Numbers not expressible as a ratio of two integers. Examples: $\sqrt{2},\phi,e,\pi,\zeta(3)$. Some of them are algebraic ($\sqrt{2},\phi$) and some transcendental ($e,\pi$).

learn more… | top users | synonyms

2
votes
2answers
47 views

Values $nx - [nx]$ are distinc for an irrational number

When reading the proof for Dirichlet's Approximation Theorem, I came across the following statement: If $x$ is irrational, then $nx - [nx]$ are distinct for all $n \in \mathbb{Z}$. I don't ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Is there any geometry where ratio of circle's circumference to its diameter is rational?

In Euclidean geometry, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter is an irrational number, 3.14159 and so on. But if you change to non-Euclidean geometries, you get other values for ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

If $\frac1\alpha+\frac1\beta=1$, irrational, then $\{\lfloor n\alpha\rfloor:n\in\Bbb N\}\uplus\{\lfloor n\beta\rfloor:n\in\Bbb N\}=\Bbb N$

Let $\alpha,\beta\in\Bbb R\setminus\Bbb Q$ such that $\frac1\alpha+\frac1\beta=1$, and define $S(x)=\{\lfloor nx\rfloor:n\in\Bbb N\}$. (Note that my convention takes $0\notin\Bbb N$.) The claim is ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

Irrational number problem

Prove that if $x$ is irrational, then there exists $p_n,q_n \in \mathbb{Z}$ such that $\bigg|x -\dfrac{p_n}{q_n}\bigg| < \dfrac{1}{q_n^2}$
7
votes
3answers
94 views

How to understand “Union of balls centered at rational numbers is way less than $\mathbb{R}$

A few month ago I had to prove $\lambda(\mathbb{Q}) = 0$ (where $\lambda$ is the one-dimensional Lebesgue measure). The idea: Let $\varepsilon \gt 0, r_n := \frac{\varepsilon}{2^n}$ and $\mathbb{Q} = ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Rational vs irrational

If two points on a number line is shown, are rational numbers between the two points is more or irrational number is more ? I have tried using probability , my collegue who was like my teacher also ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Dense sequence in $[0,1]$

There is the theorem proved by Liouville which states that if $x$ is irrational then there are infinitely many fractions $\frac{p}{q}$ such that $|x-\frac{p}{q}|<\frac{1}{q^2}$, i.e. ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

Do rational and irrational numbers flip-flop?

I have found out that between every 2 rational numbers there is an irrational number, and between every 2 irrational numbers, there is a rational number. Does this mean that the rational and ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Irrationality of $\pi$ and circumference to diameter ratio.

How is $\pi$ actually defined? If it is defined as the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter then from this definition itself either of the circumference and diameter has to be ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

rational numbers

It is by the rule that a rational number can be expressed in P/Q form and an irrational number cannot be expressed in such form. It is even said that (in order to promote the P/Q form for expressing ...
3
votes
3answers
228 views

William Lowell Putnam Integral Problem

Prove That $$ \frac{22}{7}-\pi= \int_0^1 \frac{x^4\,\left(1-x\right)^4}{1+x^2}$$
2
votes
1answer
15 views

Rational vs Irrational distribution

Imagine I draw a number line, and I took two points. What's the distribution of rational and irrational numbers between them? If I put it in a diagram where I color rational with a color and ...
3
votes
1answer
60 views

Question regarding the golden/silver ratio

$\Phi$, or the golden ratio, is basically $\frac{a+b}{a}=\frac{a}{b}$. The silver ratio corresponds to a similar idea of: $\frac{2a+b)}{a}=\frac{a}{b}$. I've read on Wikipedia that both of these ...
6
votes
0answers
55 views

Does the Cantor set contain any irrational algebraic numbers?

I've been trying to characterise the irrationals in the Cantor set $\mathcal{C}$ and this is proving to be surprisingly difficult. In particular I am trying to investigate whether $\mathcal{C}$ ...
19
votes
4answers
2k views

Can every irrational number be written in terms of finitely many rational numbers?

Consider the irrational number $\sqrt{2}$. It can be written in terms, i.e., in a closed form expression, of two rational numbers as $2^{\frac{1}{2}}$. Does it hold in general that every irrational ...
4
votes
1answer
50 views

Are there numbers that if proven rational (or irrational) will have important consequences to mathematics?

We see all the time conjectures and proofs that specific (real) numbers are (more often than not) irrational. I'm wondering that apart from the mathematical curiosity motivating such proof attempts, ...
0
votes
2answers
73 views

Let a, b, c, d be rational numbers…

Let $a, b, c, d$ be rational numbers, where $\sqrt{b}$ and $\sqrt{d}$ exist and are irrational. If $a + \sqrt{b} = c + \sqrt{d}$, prove that $a=c$ and $b=d$.
6
votes
1answer
108 views

Is $\log 2\pi$ rational?

Is it known whether $\log 2\pi$ is rational (where the base of the logarithm is $e$)? Or algebraic?
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Confusing rational numbers

Question: If $$x = \frac{4\sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{2}+1}$$ Then find value of, $$\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}*(\frac{x+2}{x-2}+\frac{x+2\sqrt{2}}{x - 2\sqrt{2}})$$ My approach: I rationalized the value of $x$ to ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Logic verification: $x^3$ is irrational, then $x$ is also irrational

Prove, by contraposition, if $x^3$ is irrational, then $x$ is also irrational. Just a verification do I need to show that given $x$ is rational $x^3$ is also rational? Suppose $x \in \mathbb{Q}$ ...
6
votes
0answers
113 views

Are there integers $a, b$ s.th. $\pi^a = e^b$?

Is $\log \pi $ a rational number? That is, are there non-zero integers $a, b$ s.th. $\pi^a = e^b$ ?
2
votes
1answer
51 views

A general method to efficiently calculate the floor of an element of $\mathbb{Q}[\sqrt{2}]$

I had to decide whether to post this question here on the Mathematics Stack Exchange or on Stack Overflow, but I decided that the question was essentially a mathematical one despite being inspired by ...
9
votes
7answers
238 views

Proving that $\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{3}$ is irrational [duplicate]

This is from Spivak. Prove that $\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{3}$ is irrational. So far, I have this: If $\sqrt{2}+\sqrt{3}$ is rational, then it can be written as $\frac{p}{q}$ with integral $p, q$ and in ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Products of irrational numbers field of mathematics?

Recently a friend posed the question "can the product of two irrational numbers be rational?" We the trivial answers like for example $\sqrt{2}\sqrt{8} = 4$. I have become somewhat obsessed with the ...
0
votes
4answers
86 views

why the occurrence of 4,5,6 and 9 in pi differs?

i´m playing around with pi, i have this document with the first 5million decimal numbers after comma. http://www.aip.de/~wasi/PI/Pibel/pibel_5mio.pdf and i build a script that i put in for example ...
1
vote
4answers
47 views

Cancelling out square roots gives 2?

Question: If $$N = \frac{\sqrt{\sqrt{5}+2}+\sqrt{\sqrt{5}-2}}{\sqrt{\sqrt{5}+1}}$$Find N (This is a subset of a larger question) My approach: After rationalizing the denominator, by ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Combination of integers and irrationals numbers

Show that if $j$ is a positive irrational number, then for all $\varepsilon>0$ there exist integers $h$ and $k$ such that $0<h+kj<\varepsilon$. I need this result in a problem, but I don't ...
1
vote
0answers
56 views

Irrational numbers and series

Let $$f(x) = \prod_{n = 0}^\infty \left(1 + \frac{x}{2^n}\right)$$ According to an exercise in a packet of problems in elementary number theory, this function and all its derivatives are irrational ...
7
votes
2answers
264 views

Proving that $e$ is irrational

Show that $e$ is irrational. Recall $\mathrm{e} = \exp(1)$ so assume $\mathrm{e}$ is rational , then $$\sum\limits_{k=0}^\infty \frac{1}{k!} = \frac{a}{b}\quad \text{for some}\,\,\, a,b \in ...
5
votes
1answer
117 views

If $(n_k)$ is strictly increasing and $\lim_{n \to \infty} n_k^{1/2^k} = \infty$ show that $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} 1/n_k$ is irrational

Prove that for a strictly increasing natural sequence $(n_k) $ satisfying $\lim_{n \to \infty} n_k^{1/2^k}=\infty$, $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} 1/n_k$ is irrational. This is another problem "problems in ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Proving that a series converges to an irrational number.

I am taking honors Calculus II and have been doing reasonably well in the course until the current problem set which is due tomorrow. One exercise that is really giving me trouble is this: Prove ...
2
votes
2answers
55 views

Proving either $x^2$ or $x^3$ is irrational if $x$ is irrational

I had a test today in discrete mathematics and I am dubious whether or not my proof is correct. Suppose $x$ is an irrational number. Prove that either $x^2$ or $x^3$ is irrational. My Answer: ...
1
vote
3answers
312 views

Polynomials with Integer Coefficients and irrational roots

Is there a polynomial with integer coefficients which has √2 +√7  as a root?
2
votes
0answers
93 views

Irrational numbers to the power of other irrational numbers: A beautiful proof question

The following theorem has a very beautiful proof. Theorem: There exist two irrational numbers $x$ and $y$ such that $x^y$ is rational. Proof: If $\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}}$ is rational then we ...
1
vote
3answers
83 views

Finding set of non recurring non terminating decimals

I need to find a set of two Integers P and Q such that ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

Rational and trascendental numbers: $\pi$, $e$ and $\pi+e$ [duplicate]

The numbers $\pi,e$ are trascendentals, but if consider: $\pi+e$ then is rational, trascendental? Thanks
2
votes
2answers
112 views

Prove that if $a$ is irrational then $\sqrt a$ is irrational

Just hints but solution thx. Any hints for me? I simply suppose that $a = \dfrac mn$ then $\sqrt a = \sqrt{\dfrac mn}$ But this does not make sense ..
7
votes
3answers
427 views

Sequences of Rationals and Irrationals

Let $(x_n)$ be a sequence that converges to the irrational number $x$. Must it be the case that $x_1, x_2, \dots$ are all irrational? Let $(y_n)$ be a sequences that converges to the rational number ...
5
votes
4answers
103 views

Cardinality of Irrational Numbers

I know and I have proved more than once that the set of irrational numbers ($\mathbb{I}$) is uncountable, but now I'm given to solve this problem: Show that $|\mathbb{I}|=|\mathbb{R}|$, How can I ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Filling up space with irrational fractional parts [duplicate]

While trying to generalise a mechanics exercise with a friend, we came up with this question, in an attempt to understand wether sine curves with irrational period defined inside an annulus will end ...
3
votes
1answer
55 views

Enough Dedekind cuts to define all irrationals?

Assuming that there are uncountably infinitely many irrationals between any two consecutive rationals, how can the Dedekind cuts (defined on the countably infinite rationals) define all the ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Difference between density and measure

In terms of definition, I know the difference between the two. However, the set of rationals $\mathbb{Q}$ has measure zero but is dense in $\mathbb{R}$. Whenever I envision this, I see a set of ...
10
votes
1answer
146 views

Does $\lfloor(4+\sqrt{11})^{n}\rfloor \pmod {100}$ repeat every $20$ cycles of $n$?

I recently came across a post on SO, asking to calculate the least two decimal digits of the integer part of $(4+\sqrt{11})^{n}$, for any integer $n \geq 2$ (see here). The author presented a Java ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

How to understand Apostol's proof of the irrationality of $\sqrt{n}$ if $n$ is not a perfect square?

Recently I am reading the textbook of Apostol, Mathematical Analysis, Second Edition. On page 7, there is a theorem 1.10: If $n$ is a positive integer with is not a perfect square, then $\sqrt{n}$ is ...
0
votes
3answers
68 views

Prove that there is no rational number solution for an equation.

Prove that there is no rational number solution to the equation $x^2-3x+1=0$. (Note, we do not assume that we know all the solutions of $x^2-3x+1=0$ are given by quadratic formula)
6
votes
5answers
195 views

Sum of two periodic functions is periodic?

I have following paragraph taken from the Stanford's study material. Question: Is the sum of two periodic functions periodic? Answer: I guess the answer is no if you are Mathematician, yes ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

What Will Happen Without Decimal Expansion?

After a discussion on the complexity of decimal expansion (such as $0.\bar{9}=1$), some of my students (middle school) decided to throw away the decimal expansion of some numbers! Namely, the numbers ...
2
votes
3answers
33 views

A good site documenting approximations of irrationals

I'm thinking of Sloane here but I believe that only takes sequences/series into account. Basically I've derived an interesting, appealing formula for e and want to know if it's already been ...
8
votes
0answers
148 views

Irrationality of $\displaystyle\sum_{p\in\mathbb{P}} \frac{1}{2^{p}}$

Let $\mathbb{P}$ be the set of prime numbers, and consider $m=\displaystyle\sum_{p\in\mathbb{P}} \frac{1}{2^{p}}$. Is $m$ irrational? In the following paper, the author recalls several sufficient ...
5
votes
3answers
619 views

Is a cube root of a prime number rational?

The question is: if $P$ is prime is $P^{1/3}$ rational? I have been able to prove that if $P$ is prime then the square root of $P$ isn't rational (by contradiction) how would I go about the cube ...