# Tagged Questions

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### Why do we denote $S^1$ for the the unit circle and $S^2$ for unit sphere?

Maybe a quite easy question. Why is $S^1$ the unit circle and $S^2$ is the unit sphere? Also why is $S^1\times S^1$ a torus? It does not seem that they have anything in common, do they?
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### What application is there for a non-Hausdorff topological space?

I'm learning basic topology and as I understand it, a good way to intuit what an open set is, is that it determines which elements are near each other. However, in a non-Hausdorff space, it would be ...
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### Intuition for an open mapping

What is an intuitive picture of an open mapping? The definition of an open mapping (a function which maps open sets to open sets) is simple sounding, but it's really not as easy to picture as the ...
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### Intuition behind a proof showing a square is homeomorphic to a quotient of an interval

There's a rather simple proof for the following theorem: There exists an equivalence relation $\sim$ on the unit interval $I=[0,1]$ such that the quotient $I/{\sim}$ is homeomorphic to the unit ...
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### How can you describe topology to a non-mathematician without using continuous deformations?

One of the most frequently used ways to describe topology to non-mathematicians is that it studies the properties of objects that are preserved under deformations where ripping or tearing is not ...
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### How much topology for graph theory?

I am writing a thesis in the context of descriptive complexity in theoretical computer science and therefore need to study a little bit of graph theory. My background is not mathematics but computer ...
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### How to develop intuition in topology?

Is there any efficient trick (besides doing exercises) to develop intuition in topology? The question is general but i would like to add my view of things. I started to teach myself topology through ...
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### Intuition of a Submanifold

Could someone explain the intuition behind a submanifold. When, for example, is it appropriate to work with immersed submanifolds vs embedded submanifolds? Why is it important for a submanifold to be ...
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### definition of separation axioms in topology

I am learning the Separation Axioms and came across the definition of regular space. In the definition they say, "Suppose the one point sets are closed in $X$" My question is: how can one point sets ...
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### Intuition behind definition of homotopic equivalence and distinction with homeomorphism

I am a physics student and have come across the definition of homotopic equivalence of two spaces as existence of two functions $f:X \to Y,g: Y \to X$ such that $g \circ f$ and $f \circ g$ are ...
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### Intuition behind continuity in topological spaces

I was approaching the following problem: "Let $f \colon X \to Y$ be continuous. Is it true that if $x$ is a limit point of $A \subset X$ then $f(x)$ is a limit point of $f(A)$?" The answer is that ...
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### Is it correct to think about homeomorphisms as deformations?

The definition of homeomorphism is that of a continuous bijection with continuous inverse. Because we can think of continuous functions as functions that maps nearby points to nearby points, we could ...
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### Which of these topological properties imply which?

I am going through the chapter on compactness and completeness from Sternberg's Advanced Calculus and trying to build an intuition for what many of this topological properties mean, and which imply ...
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### Why is compactness so important?

I've read many times that 'compactness' is such an extremely important and useful concept, though it's still not very apparent why. The only theorems I've seen concerning it are the Heine-Borel ...
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### What is the difference between a discrete function and a continuous function

Intuitively it seems that both concepts should be disjoint because if a function is discrete then it has some holes on it and if a function is continuous then it doesn't have holes. But now I'm not ...
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### Why the axioms for a topological space are those axioms?

This question might have even been asked here before, I don't really know, so sorry if it's duplicate. I've started to study topological spaces and I've found the axioms for such spaces kind of hard ...
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### Intuition behind the difference between derived sets and closed sets?

I missed the lecture from my Analysis class where my professor talked about derived sets. Furthermore, nothing about derived sets is in my textbook. Upon looking in many topology textbooks, few even ...
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### Intuition behind compact subspaces of a metric space

I've read up on compactness in a metric space and have found a few definitions (let $X$ be a metric space and $E \subset X$ in all the following): $E$ is compact in $X$ if for every open covering of ...
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### The Sorgenfrey line ($\mathbb R$ endowed with the lower limit topology $\tau_l$) is Lindelöf

In course of showing that the Sorgenfrey line $(\mathbb R$ endowed with the lower limit topology $\tau_l)$ is lindelöf I've made the following attempt: I've picked up a cover $\mathcal U$ of ...
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### Looking for Cover's hubris-busting ${\mathbb R}^{N\gg3}$ counterexamples

In lecture 4 of his Introduction to Dynamical Linear Systems course, right after interpreting the inner product in ${\mathbb R}^N$ in terms of the cosine of the subtended angle, Stanford's Stephen ...
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### Intuition behind topological spaces

I'm studying topology since a few months ago and I have never caught a good intuition of the topological spaces, but now I think that I did. My intuition is the next; as many people point out the ...
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### Which space this space drawn in this picture is homeomorphic?

Based in this question Why this space is homeomorphic to the plane? I would like to know which space this space is homeomorphic, any help or an intuitive idea are welcome. [Context of Image: ...
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### Why this space is homeomorphic to the plane?

I'm trying to see why this picture below is homeomorphic to the $\mathbb R^2$. It's really hard, please I need an intuitive idea of this. This seems very weird for me, I need help. Thanks a lot
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### This quotient space is homeomorphic to the Möbius strip?

Let $G:\mathbb R \times [-1,1]\to \mathbb R \times [-1,1]$ be a map defined by $G(x,y)=(x+1,-y)$ This space $Q=\mathbb R\times [-1,1]/\sim$, where $(x_1,y_1)\sim (x_2,y_2)$ if and only if there is ...
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### intuitive idea of deformations in topology

We know that when we prove that two topological spaces are homeomorphic to each other in fact we are proving that these spaces are in fact equal under deformations. Why? this question is very ...
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### What are some good intuitions for understanding Souslin's operation $\mathcal{A}$?

What are some good intuitions for understanding Souslin's operation $\mathcal{A}$? Recall the definition: Let $S = \mathbb{N^{<N}} = \bigcup_{n = 1}^\infty \mathbb{N}^n$ be the set of ...
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### What is the role of Topology in mathematics?

What is the role of Topology in Mathematics? Is it like Logic that you need in every areas of math?
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### Intuitive significance open sets (and software for learning topology?)

I have just started to learn topology and I referred to some books and online lectures. The problem is that they all talk the same things and are missing the same things. I want to know "what is the ...
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### The definition of metric space,topological space

I have read some books in analysis,all of them define metric space,topological space or vector space directly,without any reason. Therefore, I want to know the background of the definition, the ...
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### How do mathematicians think about high dimensional geometry?

Many ideas and algorithms come from imagining points on 2d and 3d spaces. Be it in function analysis, machine learning, pattern matching and many more. How do mathematicians think about higher ...
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### How can one visualize topological quotients or develop intuition for handling them?

This is a very open-ended question. I regret that -- I would like to be able to make it more precise, but I don't know how. I would appreciate comments on how to improve this question. I had my first ...
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### Significance of $\sigma$-finite measures

From Wikipedia: The class of $\sigma$-finite measures has some very convenient properties; $\sigma$-finiteness can be compared in this respect to separability of topological spaces. Some ...
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### Covering spaces - why are they useful?

As someone who trained as a physicist, I have known for ages that $\operatorname{SU}(2)$ is a double cover of $\operatorname{SO}(3)$, so, during an idle day at the office I decided to look up what ...
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### Cutting a Möbius strip down the middle

Why does the result of cutting a Möbius strip down the middle lengthwise have two full twists in it? I can account for one full twist--the identification of the top left corner with the bottom right ...
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### In/out equivalent to left/right “chirality”

Apologies if this is off-topic, but we're having a problem over on English Language with this question, and I thought you guys might be able to help. Basically it's a matter of topology. We know the ...
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### Continuous scalar fields on spheres

I've been thinking about this for awhile now (I am trying to find a method of proving the Borsuk-Ulam theorem in 2 dimensions without resorting to the usual, and not so intuitive to non-mathematicians ...
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### What is the intuition for the point-set topology definition of continuity?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be topological spaces. A function $f: X \rightarrow Y$ is defined as continuous if for each open set $U \subset Y$, $f^{-1}(U)$ is open in $X$. This definition makes sense to me when ...
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### How to understand compactness? [duplicate]

How to understand the compactness in topology space in intuitive way?
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### Relationship between torsion modules and topology

I was reviewing my class notes and found the following: "The name 'torsion' comes from topology and refers to spaces that are twisted, ex. Möbius band" In our notes we used the following definition ...
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### Why do we require a topological space to be closed under finite intersection?

In the definition of topological space, we require the intersection of a finite number of open sets to be open while we require the arbitrary union of open sets to be open. why is this? I'm assuming ...
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### Visualising $\mathbb CP^2$: a problem of attaching cells with a dimension gap >1

For the uninitiated Morse theory, as many other early alebraic-topology widgets, leads to a picture of smooth manifolds as being built up from 'cells', copies of $\mathbb{D}^n$ for varying $n$, ...