All aspects of integration, including the definition of the integral and computing different types of integrals. For questions solely about the properties of integrals, don't use this tag alone! Use in conjunction with (indefinite-integral), (definite-integral), (improper-integrals) or another ...

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137
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4answers
9k views

The Integral that Stumped Feynman?

In "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!," Nobel-prize winning Physicist Richard Feynman said that he challenged his colleagues to give him an integral that they could evaluate with only complex methods ...
135
votes
5answers
34k views

Integral $\int_{-1}^1\frac1x\sqrt{\frac{1+x}{1-x}}\ln\left(\frac{2\,x^2+2\,x+1}{2\,x^2-2\,x+1}\right) \ \mathrm dx$

I need help with this integral: $$I=\int_{-1}^1\frac1x\sqrt{\frac{1+x}{1-x}}\ln\left(\frac{2\,x^2+2\,x+1}{2\,x^2-2\,x+1}\right)\ \mathrm dx.$$ The integrand graph looks like this: $\hspace{1in}$ The ...
108
votes
1answer
6k views

Evaluate $ \int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\frac{1}{(1+x^2)(1+\tan x)}\,\mathrm dx$

Evaluate the following integral$$\int_{0}^{\Large\frac{\pi}{2}}\frac{1}{(1+x^2)(1+\tan x)}\,\mathrm dx$$ My Attempt: Let $$\tag1 I = \int_{0}^{\Large\frac{\pi}{2}}\frac{1}{(1+x^2)(1+\tan ...
86
votes
6answers
7k views

How can you prove that a function has no closed form integral?

I've come across statements in the past along the lines of "function $f(x)$ has no closed form integral", which I assume means that there is no combination of the operations: addition/subtraction ...
81
votes
5answers
4k views

Help find hard integrals that evaluate to $59$?

My father and I, on birthday cards, give mathematical equations for each others new age. This year, my father will be turning $59$. I want to try and make a definite integral that equals $59$. So ...
79
votes
2answers
3k views

How to prove $\int_0^1\tan^{-1}\left[\frac{\tanh^{-1}x-\tan^{-1}x}{\pi+\tanh^{-1}x-\tan^{-1}x}\right]\frac{dx}{x}=\frac{\pi}{8}\ln\frac{\pi^2}{8}?$

How can one prove that $$\int_0^1 \tan^{-1}\left[\frac{\tanh^{-1}x-\tan^{-1}x}{\pi+\tanh^{-1}x-\tan^{-1}x}\right]\frac{dx}{x}$$ $$=\frac{\pi}{8}\ln\frac{\pi^2}{8}?$$
67
votes
3answers
2k views

A math contest problem $\int_0^1\ln\left(1+\frac{\ln^2x}{4\,\pi^2}\right)\frac{\ln(1-x)}x \ \mathrm dx$

A friend of mine sent me a math contest problem that I am not able to solve (he does not know a solution either). So, I thought I might ask you for help. Prove: ...
64
votes
3answers
3k views

Is there an integral that proves $\pi > 333/106$?

The following integral, $$ \int_0^1 \frac{x^4(1-x)^4}{x^2 + 1} \mathrm{d}x = \frac{22}{7} - \pi $$ is clearly positive, which proves that $\pi < 22/7$. Is there a similar integral which proves ...
60
votes
11answers
12k views

Demystify integration of $\int \frac{1}{x} dx$

I've learned in my analysis class, that $$ \int \frac{1}{x} dx = \ln(x). $$ I can live with that, and it's what I use when solving equations like that. But how can I solve this, without knowing ...
59
votes
9answers
3k views

Find the average of $\sin^{100} (x)$ in 5 minutes?

I read this quote attributed to VI Arnold. "Who can't calculate the average value of the one hundredth power of the sine function within five minutes, doesn't understand mathematics - even if he ...
59
votes
6answers
1k views

Does L'Hôpital's work the other way?

Hello fellows, As referred in Wikipedia (see the specified criteria there), L'Hôpital's rule says, $$ \lim_{x\to c}\frac{f(x)}{g(x)}=\lim_{x\to c}\frac{f'(x)}{g'(x)} $$ As $$ \lim_{x\to ...
55
votes
2answers
996 views

Two curious “identities” on $x^x$,$e$,and $\pi$

A numerical calculation on Mathematica shows that $$I_1=\int_0^1 x^x(1-x)^{1-x}\sin\pi x\,\mathrm dx\approx0.355822$$ and $$I_2=\int_0^1 x^{-x}(1-x)^{x-1}\sin\pi x\,\mathrm dx\approx1.15573$$ A ...
52
votes
3answers
5k views

$\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} e^{-x^2} dx$ with complex analysis

Inspired by this recently closed question, I'm curious whether there's a way to do the Gaussian integral using techniques in complex analysis such as contour integrals. I am aware of the calculation ...
52
votes
6answers
4k views

Ways to evaluate $\int \sec \theta \, d \theta$

The standard approach for showing $\int \sec \theta \, d \theta = \ln |\sec \theta + \tan \theta| + C$ is to multiply by $\frac{\sec \theta + \tan \theta}{\sec \theta + \tan \theta}$ and then do a ...
50
votes
14answers
8k views

Proving $\int_{0}^{\infty} \mathrm{e}^{-x^2} dx = \dfrac{\sqrt \pi}{2}$

How to prove $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \mathrm{e}^{-x^2}\, dx = \frac{\sqrt \pi}{2}$$
50
votes
3answers
3k views

Evaluate $\int_0^1 \frac{\log \left( 1+x^{2+\sqrt{3}}\right)}{1+x}dx$

I am trying to find a closed form for $$\int_0^1 \frac{\log \left( 1+x^{2+\sqrt{3}}\right)}{1+x}dx = 0.094561677526995723016 \cdots$$ It seems that the answer is $$\frac{\pi^2}{12}\left( ...
49
votes
7answers
7k views

Lesser-known integration tricks

I am currently studying for the GRE math subject test, which heavily tests calculus. I've reviewed most of the basic calculus techniques (integration by parts, trig substitutions, etc.) I am now ...
47
votes
4answers
1k views

Integrals of $\sqrt{x+\sqrt{\phantom|\dots+\sqrt{x+1}}}$ in elementary functions

Let $f_n(x)$ be recursively defined as $$f_0(x)=1,\ \ \ f_{n+1}(x)=\sqrt{x+f_n(x)},\tag1$$ i.e. $f_n(x)$ contains $n$ radicals and $n$ occurences of $x$: $$f_1(x)=\sqrt{x+1},\ \ \ ...
47
votes
2answers
1k views

Integral $\int_1^\infty\frac{\operatorname{arccot}\left(1+\frac{2\pi}{\operatorname{arcoth}x-\operatorname{arccsc}x}\right)}{\sqrt{x^2-1}}dx$

Consider the following integral: $$\mathcal{I}=\int_1^\infty\frac{\operatorname{arccot}\left(1+\frac{2\,\pi}{\operatorname{arcoth}x\,-\,\operatorname{arccsc}x}\right)}{\sqrt{x^2-1}}dx,$$ where ...
45
votes
5answers
2k views

Compute $\int \frac{\sin(x)}{\sin(x)+\cos(x)}\mathrm dx$

I've got troubles in computing the below integral: $$\int \frac{\sin(x)}{\sin(x)+\cos(x)}\mathrm dx$$ I hope it can be expressed in elementary functions. I've tried simple substitution as $u=\sin(x)$ ...
45
votes
13answers
6k views

Why do we need to learn integration techniques?

After a lifetime of approaching math the wrong way, I took two college math courses this quarter with a newfound zest for math. These classes are integral calc and multivariable calc. Integral calc ...
45
votes
4answers
2k views

Showing that $\int\limits_{-a}^a \frac{f(x)}{1+e^{x}} \mathrm dx = \int\limits_0^a f(x) \mathrm dx$, when $f$ is even

I have a question: Suppose $f$ is continuous and even on $[-a,a]$, $a>0$ then prove that $$\int\limits_{-a}^a \frac{f(x)}{1+e^{x}} \mathrm dx = \int\limits_0^a f(x) \mathrm dx$$ How can I ...
43
votes
2answers
1k views

Conjecture $\int_0^1\frac{dx}{\sqrt[3]x\,\sqrt[6]{1-x}\,\sqrt{1-x\left(\sqrt{6}\sqrt{12+7\sqrt3}-3\sqrt3-6\right)^2}}=\frac\pi9(3+\sqrt2\sqrt[4]{27})$

Let $$\alpha=\sqrt{6}\ \sqrt{12+7\,\sqrt3}-3\,\sqrt3-6.\tag1$$ Note that $\alpha$ is the unique positive root of the polynomial equation $$\alpha^4+24\,\alpha^3+18\,\alpha^2-27=0.\tag2$$ Now consider ...
42
votes
7answers
5k views

What is integration by parts, really?

Integration by parts comes up a lot - for instance, it appears in the definition of a weak derivative / distributional derivative, or as a tool that one can use to turn information about higher ...
41
votes
5answers
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What is so special about $\alpha=-1$ in the integral of $x^\alpha$?

Of course, it is easy to see, that the integral (or the antiderivative) of $f(x) = 1/x$ is $\log(|x|)$ and of course for $\alpha\neq 1$ the antiderivative of $f(x) = x^\alpha$ is ...
39
votes
1answer
1k views

Conjecture $\int_0^1\frac{dx}{\sqrt{1-x}\ \sqrt[4]x\ \sqrt[4]{2-x\,\sqrt3}}\stackrel?=\frac{2\,\sqrt2}{3\,\sqrt[8]3}\pi$

$$\int_0^1\frac{dx}{\sqrt{1-x}\ \sqrt[4]x\ \sqrt[4]{2-x\,\sqrt3}}\stackrel?=\frac{2\,\sqrt2}{3\,\sqrt[8]3}\pi\tag1$$ The equality numerically holds up to at least $10^4$ decimal digits. Can we ...
39
votes
3answers
1k views

How much does symbolic integration mean to mathematics?

(Before reading, I apologize for my poor English ability.) I have enjoyed calculating some symbolic integrals as a hobby, and this has been one of the main source of my interest towards the vast ...
38
votes
5answers
2k views

Why are gauge integrals not more popular?

A recent answer reminded me of the gauge integral, which you can read about here. It seems like the gauge integral is more general than the Lebesgue integral, e.g. if a function is Lebesgue ...
37
votes
3answers
654 views

Conjectural closed-form representations of sums, products or integrals

What are some examples of infinite sums, products or definite integrals that have conjectural closed form representations that were confirmed by numerical calculations up to whatever maximum precision ...
36
votes
1answer
964 views

To evaluate $\int_0^{+\infty} \frac{\;dx}{\sqrt[3]{x^3+a^3}\sqrt[3]{x^3+b^3}\sqrt[3]{x^3+c^3}}$

$$f(a,b)=\int_0^{+\infty} \frac{\;dx}{\sqrt{x^2+a^2}\sqrt{x^2+b^2}}$$ To use Landen's transformation $$f(a,b)=\int_0^{+\infty} \frac{\;dx}{\sqrt{x^2+(\frac{a+b}{2})^2}\sqrt{x^2+ab}}$$ ...
35
votes
5answers
3k views

Evaluate the integral: $\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} dx$

Compute $$\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} dx$$
35
votes
4answers
1k views

An integral involving Airy functions $\int_0^\infty\frac{x^p}{\operatorname{Ai}^2 x + \operatorname{Bi}^2 x}dx$

I need your help with this integral: $$\mathcal{K}(p)=\int_0^\infty\frac{x^p}{\operatorname{Ai}^2 x + \operatorname{Bi}^2 x}dx,$$ where $\operatorname{Ai}$, $\operatorname{Bi}$ are Airy functions: ...
34
votes
3answers
668 views

$\int_0^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{(x^4+1)(e^x-1)}\mathrm dx$

I need to find a closed-form for the following integral. Please give me some ideas how to approach it: $$\int_0^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{(x^4+1)(e^x-1)}\mathrm dx$$
34
votes
2answers
1k views

Closed form for $\int_0^1\log\log\left(\frac{1}{x}+\sqrt{\frac{1}{x^2}-1}\right)\mathrm dx$

Please help me to find a closed form for the following integral: $$\int_0^1\log\left(\log\left(\frac{1}{x}+\sqrt{\frac{1}{x^2}-1}\right)\right)\,{\mathrm d}x.$$ I was told it could be calculated in a ...
34
votes
1answer
605 views

Integral $\int_0^1\frac{x^9\left(x^4+x^2-x-1-5\ln x\right)}{\left(x^{10}-1\right)\ln x}dx$

A friend of mine sent me an integral that she had not been able to crack, and me neither. It comes with a result, but without a proof (I suppose it originated in some math contest). Could you please ...
34
votes
1answer
371 views

Can I solve an integral (or other tough problem) by playing with knots?

I've seen that in calculating things in knot theory that involves a lot of hard looking integrals and matrices, even though the knots themselves appear fairly simple. So is there some way in which ...
33
votes
4answers
1k views

Integral $\int_0^1\frac{\ln\left(x+\sqrt2\right)}{\sqrt{2-x}\,\sqrt{1-x}\,\sqrt{\vphantom{1}x}}dx$

Is there a closed form for the integral $$\int_0^1\frac{\ln\left(x+\sqrt2\right)}{\sqrt{2-x}\,\sqrt{1-x}\,\sqrt{\vphantom{1}x}}dx.$$ I do not have a strong reason to be sure it exists, but I would be ...
32
votes
6answers
2k views

Calculating the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\cos x}{1+x^2}\mathrm{d}x$ without using complex analysis

Suppose that we do not know anything about the complex analysis (numbers). In this case, how to calculate the following integral in closed form? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\cos\;x}{1+x^2}\mathrm{d}x$$
32
votes
4answers
1k views

Rain droplets falling on a table

Suppose you have a circular table of radius $R$. This table has been left outside, and it begins to rain at a constant rate of one droplet per second. The drops, which can be considered points as they ...
31
votes
4answers
1k views

How do I integrate the following? $\int{\frac{(1+x^{2})\mathrm dx}{(1-x^{2})\sqrt{1+x^{4}}}}$

$$\int{\frac{1+x^2}{(1-x^2)\sqrt{1+x^4}}}\mathrm dx$$ This was a Calc 2 problem for extra credit (we have done hyperbolic trig functions too, if that helps) and I didn't get it (don't think anyone ...
31
votes
8answers
1k views

How to evaluate $I=\displaystyle\int_0^{\pi/2}x^2\ln(\sin x)\ln(\cos x)dx$

Find the value of $I=\displaystyle\int_0^{\pi/2}x^2\ln(\sin x)\ln(\cos x)dx$ We have the information that $J=\displaystyle\int_0^{\pi/2}x\ln(\sin x)\ln(\cos ...
31
votes
2answers
884 views

How to show that $\int_0^1 \left(\sqrt[3]{1-x^7} - \sqrt[7]{1-x^3}\right)\;dx = 0$

Evaluate the integral: $$ \int_0^1 \left(\sqrt[3]{1-x^7} - \sqrt[7]{1-x^3}\right)\;dx$$ The answer is $0,$ but I am unable to get it. There is some symmetry I can not see.
31
votes
2answers
913 views

Making trigonometric substitutions rigorous

I've been tutoring some basic calculus, and it made me think about something pretty basic. Let me explain the problem by example: Say we are given the integral $\int \frac{x^2}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}dx$. It ...
30
votes
9answers
5k views

Proof of $\int_0^\infty \left(\frac{\sin x}{x}\right)^2 dx=\frac{\pi}{2}.$

I am looking for a short proof that $$\int_0^\infty \left(\frac{\sin x}{x}\right)^2 dx=\frac{\pi}{2}.$$ What do you think? It is kind of amazing that $$\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin x}{x} dx$$ is also ...
30
votes
13answers
3k views

List of interesting integrals for early calculus students

I am teaching Calc 1 right now and I want to give my students more interesting examples of integrals. By interesting, I mean ones that are challenging, not as straightforward (though not extremely ...
30
votes
3answers
509 views

How to evaluate $\int_0^\infty\operatorname{erfc}^n x\ dx$?

I successfully evaluated these integrals: $$\int_0^\infty\operatorname{erfc}x\ dx=\frac1{\sqrt\pi},\tag1$$ $$\int_0^\infty\operatorname{erfc}^2x\ dx=\frac{2-\sqrt2}{\sqrt\pi}\tag2,$$ but have problems ...
30
votes
2answers
1k views

Integration of forms and integration on a measure space

In Terence Tao's PCM article: DIFFERENTIAL FORMS AND INTEGRATION, it is pointed out that there are three concepts of integration which appear in the subject(single-variable calculus): the ...
30
votes
1answer
454 views

Generalizing $\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\arctan\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}}{\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}} \, \frac{\operatorname dx}{x^{2}+1} = \frac{5\pi^{2}}{96}$

The following integral \begin{align*} \int_{0}^{1} \frac{\arctan\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}}{\sqrt{x^{2} + 2}} \, \frac{dx}{x^{2}+1} = \frac{5\pi^{2}}{96} \tag{1} \end{align*} is called the Ahmed's integral ...
29
votes
4answers
963 views

Is the integral $\int_0^\infty \frac{\mathrm{d} x}{(1+x^2)(1+x^a)}$ equal for all $a \neq 0$?

Let $a$ be a non-zero real number. Is it true that $\int_0^\infty \frac{\mathrm{d} x}{(1+x^2)(1+x^a)}$ is independent on $a$ ? Any proof?
29
votes
2answers
1k views

Evaluating $\int P(\sin x, \cos x) \text{d}x$

Suppose $\displaystyle P(x,y)$ a polynomial in the variables $x,y$. For example, $\displaystyle x^4$ or $\displaystyle x^3y^2 + 3xy + 1$. Is there a general method which allows us to evaluate the ...