Mathematical intuition is the instinctive impression regarding mathematical ideas which originate naturally without regard to formal mathematical proofs. It may or may not stem from a cognitive rational process.

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What's an intuitive way to think about the determinant?

In my linear algebra class, we just talked about determinants. So far I’ve been understanding the material okay, but now I’m very confused. I get that when the determinant is zero, the matrix doesn’t ...
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7answers
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Dominoes and induction, or how does induction work?

I've never really understood why math induction is supposed to work. You have these 3 steps: Prove true for base case (n=0 or 1 or whatever) Assume true for n=k. Call this the induction hypothesis....
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How can I understand and prove the “sum and difference formulas” in trigonometry? (cos(a ± b) = …, etc.)?

The "sum and difference" formulas often come in handy, but it's not immediately obvious that they would be true. \begin{align} \sin(\alpha \pm \beta) &= \sin \alpha \cos \beta \pm \cos \alpha \...
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What Does it Really Mean to Have Different Kinds of Infinities?

Can someone explain to me how there can be different kinds of infinities? I was reading "The man who loved only numbers" by Paul Hoffman and came across the concept of countable and uncountable ...
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16answers
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Intuitive Understanding of the constant “$e$”

Potentially related-questions, shown before posting, didn't have anything like this, so I apologize in advance if this is a duplicate. I know there are many ways of calculating (or should I say "...
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4answers
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Motivation behind standard deviation?

Let's take the numbers 0-10. Their mean is 5, and the individual deviations from 5 are -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 And so the average (magnitude of) ...
90
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11answers
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Intuition behind Matrix Multiplication

If I multiply two numbers, say $3$ and $5$, I know it means add $3$ to itself $5$ times or add $5$ to itself $3$ times. But If I multiply two matrices, what does it mean ? I mean I can't think it ...
35
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Why is the area under a curve the integral?

I understand how derivatives work based on the definition, and the fact that my professor explained it step by step until the point where I can derive it myself. However when it comes to the area ...
21
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7answers
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Intuitive Explanation of Bessel's Correction

When calculating a sample variance a factor of (N-1) appears instead of N (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample_variance#Population_variance_and_sample_variance ). Does anybody have an intuitive ...
7
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6answers
965 views

Convergence of the series $\sum \limits_{n=2}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n\log^s n}$

We all know that $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^s}$ converges for $s>1$ and diverges for $s \leq 1$ (Assume $s \in \mathbb{R}$). I was curious to see till what extent I can push the ...
46
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11answers
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What should be the intuition when working with compactness?

I have a question that may be regarded by many as duplicate since there's a similar one at MathOverflow. The point is that I think I'm not really getting the idea on compactness. I mean, in $\mathbb{R}...
179
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8answers
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Intuition for the definition of the Gamma function?

In these notes by Terence Tao is a proof of Stirling's formula. I really like most of it, but at a crucial step he uses the integral identity $$n! = \int_{0}^{\infty} t^n e^{-t} dt$$ coming from ...
25
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5answers
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Intuition on group homomorphisms

So I'm studying for finals now, and came across the idea of homomorphisms again. This is not a new idea for me at all, having seen them in groups, rings, fields ect. However, on reevaluating them I ...
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3answers
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Intuitive explanation for formula of maximum length of a pipe moving around a corner?

For one of my homework problems, we had to try and find the maximum possible length $L$ of a pipe (indicated in red) such that it can be moved around a corner with corridor lengths $A$ and $B$ (...
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4answers
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Do you prove all theorems whilst studying?

When you come across a new theorem, do you always try to prove it first before reading the proof within the text? I'm a CS undergrad with a bit of an interest in maths. I've not gone very far in my ...
48
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12answers
11k views

Looking for an intuitive explanation why the row rank is equal to the column rank for a matrix

I am looking for an intuitive explanation as to why/how row rank of a matrix = column rank. I've read the proof at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rank_of_a_linear_transformation and I understand the ...
42
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6answers
3k views

Motivation for spectral graph theory.

Why do we care about eigenvalues of graphs? Of course, any novel question in mathematics is interesting, but there is an entire discipline of mathematics devoted to studying these eigenvalues, so ...
92
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12answers
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Why does factoring eliminate a hole in the limit?

$$\lim _{x\rightarrow 5}\frac{x^2-25}{x-5} = \lim_{x\rightarrow 5} (x+5)$$ I understand that to evaluate a limit that has a zero ("hole") in the denominator we have to factor and cancel terms, and ...
4
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3answers
305 views

Why the principle of counting does not match with our common sense

Principle of counting says that "the number of odd integers, which is the same as the number of even integers, is also the same as the number of integers overall." This does not match with my ...
85
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4answers
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What are the Axiom of Choice and Axiom of Determinacy?

Would someone please explain: What does the Axiom of Choice mean, intuitively? What does the Axiom of Determinancy mean, intuitively, and how does it contradict the Axiom of Choice? as simple ...
59
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6answers
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Intuitive interpretation of the Laplacian

Just as the gradient is "the direction of steepest ascent", and the divergence is "amount of stuff created at a point", is there a nice interpretation of the Laplacian (a.k.a. divergence of gradient)?
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2answers
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Matrix multiplication: interpreting and understanding the process

I have just watched the first half of the 3rd lecture of Gilbert Strang on the open course ware with link: http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mathematics/18-06-linear-algebra-spring-2010/video-lectures/ It ...
35
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21answers
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Could you explain why $\frac{d}{dx} e^x = e^x$ “intuitively”?

As the title implies, It is seems that $e^x$ is the only function whoes derivative is the same as itself. thanks.
137
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6answers
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In (relatively) simple words: What is an inverse limit?

I am a set theorist in my orientation, and while I did take a few courses that brushed upon categorical and algebraic constructions, one has always eluded me. The inverse limit. I tried to ask one of ...
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6answers
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Connection between Fourier transform and Taylor series

Both Fourier transform and Taylor series are means to represent functions in a different form. My question: What is the connection between these two? Is there a way to get from one to the other (and ...
85
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5answers
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Why do we care about dual spaces?

When I first took linear algebra, we never learned about dual spaces. Today in lecture we discussed them and I understand what they are and everything, but I don't really understand why we want to ...
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9answers
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What makes elementary functions elementary?

Is there a mathematical reason (or possibly a historical one) that the "elementary" functions are what they are? As I'm learning calculus, I seem to focus most of my attention on trigonometric, ...
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1answer
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Geometric meaning of the determinant of a matrix

What is the geometric meaning of the determinant of a matrix? I know that "The determinant of a matrix represents the area of ​​a rectangle." Perhaps this phrase is imprecise, but I would like to know ...
19
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7answers
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Why in an inconsistent axiom system every statement is true? (For Dummies)

I would like to know if someone can explain in a somehow down to earth (almost logic free) way why is it true that in an axiom system where there is some statement $P$ such that $P$ and its negation $\...
10
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2answers
983 views

Intuition behind the Definition of Conditional Probability (for 2 Events)

What is some intuitive insight regarding the conditional probability definition: $P(A\mid B) = \large \frac{P(A \cap B)}{P(B)}$ ? I am looking for an intuitive motivation. My textbook merely gives a ...
103
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12answers
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Why is compactness so important?

I've read many times that 'compactness' is such an extremely important and useful concept, though it's still not very apparent why. The only theorems I've seen concerning it are the Heine-Borel ...
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5answers
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Why “characteristic zero” and not “infinite characteristic”?

The characteristic of a ring (with unity, say) is the smallest positive number $n$ such that $$\underbrace{1 + 1 + \cdots + 1}_{n \text{ times}} = 0,$$ provided such an $n$ exists. Otherwise, we ...
28
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14answers
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Dot Product Intuition

I'm searching to develop the intuition (rather than memorization) in relating the two forms of a dot product (by an angle theta between the vectors and by the components of the vector ). For ...
17
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5answers
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Why are polynomials defined to be “formal”?

Despite the fact that $\forall n, n^3 + 2n \equiv 0 \pmod 3$, I understand that $n^3 + 2n$ (considered as a polynomial with coefficients in $\mathbb Z/3\mathbb Z$) is not equal to the zero polynomial. ...
12
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3answers
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Intuition of Addition Formula for Sine and Cosine

The proof of two angles for sine function is derived using $$\sin(A+B)=\sin A\cos B+\sin B\cos A$$ and $$\cos(A+B)=\cos A\cos B-\sin A\sin B$$ for cosine function. I know how to derive both of the ...
14
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3answers
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Intuitive explanation of the Fundamental Theorem of Linear Algebra

Can someone explain intuitively what the Fundamental Theorem of Linear Algebra states? and why specifically it is called the above? Specifically, what makes it 'Fundamental' in the broad scope of the ...
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2answers
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Elementary proof of the fact that any orientable 3-manifold is parallelizable

A parallelizable manifold $M$ is a smooth manifold such that there exist smooth vector fields $V_1,...,V_n$ where $n$ is the dimension of $M$, such that at any point $p\in M$, the tangent vectors $V_1(...
19
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4answers
828 views

Intuition for $\omega^\omega$

I'm trying to understand the ordinal number $\omega^\omega$ and I'm having a hard time. I think I understand what $\omega^2$ is. It's what I would get if I took countably many copies of $\omega$ and ...
13
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5answers
2k views

The definition of metric space,topological space

I have read some books in analysis. All of them define metric space, topological space or vector space directly, without any reason. Therefore, I want to know the background of the definition - the ...
45
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14answers
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Surprising Generalizations

I just learned (thanks to Harry Gindi's answer on MO and to Qiaochu Yuan's blog post on AoPS) that the chinese remainder theorem and Lagrange interpolation are really just two instances of the same ...
82
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19answers
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How do you explain the concept of logarithm to a five year old?

Okay I understand that it cannot be explained to a 5 year old. But, how do you explain the logarithm to primary school students?
36
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8answers
3k views

Why do we restrict the definition of Lebesgue Integrability?

The function $f(x) = \sin(x)/x$ is Riemann Integrable from $0$ to $\infty$, but it is not Lebesgue Integrable on that same interval. (Note, it is not absolutely Riemann Integrable.) Why is it we ...
26
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7answers
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Why do we require a topological space to be closed under finite intersection?

In the definition of topological space, we require the intersection of a finite number of open sets to be open while we require the arbitrary union of open sets to be open. why is this? I'm assuming ...
27
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3answers
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Why is it so hard to find the roots of polynomial equations?

The question that follows was inspired by this question: When trying to solve for the roots of a polynomial equation, the quadratic formula is much more simple than the cubic formula and the cubic ...
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Line integration in complex analysis

In normal line integration, from what I understand, you are measuring the area underneath $f(x,y)$ along a curve in the $x\text{-}y$ plane from point $a$ to point $b$. But what is being measured with ...
13
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Intuition explanation of taylor expansion?

Could you provide a geometric explanation of taylor expansion?
9
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778 views

Intuition behind Cantor-Bernstein-Schroeder

The book I am working from (Introduction to Set Theory, Hrbacek & Jech) gives a proof of this result, which I can follow as a chain of implications, but which does not make natural, intuitive ...
15
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2answers
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Axiom of Choice Examples

In the wikipedia article, two examples are given which use/ do not use the axiom of choice. They are: Given an infinite pair of socks, one needs AC to pick one sock out of each pair. Given an ...
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2answers
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Prison problem: locking or unlocking every $n$th door for $ n=1,2,3,…$

I have a problem called "The Prison Problem" that I need to explain to my 9-year-old cousin. I would think that he has just started learning about divisors and perfect squares, and as such, I have a ...
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Why does the sum of the reciprocals of factorials converge to $e$?

I've been asked by some schoolmates why we have $$ \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{n!}=e.$$ I couldn't say much besides that the $\Gamma$ function, analytic continuation of the factorial, is defined with ...