Inversion is the process of creating the opposite. Familiar examples include multiplicative inverse $2 \mapsto 1/2$, inverting functions $f(x) \mapsto f^{-1}(x)$, matrix inverse $M \mapsto M^{-1}$ etc. Please include an additional subject tag such as (linear-algebra) or (arithmetic) to help clarify ...

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How to derive compositions of trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions?

To prove: $$\begin{align} \sin({\arccos{x}})&=\sqrt{1-x^2}\\ \cos{\arcsin{x}}&=\sqrt{1-x^2}\\ \sin{\arctan{x}}&=\frac{x}{\sqrt{1+x^2}}\\ \cos{\arctan{x}}&=\frac{1}{\sqrt{1+x^2}}\\ ...
6
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3answers
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I don't understand why the inverse is this?

my question is related to matrix inverting and Hill cipher(you don't have to know what it is to help me) My teacher gave me an example. First we have a matrix (the key matrix) that multiplied by a ...
9
votes
4answers
24k views

Calculating the Modular Multiplicative Inverse without all those strange looking symbols

I am sure all those symbols are really easy for you guys to understand, but I would appreciate it if someone could bring it down to earth for me. How could I do this on a basic calculator? or with a ...
28
votes
5answers
57k views

How to find the inverse modulo m?

For example: $$7x \equiv 1 \pmod{31} $$ In this example, the modular inverse of $7$ with respect to $31$ is $9$. How can we find out that $9$? What are the steps that I need to do? Update If I have ...
7
votes
2answers
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Right Inverse for Surjective Function

Prove that if $f:X\to Y$ is a surjective function between sets, then there must exist a function $g:Y\rightarrow X$ such that $f\circ g=1_Y$. I know that the identity function is onto, and if $f$ ...
3
votes
0answers
2k views

Left inverse iff injective; right inverse iff surjective

For a function $f:A\to B$, the function $g:B\to A$ is called: a left inverse for $f$ if $g\circ f$ is the identity on $A$ (i.e., $g\circ f = {\rm id}_A$); and a right inverse for $f$ if ...
5
votes
3answers
970 views

Inverse of a Function exists iff Function is bijective

How to mathematically prove that inverse of a function, let's say, $f^{-1}$, exists, if and only if $f$ is bijective? I know how to prove it using diagrams but I'm looking for a rather mathematical ...
24
votes
2answers
54k views

Transpose of inverse vs inverse of transpose

I can't seem to find the answer to this using Google. Is the transpose of the inverse of a square matrix the same as the inverse of the transpose of that same matrix? Thanks!
7
votes
1answer
4k views

Is the trace of inverse matrix convex?

Hi I would like to know whether the trace of the inverse of a symmetric positive definite matrix $\mathrm{trace}(S^{-1})$ is convex. Actually I know that the trace of a symmetric positive definite ...
18
votes
6answers
12k views

Matrix Inverses and Eigenvalues

I was working on this problem here below, but seem to not know a precise or clean way to show the proof to this question below. I had about a few ways of doing it, but the statements/operations were ...
5
votes
5answers
1k views

Modular Inverses

I'm doing a question that states to find the inverse of $19 \pmod {141}$. So far this is what I have: Since $\gcd(19,141) = 1$, an inverse exists to we can use the Euclidean algorithm to solve for ...
0
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2answers
290 views

To fast invert a real symmetric positive definite matrix that is almost similar to Toeplitz

It is well known how to solve a Toeplitz system Ax = b, of a matrix A, n x n elements, ...
43
votes
5answers
3k views

Functions that are their own inversion. [duplicate]

What are the functions that are their own inverse? (thus functions where $ f(f(x)) = x $ for a large domain) I always thought there were only 4: $f(x) = x , f(x) = -x , f(x) = \frac {1}{x} $ and $ ...
15
votes
1answer
809 views

Adjoint functors as “conceptual inverses”

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's article on category theory claims that adjoint functors can be thought of as "conceptual inverses" of each other. For example, the forgetful functor "ought ...
7
votes
1answer
732 views

Inverse function of $\operatorname{li}(x)$ over $x>\mu$?

How can I get the inverse function of $\operatorname{li}(x)$ over $x>\mu$? Where $$\operatorname{li}(x)=\int_{0}^{x}\frac{ds}{\ln(s)}$$ is the so-called logarithmic integral, and ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

second derivative of the inverse function

I know that the derivative of the inverse function of $f(x)$ is $g'(y) = \frac{1}{f'(x)}$ But how to derive the formula for the second derivative of g(y) knowing that $\left[\frac{1}{f(x)}\right]' = ...
19
votes
6answers
16k views

What's the inverse operation of exponents?

You know, like addition is the inverse operation of subtraction, vice versa, multiplication is the inverse of division, vice versa , square is the inverse of square root, vice versa. What's the ...
4
votes
4answers
669 views

how to find inverse of a matrix in $\Bbb Z_5$

how to find inverse of a matrix in $\Bbb Z_5$ please help me explicitly how to find the inverse of matrix below, what I was thinking that to find inverses separately of the each term in $\Bbb Z_5$ and ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Prove that the determinant of $ A^{-1} = \frac{1}{det(A)} $- Linear Algebra

If I have a single matrix A that is non-singular, how can I prove the determinant of its inverse = $\frac{1}{\det(A)}$? Prove: $$ \det(\mathbf{A^{-1}}) = \frac{1}{\mathbf{\det(A)}} $$ I know that ...
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1answer
1k views

Prove that if A is an invertible matrix, then A*A is Hermitian and positive definite.

If I'm not mistaken, if a matrix $M$ has its conjugate $M^*=M$, then $M$ is Hermitian. In this case then, am I asked to show that $(A^*A)^*=A^*A$? What does it have to do with $A$ being invertible ...
2
votes
2answers
52 views

$(a,b) \mathbin\# (c,d)=(a+c,b+d)$ and $(a,b) \mathbin\&(c,d)=(ac-bd(r^2+s^2), ad+bc+2rbd)$. Multiplicative inverse?

Let $r\in \mathbb{R}$ and let $0\neq s \in \mathbb{R}$. Define operations $\#$ and $\&$ on $\mathbb{R}$ x $\mathbb{R}$ by $(a,b) \mathbin\#(c,d)=(a+c,b+d)$ and $(a,b) ...
1
vote
1answer
222 views

The inverse of the matrix $\{1/(i+j-1)\}$

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Show that the matrix $$\begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1/2 & 1/3 & \cdots & 1/n \\ 1/2 & 1/3 & 1/4 & \cdots & 1/(n+1) \\ \vdots & \vdots & ...
20
votes
11answers
3k views

Why is $\frac{1}{\frac{1}{X}}=X$?

Can someone help me understand in basic terms why $$\frac{1}{\frac{1}{X}} = X$$ And my book says that "to simplify the reciprocal of a fraction, invert the fraction"...I don't get this because isn't ...
5
votes
3answers
435 views

Inverse function of $y=W(e^{ax+b})-W(e^{cx+d})+zx$

I have a simple question for which I am looking for a closed form expression (If there exits one). In other words, given: $$y=W(e^{ax+b})-W(e^{cx+d})+zx$$ where $W$ is the Lambert $W$ function and ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

A problem with the geometric series and matrices?

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Let $A$ be a square matrix. Let $I$ be the identity matrix with the same size as $A$. I want to simplify $f_n(A) = I + A + A^2 + A^3 + A^4 + \cdots + A^n$ Now I know ...
19
votes
8answers
3k views

Why do negative exponents work the way they do? [closed]

Why is a value with a negative exponent equal to the multiplicative inverse but with a positive exponent? $$a^{-b} = \frac{1}{a^b}$$
5
votes
1answer
525 views

Inverse of elliptic integral of second kind

The Wikipedia articles on elliptic integral and elliptic functions state that “elliptic functions were discovered as inverse functions of elliptic integrals.” Some elliptic functions have names and ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

Inverse of symmetric matrix $M = A A^\top$

I have a matrix, generated by the product of a non-square matrix with its own transpose: $$M = A A^\top.$$ I need the inverse of $M$, assuming $\det(M) \neq 0$. Given the nature of the matrix $M$, ...
4
votes
1answer
155 views

Inverse of $f(x)=\sin(x)+x$

What is the inverse of $$f(x)=\sin(x)+x.$$ I thought about it for a while but I couldn't figure it out and I couldn't find the answer on the internet. What about $$f(x)=\sin(a \cdot x)+x$$ where ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

$ (x x^T)^{-1}$, efficient matrix inversion for matrix composed as product of a vector with itself?

Given a vector $x$, is there an efficient way of computing $(x x^T)^{-1}$? I mean without first computing the matrix $(x x^T)$ and then applying matrix inversion techniques to it?
3
votes
1answer
2k views

mean and variance of reciprocal normal distribution

If $X$ is a normal distributed with mean $\mu$ and variance $\sigma^2$. What would be the mean and variance of $Y = \dfrac{1}{X}$
2
votes
2answers
205 views

Double Think about Numerosity

According to standard mathematics, the Natural Numbers are given. Moreover, they are given as a (completed) Infinite Set. This set is commonly denoted as: $$ \mathbb{N} = \left\{ ...
2
votes
1answer
858 views

Proof that Gauss-Jordan elimination works

Gauss-Jordan elimination is a technique that can be used to calculate the inverse of matrices (if they are invertible). It can also be used to solve simultaneous linear equations. However, after a ...
0
votes
1answer
82 views

Adjoint of a matrix and inverse of a matrix

As everyone know that we can use a matrix $A$ to represent an operator $T$. The adjoint of a matrix $A$ is denoted as $A^*$, which takes complex conjugate of $A$ and then transpose. My problem ...
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votes
1answer
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Inverse of a block matrix

I have a special case where $X=\left(\begin{array}{cc} A & B\\ C & 0 \end{array}\right)$ and: $X$ is non-singular $A$ is singular $B$ is full column rank $C$ is full row rank How do you ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Finding the derivatives of inverse functions at given point of c

Hoping someone can help me the understand the steps to solve a problem like this. I'm guessing it involves the formula: $\frac{d}{dx}f^{-1}(f(x))=1/f'(x)$. Am I right in this assumption? I would post ...
2
votes
1answer
344 views

Efficient diagonal update of matrix inverse

I am computing $(kI + A)^{-1}$ in an iterative algorithm where $k$ changes in each iteration. $I$ is an $n$-by-$n$ identity matrix, $A$ is an $n$-by-$n$ precomputed symmetric positive-definite matrix. ...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

left inverse is not equal to right inverse [duplicate]

Is it possible to have a function which has both left and right inverse but they are unequal ? A left inverse means the function should be one-to-one whereas a right inverse means the function should ...
1
vote
1answer
181 views

Linear algebra proof regarding matrices

I'd like a hint rather than a full solution. The problem I am considering is the following: $X$ is an $n\times m$ matrix $Y$ is $m\times n$ Show that $(I - XY)^{-1}\cdot X = X\cdot(I - ...
1
vote
1answer
780 views

inverse of quadratic matrix form

I have an expression of the form: $ACA′$ where C is an invertible, symmetric and positive definite matrix. I'm trying to figure out if the expression above is invertible (or what additional ...
1
vote
2answers
355 views

Inverse modulo question?

I know that when gcd(a,b) = 1, a and b are relatively prime. This allows you to write the linear combination aS + bT = 1, where S and T are Bezouts's coefficients. As I understand, one of these ...
1
vote
1answer
581 views

Finding the inverse of the sum of two symmetric matrices A+B

Consider calculating the inverse of matrix sum $$A+B$$ where A is a symmetric dense matrix while B is a symmetric block diagonal matrix. I am interested in finding an efficient approach to update ...
0
votes
2answers
55 views

Suppose we have functions $f:A→B$ and $g:B→C$. Prove that if $f$ and $g$ are invertible, then so is $g \circ f$.

Suppose we have functions $f:A→B$ and $g:B→C$. Prove that if $f$ and $g$ are invertible, then so is $g \circ f$. Is the converse true? I.e., if $g \circ f$ is invertible, does it follow that $f$ and ...
0
votes
4answers
260 views

Calculate the multiplicative inverse modulo a composite number

I want to calculate $ 8^{-1} \bmod 77 $ I can deduce $ 8^{-1} \bmod 77$ to $ 8^{59} \bmod 77 $ using Euler's Theorem. But how to move further now. Should i calculate $ 8^{59} $ and then divide ...
0
votes
2answers
60 views

Find the range of arcsin$((1-x^2)^{0.5})$

Title says it all, how do you get the answer to this? So far I only reach $0<1-x^2<pi/2$ but I get an invalid answer from here. the correct answer is $0<x<pi/2$. Any help is appreciated, ...
52
votes
8answers
4k views

Why does this “miracle method” for matrix inversion work?

Recently, I answered this question about matrix invertibility using a solution technique I called a "miracle method." The question and answer are reproduced below: Problem: Let $A$ be a matrix ...
26
votes
9answers
2k views

Are most matrices invertible? [duplicate]

I asked myself this question, to which I think the answer is "yes". One reason would be that an invertible matrix has infinitely many options for its determinant (except $0$), whereas a non-invertible ...
8
votes
1answer
418 views

Simple to state yet tricky question

Define $$A=\left[\mathrm I+\sum_{k=1}^{m_1}v_k v_k^T+\sum_{k=1}^{m_2}u_k u_k^T\right]^{-1},$$ where each $u_k$ and $v_k$ is a $0$-$1$ column vector, and for each $1\leq i \leq n$, the $i$th component ...
5
votes
2answers
152 views

How to formally show that $f(z)$ is analytic at $z=0$?

Let $z$ be a complex number. Let $$f(z)=\dfrac{1}{\frac{1}{z}+\ln(\frac{1}{z})}.$$ How to formally show that $f(z)$ is analytic at $z=0$? I know that for small $z$ we have ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Functions whose derivative is the inverse of that function

Everyone knows that there are at least three functions whose derivative is the function itself, namely $e^x, \ 0$ and $-e^{x}$. ( are there more?) I was drawing some polynomials and their ...