Concerns all aspects of integration, including the integral definition and computational methods. For questions solely about the properties of integrals, use in conjunction with (indefinite-integral), (definite-integral), (improper-integrals) or another tag(s) that typically describe(s) the types of ...

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20
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1answer
260 views
+50

A combination integral and series resulting the inverse tangent integral

$\def\Ti{{\rm{Ti}}_2}$I have been able to solve an integral problem, now I tried to use the other method to crack the integral and I have to prove the following expression \begin{equation} ...
20
votes
1answer
805 views

Interesing, hard limit with sum, involving $\pi$

Yesterday I was boring so I decided to derive formula for area of circle with integrals. Very good exercise, I think, because I forgot many, many things about integrals. So I started with: ...
19
votes
4answers
901 views

Prove $\int_0^{\infty}\! \frac{\mathbb{d}x}{1+x^n}=\frac{\pi}{n \sin\frac{\pi}{n}}$ using real analysis techniques only

I have found a proof using complex analysis techniques (contour integral, residue theorem, etc.) that shows $$\int_0^{\infty}\! \frac{\mathbb{d}x}{1+x^n}=\frac{\pi}{n \sin\frac{\pi}{n}}$$ for $n\in ...
19
votes
2answers
1k views

Is a differentiable function on $(-2, 4)$ always integrable on $[-2, 4]$?

So my question is, say I have a function that is differentiable on $(-2, 4)$. Is it always integrable on $[-2, 4]$? I know that if $f$ is diff on $(-2, 4)$, then it is continuous on $(-2, 4)$. And I ...
19
votes
5answers
2k views

Evaluate: $\int_0^{\pi} \ln \left( \sin \theta \right) d\theta$

Evaluate: $ \displaystyle \int_0^{\pi} \ln \left( \sin \theta \right) d\theta$ using Gauss Mean Value theorem. Given hint: consider $f(z) = \ln ( 1 +z)$. EDIT:: I know how to evaluate it, but I am ...
19
votes
5answers
318 views

Closed form of $\int_0^\infty \ln \left( \frac{x^2+2kx\cos b+k^2}{x^2+2kx\cos a+k^2}\right) \;\frac{\mathrm dx}{x}$

Today I discussed the following integral in the chat room $$\int_0^\infty \ln \left( \frac{x^2+2kx\cos b+k^2}{x^2+2kx\cos a+k^2}\right) \;\frac{\mathrm dx}{x}$$ where $0\leq a, b\leq \pi$ and ...
19
votes
6answers
592 views

Is there a fundamental reason that $\int_b^a = -\int_a^b$

Is there a fundamental reason that switching the order of the limits in an integral results in the negative, i.e., $$\int_b^af(x)\,dx = -\int_a^bf(x)\,dx?$$ As far as I can tell, this is just chosen ...
19
votes
8answers
855 views

Integrate: $ \int_0^\infty \frac{\log(x)}{(1+x^2)^2} \, dx $ without using complex analysis methods

Can this integral be solved without using any complex analysis methods: $$ \int_0^\infty \frac{\log(x)}{(1+x^2)^2} \, dx $$ Thanks.
19
votes
2answers
1k views

Calculating $\int_{\pi/2}^{\pi}\frac{x\sin{x}}{5-4\cos{x}}\,\mathrm dx$

Calculate the following integral:$$\int_{\pi/2}^{\pi}\frac{x\sin{x}}{5-4\cos{x}}\,\mathrm dx$$ I can calculate the integral on $[0,\pi]$,but I want to know how to do it on $[\frac{\pi}{2},\pi]$.
19
votes
2answers
453 views

integrate square of $\arctan x$. Tricky

$$\int \left(\frac{\tan^{-1}x}{x-\tan^{-1}x}\right)^{2}dx$$ I ran across an integral I am having a time solving. The solution merely works out to $\displaystyle\frac{1+x\tan^{-1}x}{\tan^{-1}x-x}$, ...
19
votes
3answers
2k views

$f$ uniformly continuous and $\int_a^\infty f(x)\,dx$ converges imply $\lim_{x \to \infty} f(x) = 0$

Trying to solve $f(x)$ is uniformly continuous in the range of $[0, +\infty)$ and $\int_a^\infty f(x)dx $ converges. I need to prove that: $$\lim \limits_{x \to \infty} f(x) = 0$$ Would ...
19
votes
3answers
504 views

If $\alpha$ is an acute angle, show that $\displaystyle \int_0^1 \frac{dx}{x^2+2x\cos{\alpha}+1} = \frac{\alpha}{2\sin{\alpha}}.$

If $\alpha$ is an acute angle, show that $\displaystyle \int_0^1 \frac{dx}{x^2+2x\cos{\alpha}+1} = \frac{\alpha}{2\sin{\alpha}}.$ My attempt: Write $x^2+2x\cos{\alpha}+1 = ...
19
votes
4answers
450 views

Prove that $\int_0^1 \frac{{\rm{Li}}_2(x)\ln(1-x)\ln^2(x)}{x} \,dx=-\frac{\zeta(6)}{3}$

I have spent my holiday on Sunday to crack several integral & series problems and I am having trouble to prove the following integral \begin{equation} \int_0^1 ...
19
votes
2answers
388 views

A closed form for $\int_0^\infty\frac{\sin(x)\ \operatorname{erfi}\left(\sqrt{x}\right)\ e^{-x\sqrt{2}}}{x}dx$

Let $\operatorname{erfi}(x)$ be the imaginary error function $$\operatorname{erfi}(x)=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}}\int_0^xe^{z^2}dz.$$ Consider the integral $$I=\int_0^\infty\frac{\sin(x)\ ...
19
votes
2answers
2k views

Olympiad calculus problem

This problem is from a qualifying round in a Colombian math Olympiad, I thought some time about it but didn't make any progress. It is as follows. Given a continuous function $f : [0,1] \to ...
19
votes
3answers
342 views

Integral $\int_{0}^1\frac{\ln\frac{3+x}{3-x}}{\sqrt{x(1-x)}}dx$

I have a problem with the following integral: $$ \int_{0}^{1}\ln\left(\,3 + x \over 3 - x\,\right)\, {{\rm d}x \over \,\sqrt{\,x\left(\,1 - x\,\right)\,}\,} $$ The first idea was to use the ...
19
votes
3answers
706 views

Evaluating $\int_0^\pi\arctan\bigl(\frac{\ln\sin x}{x}\bigr)\mathrm{d}x$

I found the following integral as a by product of another one. It has a nice closed form. $$ \int_{0}^{\pi} \arctan\left(\ln\left(\sin x \right) \over x\right)\,{\rm d}x $$ Mathematica and ...
19
votes
4answers
408 views

Evaluating $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{x^{3}- \sin^{3}(x)}{x^{5}} \ dx $ using contour integration

EDIT: Instead of expressing the integral as the imaginary part of another integral, I instead expanded $\sin^{3}(x)$ in terms of complex exponentials and I don't run into problems anymore. ...
19
votes
3answers
435 views

Find the value of $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{e^x-1}\ln(e^x - 1)\,dx$

I'm trying to figure out how to evaluate the following: $$ J=\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{e^x-1}\ln(e^x - 1)\,dx $$ I'm tried considering $I(s) = \int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{(e^x-1)^s}\,dx\implies ...
19
votes
4answers
922 views

Evaluate $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log(1+x^3)}{(1+x^2)^2}dx$ and $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log(1+x^4)}{(1+x^2)^2}dx$

Background: Evaluation of $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log(1+x^2)}{(1+x^2)^2}dx$ We can prove using the Beta-Function identity that $$\int_0^\infty \frac{1}{(1+x^2)^\lambda}dx=\sqrt{\pi}\frac{\Gamma ...
19
votes
2answers
4k views

Will moving differentiation from inside, to outside an integral, change the result?

I'm interested in the potential of such a technique. I got the idea from Moron's answer to this question, which uses the technique of differentiation under the integral. Now, I'd like to consider ...
19
votes
4answers
933 views

Evaluating $\int_0^1 \frac{\log x \log \left(1-x^4 \right)}{1+x^2}dx$

I am trying to prove that $$\int_0^1 \frac{\log x \log \left(1-x^4 \right)}{1+x^2}dx = \frac{\pi^3}{16}-3G\log 2 \tag{1}$$ where $G$ is Catalan's Constant. I was able to express it in terms of ...
19
votes
2answers
1k views

Do Integrals over Fractals Exist?

Given, for example, a line integral like $$ \int_\gamma f \; ds $$ with $f$ not further defined, yet. What happens, if the contour $\gamma$ happens to be a fractal curve? Since all fractal ...
19
votes
1answer
386 views

Integral: $\int_0^{\pi} \frac{x}{x^2+\ln^2(2\sin x)}\,dx$

I am trying to solve the following by elementary methods: $$\int_0^{\pi} \frac{x}{x^2+\ln^2(2\sin x)}\,dx$$ I wrote the integral as: $$\Re\int_0^{\pi} \frac{dx}{x-i\ln(2\sin x)}$$ But I don't find ...
19
votes
1answer
320 views

A closed form for $\int_0^\infty\frac{e^{-x}\ J_0(x)\ \sin\left(x\,\sqrt[3]{2}\right)}{x}dx$

I am stuck with this integral: $$\int_0^\infty\frac{e^{-x}\ J_0(x)\ \sin\left(x\,\sqrt[3]{2}\right)}{x}dx,$$ where $J_0$ is the Bessel function of the first kind. Is it possible to express this ...
19
votes
3answers
817 views

Evaluating the integral $\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac {dx}{\cos x + \cosh x}$

Many recent questions have been asked here similar to this integral $$\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac {dx}{\cos x + \cosh x} = 2.39587\dots$$ whose "closed form" I cannot seem to figure out. I have ...
19
votes
3answers
204 views

Integrals of integer powers of dilogarithm function

I'm interested in evaluating integrals of positive integer powers of the dilogarithm function. I'd like to see the general case tackled if possible, or barring that then as many particular cases as ...
19
votes
2answers
998 views

Does integration by parts with “deja vu” have a name?

In some integration by parts problems, such as evaluating the integral of $e^x \cos x$ or $\sec^ 3 x$, one performs integration by parts (possibly more than once, and possibly together with algebraic ...
19
votes
3answers
766 views

A way of evaluating integrals without doing anything?

The user known as sos440 posted this: $$\begin{align*} \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{r^n}{n!} \int_0^\infty x^n e^{-x} \; dx & = \int_{0}^\infty \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(rx)^n}{n!} e^{-x} \; dx = ...
19
votes
3answers
597 views

Evaluate $\int_0^{\pi/2} \frac{\ln\left(e^{2x} + 1\right)}{1 + \sin2x}\mathrm dx$

Here's my Xmas gift to all of you! I just encountered a very tough integral. $$\int_{0}^{\pi/2} \frac{\ln\left(e^{2x} + 1\right)}{1 + \sin2x}\mathrm dx$$ I have tried for a few hours. This task is ...
19
votes
1answer
364 views

Closed form for $\int_0^\infty\frac{\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x^2+1}}}{\sqrt{x\phantom{|}}\sqrt{x^2+1}}e^{-x}dx$

Is it possible to evaluate this integral in a closed form? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x^2+1}}}{\sqrt{x\phantom{|}}\sqrt{x^2+1}}e^{-x}dx$$
19
votes
2answers
490 views

Ramanujan style nested differential Equation

So I was exploring some math the other day... and I came across the following neat identity: Given $y$ is a function of $x$ ($y(x)$) and $$ y = 1 + \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}x} \left(1 + ...
18
votes
7answers
995 views

A simple way to evaluate $\int_{-a}^a \frac{x^2}{x^4+1} \, \mathrm dx$?

I am currently trying to show that $\int_{-\infty}^\infty \cos(x^2) \, \mathrm dx = \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2}}$ and the last integral I have to evaluate is $$\int_{-a}^a \frac{x^2}{x^4+1} \, \mathrm dx.$$ ...
18
votes
2answers
1k views

Is indefinite integration non-linear?

Let us consider this small problem: $$ \int0\;dx = 0\cdot\int1\;dx = 0\cdot(x+c) = 0 \tag1 $$ $$ \frac{dc}{dx} = 0 \qquad\iff\qquad \int 0\;dx = c, \qquad\forall c\in\mathbb{R} \tag2 $$ These are two ...
18
votes
5answers
1k views

Can all real polynomials be factored into quadratic and linear factors?

So I understand how to do integration on rational functions with a linear and a quadratic denominator, and I understand how to do a partial fraction decomposition, but I was wondering what happens if ...
18
votes
3answers
507 views

Integral $\int_0^{\infty} \frac{\log x}{\cosh^2x} \ \mathrm{d}x = \log\frac {\pi}4- \gamma$

Inspired by the user @Integrals, I thought I'd find some nice integrals! Especially interesting are those involving $\log \pi$. From Borwein and Devlin's "The Computer as Crucible", pg. 58 - show that ...
18
votes
3answers
1k views

How do I evaluate this integral $\int_0^\pi{\frac{{{x^2}}}{{\sqrt 5-2\cos x}}}\operatorname d\!x$?

Show that $$\int\limits_0^\pi{\frac{{{x^2}}}{{\sqrt 5-2\cos x}}}\operatorname d\!x =\frac{{{\pi^3}}}{{15}}+2\pi \ln^2 \left({\frac{{1+\sqrt 5 }}{2}}\right).$$ I don't have any idea how to start, ...
18
votes
8answers
6k views

Why do we require radians in calculus?

I think this is just something I've grown used to but can't remember any proof. When differentiating and integrating with trigonometric functions, we require angles to be taken in radians. Why does ...
18
votes
6answers
1k views

Proof of $\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin x}{\sqrt{x}}dx=\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2}}$

Numerically it seems to be true that $$ \int_0^\infty \frac{\sin x}{\sqrt{x}}dx=\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{2}}. $$ Any ideas how to prove this?
18
votes
4answers
712 views

Prove $\int^\infty_0\frac x{e^x-1}dx=\frac{\pi^2}{6}$

I know that $$\int^\infty_0\frac x{e^x-1}dx=\frac{\pi^2}{6}$$ For substituting $u=2$ into $$\zeta(u)\Gamma(u)=\int^\infty_0\frac{x^{u-1}}{e^x-1}dx$$ However, I suspect that there is an easier proof, ...
18
votes
2answers
2k views

A hard definite integral with trigonometric functions

How could we get a closed form for this one? $$\displaystyle\int_{0}^{\frac{\pi }{2}}{{{x}^{2}}\sqrt{\tan x}\sin \left( 2x \right)\text{d}x}$$
18
votes
8answers
468 views

Integral $I:=\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2 x}{x^2-x+1}\mathrm dx=\frac{10\pi^3}{81 \sqrt 3}$

Hi how can we prove this integral below? $$ I:=\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2 x}{x^2-x+1}\mathrm dx=\frac{10\pi^3}{81 \sqrt 3} $$ I tried to use $$ I=\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2x}{1-x(1-x)}\mathrm dx $$ and now ...
18
votes
5answers
718 views

Integrate $\int\sqrt\frac{\sin(x-a)}{\sin(x+a)}dx$

Integrate $$I=\int\sqrt\frac{\sin(x-a)}{\sin(x+a)}dx$$ Let $$\begin{align}u^2=\frac{\sin(x-a)}{\sin(x+a)}\implies ...
18
votes
1answer
751 views

Compute $ I_{n}=\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac{1-\cos x \cos 2x \cdots \cos nx}{x^2}\,dx$

I'm very curious about the ways I may compute the following integral. I'd be very glad to know your approaching ways for this integral: $$ I_{n} \equiv \int_{-\infty}^\infty ...
18
votes
5answers
872 views

Prove $\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin^4x}{x^4}dx = \frac{\pi}{3}$

I need to show that $$ \int_0^\infty \frac{\sin^4x}{x^4}dx = \frac{\pi}{3} $$ I have already derived the result $\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin^2x}{x^2} = \frac{\pi}{2}$ using complex analysis, a result ...
18
votes
2answers
487 views

Show that $\int_0^{\pi/3} \big((\sqrt{3}\cos x-\sin x)\sin x\big)^{1/2}\cos x \,dx =\frac{\pi\sqrt{3}}{8\sqrt{2}}. $

I have run a FORTRAN code and I have obtained strong evidence that $$\int_0^{\pi/3} \!\! \big((\sqrt{3}\cos\vartheta-\sin\vartheta)\sin\vartheta\big)^{\!1/2}\!\cos\vartheta \,d\vartheta ...
18
votes
4answers
530 views

Integrating $\int_0^\pi \frac{x\cos x}{1+\sin^2 x}dx$ [duplicate]

I am working on $\displaystyle\int_0^\pi \frac{x\cos x}{1+\sin^2 x}\,dx$ First: I use integrating by part then get $$ x\arctan(\sin x)\Big|_0^\pi-\int_0^\pi \arctan(\sin x)\,dx $$ then I have ...
18
votes
4answers
1k views

Interesting integral related to the Omega Constant/Lambert W Function

I ran across an interesting integral and I am wondering if anyone knows where I may find its derivation or proof. I looked through the site. If it is here and I overlooked it, I am sorry. ...
18
votes
4answers
684 views

A “clean” approach to integrals.

Many fields in mathematics start from the "dirty" approach. In calculus we do all sort of $\epsilon$-$\delta$ stuffs, until topology gives an elegant formulation using open sets. A first course in ...
18
votes
2answers
266 views

A closed form for $\int_0^1\frac{\ln(-\ln x)\ \operatorname{li}^2x}{x}dx$

Let $\operatorname{li}x$ denote the logarithmic integral $^{[1]}$$^{[2]}$$^{[3]}$: $$\operatorname{li}x=\int_0^x\frac{dt}{\ln t}$$ and $$I=\int_0^1\frac{\ln(-\ln x)\ ...