3
votes
0answers
48 views

Does this integral variable change makes sense to you?

I was Reading a book about calculus when I've found this part about variable substitution in integrals: Consider $f$ defined in na interval $I$. Suppose that $x =\phi(u)$ is inversible, and its ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

What are the advantages/disadvantages of integration vs. summation?

If we are given a function, $f(x)$, we can either integrate it or sum it. I'm wondering what integration can do with $f(x)$ that summation can't, and what summation can do that integration can't. ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

What is the significance of integrating a function?

Now i understand how important these things can be in terms of very small changes or finding area under curves and otherwise. However, when we integrate a function such as y = x we get (x^2)/2, and ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Can we possibly exchange summation and integration with negative values?

This is an attempt to go further than this answer. Essentially, we have either a summation of an integral: $$\sum_x{ \left( \int{ f(x)dx } \right) } \tag{1}$$ ...or an integral of a summation: ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

When can we use substitution for both integrals and summations?

This question is partially inspired by Qiaochu Yuan's answer to "Will moving differentiation from inside, to outside an integral, change the result?". Essentially, I would like to know, if we have: ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Scale-invariance of $\int_0^\infty \frac{f(x)}{x} \ dx$

Let $f$ be some non-negative, measurable function on $[0,\infty)$. The quantity $\int_0^\infty \frac{f(x)}{x} \ dx$ is scale-invariant in the sense that, if one puts $f_c(x) := f(cx)$ for $c > 0$, ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

understanding Green's theorem Intuition

The idea of it is to find the area of a region, yet I keep seeing vector fields popping up all over the place. Take this example from my text book: Find the region enclosed by the two graphs: $y = ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Why must an inner function of a compound function be linear in order to integrate it using the power rule?

This is from my previous thread: $\int(1+x^2)^4\mathrm dx$ $\ne$ $\frac{(1+x^2)^{5}}{5(2x)}+C$? because differentiating back gives ...
2
votes
3answers
92 views

How do we arrive at the definite integral to find area approximated by a sum of rectangles?

The area enclosed by a one variable function from a to b can be approximated by $n$ rectangles$$A \approx \sum_{i=1}^{n} f(x_i)(x_i-x_{i-1})$$ and if we let $n \rightarrow \infty$ we get $$A = ...
3
votes
2answers
90 views

Meaning of Normal Vector in Surface Integration

Is there a good interpretation of what the normal vector (and its magnitude) $$\mathbf{N}=\frac{\partial \mathbf{X}}{\partial s}\times\frac{\partial\mathbf{X}}{\partial t}$$ to the parametric surface ...
1
vote
0answers
96 views

integrate a difficult function

I can't solve it. please help! I tried everything. Integration by parts - doesn't work. but maybe I didnt do it right. I tried to substitute , but I'm stuck. $$\int \frac{x}{\cos x}\sin(\tan ...
1
vote
2answers
110 views

What does Riemann-Stieltjes integral calculate when $\alpha(x) \neq x$?

When we get Riemann-Stieltjes integral becomes standard Riemann integral which calculates area under the curve. We have that $$ s(f,\alpha,P)=\sum_{k=1}^nm_k\Delta\alpha_k \ \text{ and }\ ...
3
votes
2answers
189 views

What insight is supposed to be gained from this complex analysis exercise?

Let $C_0$ denote the circle centered around some point $z_0\in\mathbb{C}$ with radius $R$. We can parametrize this circle like this: $$\begin{array}{cc} z(\theta)=z_0+Re^{i\theta}, & \theta \in ...
7
votes
1answer
105 views

How to change variables in a surface integral without parametrizing

This is a doubt that I carry since my PDE classes. Some background (skippable): In the multivariable calculus course at my university we made all sorts of standard calculations involving surface ...
4
votes
8answers
262 views

Evaluating $\int \frac{1}{\sqrt{x^2 + a^2}}\, dx$ without resorting to trigonometric $u$-substitution

I am looking for a quick and intuitive way to evaluate this indefinite integral without resorting to any trigonometric functions. I'm not sure if it is at all possible to do so, but I was just ...
2
votes
1answer
108 views

Why are derivatives lines?

If you look at a function "infinitely close", the difference between two points is a line: __ __/ __/ Where each "__" is a point, and "/" is the ...
0
votes
2answers
98 views

How was Integral Calculus discovered/derived? [closed]

Can you please explain in layman terms. I don't know if this is a duplicate, but if I find one I will delete this question. The thing I don't get the most is differentials.
2
votes
0answers
70 views

What is a Line Integral?

My question is very simple yet crucial to the understanding of many fields of mathematics. What is a line integral? If I choose some arbitrary line segment $\mathbb{A}$ to integrate a function ...
4
votes
3answers
527 views

On the origins of the (Weierstrass) Tangent half-angle substitution

The Weierstrass substitution is great for transforming complex trig integrals into simpler rational functions. Wikipedia suggests that it wasn't invented by Weierstrass, since Euler was already ...
27
votes
4answers
1k views

The Meaning of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

I am currently taking an advanced Calculus class in college, and we are studying generalizations of the FTC. We just started on the version for Line Integrals, and one can see the explicit symmetry ...
5
votes
2answers
274 views

Math Courses involving clever integration techniques

I am a third year undergraduate mathematics student. I learned some basic techniques for simplifying sums in high school algebra, but I have encountered some of the more interesting techniques in my ...
3
votes
3answers
98 views

Moment, spheroid, charge redistribution

Let $$I_k:= c \int_{\mathbb R^3} (3x_k'^2-r'^2) \,\,\,d^3 x'$$ where ${r'}^2={x'}_1^2+{x'}_2^2+{x'}_3^2$ and $c$ is a constant = density of charge (uniform) in the body. Suppose this integral is ...
2
votes
1answer
184 views

Showing that an integral can not be expressed in terms of elementary functions

I recently encountered an integral of the form: $$\int{\frac{\log(a+bx+\sqrt{x^2+c})}{x}}dx$$ The result involves the dilogarithm function, but I was wondering if there is a fast way of showing that ...
5
votes
2answers
168 views

Is symbolically solving $a(x)=f(x)g'(x)+f'(x)g(x)$, given $a$, ever easier than integrating $a$?

If we are given a function of $x$, $a(x)$, how hard is it to find an $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ such that $$a(x)=f(x)g'(x)+f'(x)g(x)$$ For comparison, I'd like to know when this is easier than symbolically or ...
10
votes
1answer
248 views

How can I intuit the role of the central limit theorem in breaking the curse of dimensionality for Monte Carlo integration

I would like to more intuitively understand where the power of Monte Carlo integration comes from for large-dimensional domains of integration. Other questions on this site have referenced the proof ...
2
votes
3answers
163 views

Can we possibly combine $\int_a^b{g(x)dx}$ plus $\int_c^d{h(x)dx}$ into $\int_e^f{j(x)dx}$?

I'm wondering if this is possible for the general case. In other words, I'd like to take $$\int_a^b{g(x)dx} + \int_c^d{h(x)dx} = \int_e^f{j(x)dx}$$ and determine $e$, $f$, and $j(x)$ from the other ...
3
votes
1answer
204 views

Avoiding algebraic integration by geometric arguments

Is there a geometric way of seeing why the integral $\int\limits_{-\infty}^\infty (x^2+y^2+z^2)^{-{3\over 2}}dz={2\over x^2+y^2}$? Otherwise what is a good way of evaluating it algebraically?
5
votes
2answers
644 views

Why is this constant of integration taken as $\log A$ instead of just $C$?

Suppose we solve $$\frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{1 + y}{2 + x} .$$ Which can be written as the following and integrating both sides w.r.t. $y$ and $x$: $$\int\frac{1}{1 + y}dy = \int\frac{1}{2 +x}dx ,$$ we ...
4
votes
4answers
284 views

How to think about derivatives in an abstract fashion?

Derivatives seem easy to understand abstractly as the rate of change of something, higher order derivatives are the rate of change of the rate of change of something, and so on. I, however, have ...
3
votes
3answers
550 views

Why is the area under the curve exponentially greater than the original function?

So I've been a calculus student now for about two years, and I've gone as high as differential equations, but I am still a bit puzzled by the fact that the area under the curve of some function is ...
2
votes
0answers
68 views

Intuition about moment function derivation [OR] derivatives involving a time varying integration domain

$$ m_{{pq}}(t)=\iint\limits_{R(t)}h(x,y) dx dy $$ where $ R(t)$ the domain of integration is time varying (In fact it is the only one which is time varying). And $$ h(x,y) = x^p y^q f(x,y) dx dy ...
5
votes
1answer
417 views

A way to see that $\int_{0}^{\infty}\exp(-x)dx=1$?

One can easily find the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty}\exp(-x)dx$. It is equal to 1. But is there a way to understand this geometrically without integration? If i rotate the picture i see that ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Connection between chain rule, u-substitution and Riemann-Stieltjes integral

I think I understand these concepts ok: chain rule u-substitution Riemann-Stieltjes integral But there seems to be a layer that I miss: They all seem to be connected, alas I don't know how ...
19
votes
3answers
17k views

Why is the area under a curve the integral?

I understand how derivatives work based on the definition, and the fact that my professor explained it step by step until the point where I can derive it myself. However when it comes to the area ...
2
votes
2answers
368 views

Insidious exponential integral

I hope that someone's up for the challenge; I'm attempting to solve this via computer: \begin{equation} \int_{-\pi}^\pi{\displaystyle \frac{e^{i\cdot a\cdot t}(e^{i\cdot b\cdot t}-1)(e^{i\cdot c ...
2
votes
2answers
472 views

Is this integration approximation method known/used?

I'm approximating an integral with only exponentials. i.e., it is equal to $\displaystyle \int_{-\pi}^\pi{\frac{\displaystyle\sum_{j=a}^b{c_j e^{i\cdot d_j \cdot t}}}{\displaystyle\sum_{k=a}^b{r_k ...
1
vote
0answers
290 views

How effective is this alternative to integration?

I have a function that is difficult to integrate. So I elect to work with power series representations. Suppose the power series representation for this function is the following: $f(x) = ...