb{Q}$? The proof should not use that $e$ is transcendental. $e:$ Euler's number. $\{1,e,e^2\}$ is linearly ...
4
votes
0answers
141 views

Proof of $\pi$ not being a quadratic irrational number.

Does someone know a proof (books , articles) that $\pi$ is not a quadratic irrational? The proof should not use that $\pi$ is transcendental. Any hints would be appreciated.
1
vote
0answers
80 views

Gelfond-Schneider Constant $2^{\sqrt{2}}$

Someone knows a proof (books , articles) that $2^{\sqrt{2}}$ is irrational ? Without using that $2^{\sqrt{2}}$ is transcendent. Any hints would be appreciated.
20
votes
1answer
528 views

Any proof to $\pi^{e}$'s irrationality?

I've searched for this for a while but get nothing... There are plenty of proofs to irrationality of $e$,$\pi$,$e^{\pi}$. However, I can't find a proof for $\pi^e$. More, when searching for this I ...
14
votes
2answers
2k views

ArcTan(2) a rational multiple of $\pi$?

Consider a $2 \times 1$ rectangle split by a diagonal. Then the two angles at a corner are ArcTan(2) and ArcTan(1/2), which are about $63.4^\circ$ and $26.6^\circ$. Of course the sum of these angles ...
7
votes
3answers
695 views

Why are some mathematical constants irrational by their continued fraction while others aren't?

Catalan's Constant and quite a few other mathematical constants are known to have an infinite continued fraction (see the bottom of that webpage). On wikipedia (I'm sorry, I can't post anymore ...