Mathematical intuition is the instinctive impression regarding mathematical ideas which originate naturally without regard to formal mathematical proofs. It may or may not stem from a cognitive rational process.

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Intiution behind the derivative of dirac delta function

Let me first begin what I mean by saying the intuition behind the " $\delta'(x)$ ". For example the smooth approximations of the delta function looks like the following: (Left:the smooth ...
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Intuition behind functional dependence

What is the intuition behind functional independence ? (This is defined in the following way: Let $k\leq n$. The $C^1$ functions $F_1,\ldots,F_k:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ are functionally ...
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Motivation for the binary entropy function

What is the motivation for the definition of the binary entropy function $H(x) = -p\log_2(p) - (1-p)\log_2(1-p)$? I understand that we want the entropy to be zero at $p = 0$ and $p = 1$ (no ...
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Explicit formula for floor(x)?

In number theory we have so-called explicit formula's in terms of the Riemann zeta zero's. For instance to count the sum of the logarithms of the primes below some given integer. ( second Chebyshev ...
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integrate $\frac{x}{\cos x}\sin(\tan x)$

I can't solve it. please help! I tried everything. Integration by parts doesn't work. but maybe I didn't do it right. I tried to substitute , but I'm stuck. $$\int \frac{x}{\cos x}\sin(\tan x)\,dx$$ ...
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40 views

What does $H X H^T$ do?

I regularly encounter the use of: $$H X H^T$$ Where: $H$ is a $(n\times m)$ matrix, with $H^T$ it's transpose $X$ is a $(m \times m)$ matrix If we rephrased this as a function (unquely defined ...
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Is there an intuitive reason why hippopede, the intersection curve of a sphere and a cylinder, is traced by composing two rotational motions?

The hippopede is historically famous because Eudoxus used its properties in the first mathematical model of planetary motion. He nested concentric spheres rotating at different inclinations to each ...
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Meaning of $\mathcal A_{\tau}$ for stopping time $\tau$.

Let $(X_n)$ be a stochastic process, adapted to a filtration $\mathcal A_n$, and let $\tau$ be a stopping time, then $$ \mathcal A_{\tau} := \left\{ A \in \sigma\left(\bigcup_n A_n\right) : A \cap \{ ...
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33 views

Physically, what meaning have Taylor series which have their lower order terms equal to zero, but their higher order terms non zero?

Usually, when using a Taylor series to describe a function (which may itself be a model of some physical phenomenon), we often throw out the higher order terms, as they are quite small relative to the ...
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317 views

Questions on Proofs - Equivalent Conditions of Normal Subgroup - Fraleigh p. 141 Theorem 14.13

(1.) Why did Fraleigh shirk the proof for $(2) \implies (1)$? By dint of Arthur's comment, $(2) \iff \color{crimson}{gHg^{-1} \subseteq H} \quad \wedge \quad gHg^{-1} \supseteq H \implies ...
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Intuitive Aproach of Dolbeault Cohomology

I would like to understand an intuitive approach to the definitions of Dolbeault Cohomology (using $\partial$ and $\bar{\partial}$) similar to the one given here. All suggestions are welcome.
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Product of two Gaussian PDFs is a Gaussain PDF, but Produt of two Gaussan Variables is not Gaussian

The Product of Two Gaussain Random Variables is not Gaussian distributed: Is the product of two Gaussian random variables also a Gaussian? Also Wolfram Mathworld So this is saying $X \sim N(\mu_1, ...
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On the matrix representation of a composition of Mobius transforms

Let the Mobius transform associated to the matrix $A=\begin{pmatrix}a&b\\c&d\end{pmatrix}$ be defined as $\mu_A:\mathbb C\to\mathbb C:z\mapsto\frac{az+b}{cz+d}$ provided $\det A\neq 0$. It is ...
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71 views

Intuitive Approach to de Rham Cohomology

The intuition behind homology may be summarized in a sentence: to find objects without boundary which are not the boundary of an object. This has geometric meaning and explains the algebraic boundary ...
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28 views

Homotopy Invariance: Cone Construction and Prisms Operators

I'm looking at different approaches to proving the homotopy invariance of homology. Rotman and Dieck both mention "the cone construction", but hatcher only introduces the prism operators and does not ...
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105 views

Elementary proof of the fact that any orientable 3-manifold is parallelizable

A parallelizable manifold $M$ is a smooth manifold such that there exist smooth vector fields $V_1,...,V_n$ where $n$ is the dimension of $M$, such that at any point $p\in M$, the tangent vectors ...
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Clifford Algebras for Projective and Conformal Geometry

According to Clifford Algebra: A Visual Introduction, A Clifford Algebra over $\mathbb{R}^3$ may describe the rigid motions in space (namely, conjugation acts as a reflection by a plane). A ...
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$1$ is not congruent because of Fermat's Last Theorem?

I would like someone to explain something I did not understand. I was reading a page called "nuking the mosquito" where they give very complex proofs for very simple results. The proof I want to talk ...
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55 views

The set $\omega \times \omega$ is equinumerous with $\omega$.

Proposition: The set $\omega \times \omega$ is equinumerous with $\omega$, i.e. the set $\omega \times \omega$ is countable. "Intuitive Proof" $$\mathbb{N}^2=\{ (n,m): n,m \in \mathbb{N} \}$$ $$1 ...
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Connections between the solution of simple ordinary equation, normal distribution and heat equation

The solution to the following simple first-order linear ordinary differential equation: $$x'=-tx, x(0)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}$$ is the Standard normal distribution! One solution to another famous ...
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Is my intuition on projectivization correct?

Is my intuition on what a projectivization of an affine curve in $C^2$ is and why it is useful correct? From what I understand given an affine curve $C$ we are trying to find a projective curve ...
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Meaning of a long exact sequence

Edit: The setting for the question is some abelian category. From this question I learned that one way to view a short exact sequence $$0\rightarrow A\rightarrow B\rightarrow C\rightarrow 0$$ is as ...
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Modern treatment of Topology that focuses on intuition and is full of explanations and visual insights.

I'm interested in a modern treatment of Topology (point-set, and general topology at the undergraduate level) that focuses on intuition and is full of explanations and visual insights. This will be ...
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489 views

Intersection of Normal Subgroups is Normal in Subgroup but Not Group - Fraleigh p. 143 14.35

Show that if H is a subgroup of a group G, and N is a normal subgroup in G, then $H \cap N$ is normal in H. Show by an example that $H \cap N$ need not be normal in G. I can condone the proof hence ...
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Why “characteristic zero” and not “infinite characteristic”?

The characteristic of a ring (with unity, say) is the smallest positive number $n$ such that $$\underbrace{1 + 1 + \cdots + 1}_{n \text{ times}} = 0,$$ provided such an $n$ exists. Otherwise, we ...
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Intuitive way to understand covariance and contravariance in Tensor Algebra

I'm trying to understand basic tensor analysis. I understand the basic concept that the valency of the tensor determines how it is transformed, but I am having trouble visualizing the difference ...
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287 views

In a finite cyclic group of order n, number of solutions to $x^m = e$ - Fraleigh p. 68 6.53,54

(53.) Show that in a finite cyclic group G of order n, written multiplicatively, the equation $x^m = e$ has exactly m solutions $x$ in G for each $m \in \mathbb{N}$ that divides n. (54.) With ...
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Elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem - Need?

Although I am very much new to "Analytic Number Theory", there are some non mathematical questions which puzzle me. First of all, why was G.H.Hardy so much keen to have an elementary proof of the ...
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Direct proof. Square root function uniformly continuous on $[0, \infty)$ (S.A. pp 119 4.4.8)

(http://math.stanford.edu/~ksound/Math171S10/Hw8Sol_171.pdf) Prove for all $e > 0,$ there exists $d > 0$ : for all $x, y \ge 0$, $|x - y| < d \implies |\sqrt{x} - \sqrt{y}| < e$. (a) ...
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Rotman, Algebraic Topology, Lemma $4.22$

Lemma 4.22. Let $X$ be a space and, for $i=0,1$, let $\lambda _i:X\rightarrow X\times I$ be defined by $x\mapsto (x,i)$. If $H_n (\lambda _0)=H_n(\lambda _1)$, then $H_n(f)=H_n(g)$ whenever ...
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What are some examples of a mathematical result being counterintuitive?

As I procrastinate studying for my Maths Exams, I want to know what are some cool examples of where math counters intuition. My first and favorite experience of this is Gabriel's Horn that you see in ...
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Intuition behind definition of limit of sequences at infinity with example

The definition given is for every $c>0$, there exists an N such that $a_n$>c for all $n>N$ Please could someone explain this is really basic terms as im struggling to get my head around it. ...
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How can I understand $\Bbb Z\times \Bbb Z/2\Bbb Z$

This may be stupid request, but I would like to have a intuition for the group $\Bbb Z\times \Bbb Z/2\Bbb Z$ in terms of 'real' objects. 'Real' could mean geometric but not necessarily. I perhaps what ...
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How are long proofs “planned”?

I just graduated with my bachelors in mathematics last year, so I have little experience in writing huge, very involved proofs. The longest proof I've ever written was about 10 pages, but it wasn't ...
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Definition of e

Possible Duplicate: Why is $1^{\infty}$ considered to be an indeterminate form Is $dy/dx$ not a ratio? I'm very eager to know and understand the definition of $e$. Textbooks define $e$ as ...
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Novel approaches to elementary number theory and abstract algebra

As a part of a university course, I'll have to study Herstein's Topics in algebra and Hardy&Wright's Introduction to the theory of numbers. Can you suggest some books (to be used as companions) ...
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Substructure of $\omega$-catogorical theory $T$.

I need some help understanding part of my Model Theory notes: "Given that $T$ is $\omega$-categorical and $\mathfrak{A} \vDash T$, for $S \subseteq A$, let $\langle S\rangle$ denote the smallest ...
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Why is $(AB)^{-1}=A^{-1}B^{-1}?$ [closed]

If we have two matrices $A$ and $B$ then the following property is true. $$(AB)^{-1}=A^{-1}B^{-1}.$$ I can't understand how the property is true. Can anyone give me a intuitive proof for the ...
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Connection between Fourier transform and Taylor series

Both Fourier transform and Taylor series are means to represent functions in a different form. My question: What is the connection between these two? Is there a way to get from one to the other (and ...
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How to prove this using natural deduction

⊢ P ∨ ¬P I found this question on the net. I know the solution but i find it complicated. How should i approach to this sort of question? Or can you provide me another solution ?
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Parallel Programming the 1-D dam breakage problem

I am to write a parallel program to simulate the 1D dam break problem by using the Galerkin Equations with WENO limiter. The equations are on domain [0,2000]. At the beginning a dam divides the ...
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Intuitive Explanation of Bessel's Correction

When calculating a sample variance a factor of (N-1) appears instead of N (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample_variance#Population_variance_and_sample_variance ). Does anybody have an intuitive ...
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An elliptic integral of first kind expresses the time of motion along an elliptic phase curve in the corresponding Hamiltonian system

Arnold in his essay On teaching mathematics made the following statement: The de-geometrisation of mathematical education and the divorce from physics sever these ties. For example, not only ...
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Nonobvious examples of metric spaces that do not work like $\mathbb{R}^n$

This week, I come to the end of the first year analysis, and suffer from a "crisis of motivation." With this question, I want to chase away my thought, "Why is it important to study the general ...
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Why is an open interval needed in this definition? (definition of a limit of a function)

Here's a part of the definition Ross' Elementary Analysis states for limits of a function: 20.3 Definition (a) For $a\in\mathbb R$ and a function $f$ we write $\lim_{x\to a} f(x)=L$ provided ...
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Why do some mathematical ideas seem counter-intuitive?

Suppose you play the following game: There's a certain buy-in, and at every turn you flip a coin. If anytime you flip a tail, you lose the game and leave with your winnings. If you flip a head on the ...
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Why is the ratio test for $L=1$ inconclusive?

One of the often used tests for convergence ($L\lt 1$) and divergence ($L\gt 1$) of an infinite series is the ratio test. The idea behind it, why it works is the geometric series which dominates (or ...
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How the cardinality of $\mathbb{R^+}$ and $\mathbb{R}$ same?

Let me first confirm you that this question is not a duplicate of either this, this or this or any other similar looking problem. Here in the current problem I'm asking to disprove me(most probably ...
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Intuitive explanation of variance and moment in Probability

While I understand the intuition behind expectation, I don't really understand the meaning of variance and moment. What is a good way to think of those two terms?
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Example: Function sequence uniformly converges, its derivatives don't.

Could anyone give an example of a sequence of differentiable (real) functions that uniformly converge to a differentiable function, but the derivatives of which don't converge to the derivative of the ...